Irrigation Management Reforms: The Asia Experience, by Madar Samad, IWMI

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Irrigation Management Reforms: The Asia Experience, by Madar Samad, IWMI

  1. 1. GWP -IWMIWorkshop on Climate Change, Food, and Water Security 24-25 February 2011 Irrigation Management Reforms: The Asian Experience Madar Samad International Water Management Institute Water for a food-secure world
  2. 2. COUNTRIES WHERE IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT REFORMS HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED Water for a food-secure world
  3. 3. A Key QuestionAre schemes that have been transferred to WaterUser Associations performing better than whenthey were under agency management ? Water for a food-secure world
  4. 4. Performance Indicators:• Improve the quality of irrigation service to farmers.• Improved maintenance of irrigation facilities.• Improve the agricultural production performance.• Financial viability of WUAs•• User fee collection and increase in WUAs share of the cost of irrigation O&M. Water for a food-secure world
  5. 5. STUDY SITES OF IWMI 1990-2000 USA China Niger Pakistan Nepal Burkina BangladeshMexico Sudan India Philippines Faso Colombia Sri Lanka Nigeria Indonesia Water for a food-secure world
  6. 6. Recent Review of Case Studies:Distribution and location of cases - Mukherji et al, 2010 Water for a food-secure world
  7. 7. Selection of case studies– Cases post 1994 period– Only public owned irrigation schemes Water for a food-secure world
  8. 8. Some Results(from Mukherji et al, 2010) Water for a food-secure world
  9. 9. Finding patterns in success: Success by type of scheme PIM in Lift and pump schemes are marginally more successful than canal systems Water for a food-secure world
  10. 10. Success by size of system Small schemes perform marginally betterSchemes servinglesser number offarmers succeedmarginally more Water for a food-secure world
  11. 11. Success by complexity PIM is marginally more successful in Simple schemes more Water for a food-secure world
  12. 12. Success by crops grown PIM in Non- paddy systems succeed significantly more than paddy systems Water for a food-secure world
  13. 13. Rehabilitated systems fare better than non-rehabilitated ones Water for a food-secure world
  14. 14. Cases where full O&M is transferred perform better Water for a food-secure world
  15. 15. Higher Failure of PIM in SchemesImplemented by Government Agencies Water for a food-secure world
  16. 16. Distribution of success/failure as per CSSRegion Success FailureS Asia 18 20E Asia 7 2SE Asia 12 24C Asia 4 14 Water for a food-secure world
  17. 17. Overall Assessment• The recent results are largely consistent with earlier research findings – mixed performance• Service provision has largely improved and arrested the anarchy of the pre 1990s era• Despite uncertainties IMT continues to be a major component of institutional reform programs worldwide.• Some loss in the momentum of the early 1990s Water for a food-secure world
  18. 18. Why has PIM/IMT has largely a limited Impact?1. Conceptual Problem?2. Implementation Failure? Water for a food-secure world
  19. 19. Conceptual Problem?1. Central concept of PIM is collective action by farmers1. Collective action by user/beneficiary groups have2. succeeded in many areas of NRM: Community forestry, fisheries, watershed management, milk producers, small tank irrigation systems3 Lin Ostrom was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics primarily for her work on collective action in NRM4 “tragedy of the commons” has been avoided and communally managed irrigation systems have stood the test of time (Ostrom et al) Water for a food-secure world
  20. 20. Key Questions ? If Collective Action has largely succeeded in many areas of NRM, why has there been limited success in large scale government management irrigation schemes? Implementation Failures? − Reforms only at the lowest level − Irrigation agency intact  Partial Reforms, Partial Success!Neglect of Main system Management? – David Mosse: Rule of Water Water for a food-secure world
  21. 21. Throw the Baby and the Bathwater? Water for a food-secure world
  22. 22. Four key lessons about WUAs:Lesson 1: Enabling environment + support = Capable WUA (Ex: Mexico, Indonesia & Paliganj, Bihar)Lesson 2: WUA w/o empowerment = common, but not productive or sustainable WUA w/ empowerment = rare, but productive & sustainable (Mexico, places in Andhra Pradesh & Indonesia)Lesson 3: Rehabilitation/Construction = incentive to form WUA, but is risky (Many Asian cases vs Madagascar, USA )Lesson 4: PIM should be integrated with broader reforms in irrigation, agriculture & environment (Ex: Mexico) Water for a food-secure world
  23. 23. The Way Forward• Need to focus on evolving a strategy that addresses the entire complex of constraints that farmers in irrigation schemes are facing.• The first step must be to enhance the income creation potential of smallholder irrigated farming: – strengthening market access, – promoting high-value crops – improving extension and technical support to smallholder irrigators. Water for a food-secure world
  24. 24. • Irrigation schemes should be run as enterprises (public or private)• Replace administrative systems with service delivery arrangements Water for a food-secure world
  25. 25. OPTIONS Reform and Strengthen Public Irrigation Agencies – difficult but not impossible• Persist with PIM and provide effective support systems to WUAs • PIM Support Units In Andhra Pradesh Water for a food-secure world
  26. 26. • Look for Institutions beyond State, Parastatals or Farmer Organizations  Contractual arrangements between private irrigation service providers and irrigators (WUAs) ⁻ China, Kyrgyzstan ⁻ Contract between agency and private providers for main systems management.  Political Acceptability of private sector engagement ? - Bangladesh water policy states that the management of large scale irrigation systems will handed over to private sector Water for a food-secure world
  27. 27. • Sri Lanka – Farmer companies:  Companies undertake input supply, credit and marketing commitments• Lessons other institutions in the Agricultural Sector: – Farmer Cooperatives – Dairy coops in India Water for a food-secure world
  28. 28. Andhra Pradesh: Mobile Phone based Information System for Efficient Water ManagementMobile phone technology used to develop twoapplications:. 1. First one is Reservoir Storage Monitoring System (RSMS) 2. Canal Network Flow Monitoring System (CNFMS). Water for a food-secure world
  29. 29. Mobile Phone Based Information System for Main Canal Management – Andhra Pradesh Water for a food-secure world
  30. 30. Water for a food-secure world
  31. 31. Water for a food-secure world
  32. 32.  Mobile technology enabled actual assessment of water flows in each distributary on a daily basis which helps to identify the water flows against the planned and actual design discharge. Timely information dissemination helped farmer organizations to undertake timely flood management measures. Low Cost (Rs 0.20/SMS) This enhanced transparency and accountability between irrigation officials and FOs and resulted in judicious use of water. Water for a food-secure world
  33. 33. Thank youWater for a food-secure world

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