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IWRM and social equity by Humberto Pena
 

IWRM and social equity by Humberto Pena

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    IWRM and social equity by Humberto Pena IWRM and social equity by Humberto Pena Presentation Transcript

    • WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE , FOOD AND WATER SECURITY:IDENTIFYING CRITICAL ISSUES AND EXPLORING COOPERATIVE STRATEGIES IN AN AGE OF INCREASED RISK AND UNCERTAINTY FOR SOUTH ASIA. GLOBAL WATER PARTNERSHIP (GWP) – INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (IWMI) IWRM AND SOCIAL EQUITY Humberto Peña Technical Committee Member, GWP February 24 – 25, 2011. Colombo – Sri Lanka
    • WHAT IS SOCIAL EQUITY IN THE WATER CONTEXT?EQUITY IS: one of the three pillars of IWRM a critical issue in debates about water reforms (used to promote and to block) high on the agenda in fight against poverty (MDG’s) and in international and national water forumsBUT the content and scope of social equity in the context of water remains very fuzzy
    • PURPOSE OF TEC BACKGROUND PAPER Flesh out the concept of social equity in the context of water Provide a framework for analyzing equity in the context of water management Support better policy making Encourage reflection and discussion
    • CONSIDERATIONS FOR ASSESSING EQUITY IN WATER MANAGEMENT1. People2. The totality of benefits derived from water (direct and indirect)3. Equity in processes, e.g., equal opportunities, maintaining fair play and, procedural justice4. The needs and ethical principles that are recognized as basic by Society5. Tradeoffs with economic efficiency
    • 1. SOCIAL EQUITY IS ABOUT PEOPLE NOT WATERFocus on people implies: Recognizing that people have different needs, preferences and capacities Water management must be understood as a means to advance social equity goals (not an end) Social equity is judged by the final situation of people, so we must assess the cumulative effect of different policies (water sector + other sector policies + general policies)
    • 2. TOTALITY OF BENEFITS The result of interactions in natural + human systems & complex processes, externalities, feedbacks, etc. Thus, determining benefits and beneficiaries is difficult USE VALUES Private • direct goods •indirect (markets) B1 • social goals • STATE •option values Common- B2 • ECONOMIC Pool SYSTEM resources (Employment, NON USE B3 payments, VALUES productive • existence (Pure) chains) •legacy Public B4 goods Benefits/ damages Access/ rivalry Beneficiaries Environment (examples)
    • 3. EQUITY IN PROCESSES The process can be as important as the results What influences the perception of equity?  Ability to participate in the process, express opinions, and raise issues  Impartiality and credibility of decision-making authorities  Access to proper information  Being treated with respect
    • OBSTACLES TO EQUITABLE PROCESSES Nominal or practical absence of normative framework Asymmetry problems due to lack of:  Communication  Training stakeholders in the proper use for the valid legal and institutional system and its guarantees  Specialized technical knowledge Corruption and lack of transparency in procedures Discrimination (due gender, social, racial, and political differences) Problems of collective action and agency
    • 4. BASIC NEEDS AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLESBasic needs and minimum requirements:  Basic human needs – drinking, domestic use, water for food security and other production at a family level  Customary uses – immemorial uses  Minimum environmental requirements – flows, water levels, water quality, habitat integrity and biotic integrityOther ethical principles:  The requirement of rational & beneficial use: ‘a use that is generally recognized as an economic and socially valuable use’
    • 5. TRADEOFFS BETWEEN SOCIAL EQUITY & ECONOMIC EFFICIENCYIn water resources management, the space wheretradeoffs are considered should be smallIt does not include: Uses associated with basic human demands and minimum requirements Uses that are not beneficial (these should be eliminated) When losses in equity do not contribute to greater economic benefits (lose-lose) When gains for different groups also benefit the poorest (win- win)
    • 5. TRADEOFFS BETWEEN SOCIAL EQUITY & ECONOMIC EFFICIENCYAnd our goal for public policies should be to promote integrated policies with win-win solutionsa) Developing programs oriented toward leveling the economic efficiency in the weakest sectorsb)Using the public instruments that are oriented toward the redistribution of income (taxes and subsidies) with the purpose of transferring benefits toward the weaker sectors without diminishing the economic productivity of water resources
    • FINAL REMARKS: IWRM AND SOCIAL EQUITYWhy we need an integrated view: Social equity in relation to water must be viewed in the larger context of society’s goals Social equity must be considered within processes, as well as in the distribution of the final benefits associated with water. It is necessary to consider all benefits and all users associated with the water resource (regardless of whether they are direct or indirect beneficiaries) and all forms of accessing benefits
    • FINAL REMARKS: IWRM AND SOCIAL EQUITY Water policies should be assessed based on their final outcomes, and thus must be considered along with other sector policies, that impact water and benefits from water, and general State policies Although tradeoffs are sometimes needed between the goals of social equity and economic efficiency, these goals often reinforce each other
    • THANK YOU