Urbanisation, migration and water security Flood management in urban settlements presented by Janusz Kindler, GWP Central and Eastern Europe, CWP Poland at GWP Consulting Partners meeting 3-4 September 2010
Flood management experience in Urban Settlements presented by Janusz Kindler at GWP Consulting Partners meeting 2010
CP Meeting 2010; 3-4 September 2010 Workshop 3: Urbanisation, migration and water security Flood management in urban settlements Janusz Kindler GWP Central and Eastern Europe CWP Poland
Urban population growth but concerning urban flood management, the decisive factor is whether urban growth takes into account FLOOD RISK in the development process or not
Hazard – flood magnitude of a defined probability of occurence Exposure – who and what are endangered by flood in the hazard region Vulnerability – susceptibility of the flood hazard region to flood losses defined by its geophysical, economic and societal attributes URBAN FLOOD RISK ... the probability of a loss, and this depends on three elements: hazard, exposure and vulnerability
Urban Flood Risk Management, APFM, 2007 APFM was t he Associated Programme on Flood Management , a joint initiative of the World Meteorological Organization and the Global Water Partnership. It s goal was to promot e the concept of Integrated Flood Management (IFM) , as a new approach to flood management.
Integrated Flood Management <ul><li>The IMF concept is based on the following principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Employ a basin approach; </li></ul><ul><li>Treat floods as part of the water cycle; </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate land and water management; </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt a mix of strategies based on risk management approaches; </li></ul><ul><li>Enable cooperation between different agencies; </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure a participatory approach. </li></ul>
The influence of urbanization on different components of the water cycle
Two major concepts of urban storm drainage: Direct runoff versus source control Direct runoff Source control
Reports of on flash floods experienced in the recent past, in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Three countries ( Poland, Romania and Slovakia ) - pilot projects in flash flood prone small communities to develop and refine their approaches with a particular view to flash flood warning and community preparedness. All pilot projects conducted in project consortia consisting of the National Hydrometeorological Services (NMHSs) , mayors and civil defence authorities of affected municipalities , and representatives of the Global Water Partnership in the Region (GWP-CEE) and individual countries. Guidance on Flash Flood Management Recent Experiences from Central and Eastern Europe APFM, 2007
Poland The pilot project was small village of Gorzanow (about 1000 inhabitants) located in the Klodzko County, in south-western Poland
Ineffective flood warning system 28% of the people received an official warning but most of them received it too late. Did they reach you on time? Did you received any warning s in 1997? Local problem Inhabitant's activity
Spatial and quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) <ul><li>in the spatial aspect </li></ul><ul><li>– 4 smaller parts </li></ul><ul><li>in the quantitative aspect – precipitation totals for each part </li></ul><ul><li>in the time aspect – 6 hour precipitation totals </li></ul>More detailed forecast for the Klodzko Valley was prepared as the input to preprocessor : Source: L.Jelonek, T.Zawiślak, IMWM Branch in Wrocław, 2006 Source: Global Water Partnership Poland (2006), Forward integration of flood warning in areas prone to flash floods. Country report: Poland . WMO/GWP Associated Programme on Flood Management
Local Flood Warning System Tools for county crisis management center: Software aiding local center in assessing flood risk and possible consequences of risk Notification system mass telephone notification system to inhabitants (800 persons/hour) Educational program – cooperation with schools, gminas, journalists, NGO. Klodzko County: floods in 1997 /1998, total losses 87/ 28 mln PLN, fatalities 13/ 8. District of Klodzko built local flood monitoring system (40 rain and water gauges)
Cooperation with locals <ul><li>Diagnosis of local perception of flood risk (questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood hazard maps (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Local warning dissemination system based on volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of response plan </li></ul><ul><li>Educational activity – cooperation with school, local NGO… </li></ul><ul><li>…… </li></ul>Planning group: residents, volunteers from fire brigades, priest, elected village representatives to local council, teachers, etc. Work carried out:
<ul><li>Agreement divide responsibilities for warning residents and for flood education between county and gminas level </li></ul>signed in Gorzanów April 22 , 2006
Flood wardens (volunteers) network <ul><li>Flood wardens tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Warn neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Update phone numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Diseminate information (leaflets) </li></ul><ul><li>Advise neighbours how to protect their property </li></ul>Network will be under control of local fire brigade. Two meetings with volunteers were organized, concept of including this organisation in official flood response plane is prepared.
Local flood response plan <ul><li>Evacuation point for residents (shelter) – in the school </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation point for livestock and machines and cars – former national farm </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation routes </li></ul>System is part of the village flood response plan.
Support for inhabitants Local river gauge Map with hazard area and evacuation plan
Information material Flyer on the local flood warning system Flyer on methods for securing buildings from flooding
Flood education School contest and exhibition for parents - cooperation with the school Flood Advices in Internet - Cooperation with Friends of Gorzanów Association Family evacuation plan contest for children and parents organized by the local primary school
Local event St. Florian day with flood education actions Annual event organized in cooperation with mayor of the village and firefighters Education elements: lecture for inhabitants about flood evacuation plan, few contests for children, contest for families on „family evacuation plan”.
Local Flood Warning Systems in Poland Racibórz Commune Kędzierzyn-Kożle City Kłodzko Dist. Nowa Ruda Commune Świdnica District Żywiec District Brzesko Commune Tarnów City Kraków City Staszów District
Now under consideration the new WMO/GWP Associated Programme on Drought Management Past attempts to manage drought and its impacts through a reactive, crisis management approach have been ineffective, poorly coordinated, and untimely, as illustrated by the hydro-illogical cycle