Improving the performance of public irrigation in South Asia, by Thierry Facon, FAO and Aditi Mukherji, IWMI


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Improving the performance of public irrigation in South Asia, by Thierry Facon, FAO and Aditi Mukherji, IWMI

  1. 1. Improving the performance of public irrigation in South AsiaThierry Facon, FAOAditi Mukherji, IWMI
  2. 2. Public irrigation in South Asia in short• India • Pakistan – Protective irrigation – Indus system – Low duties: 0.35 l/s/ha – Protective irrigation – Warabundi – Low duties – Shejpahi – Warabundi – Block – Salinization – Structured design – Waterlogging -Impact on food security, poverty alleviation and economic growth -Equity not achieved, reliability dubious, flexibility very low -Stagnation/decline -Low flowrates and poor service push farmers to groundwater which has allowed intensification
  3. 3. Structured design
  4. 4. Proportional flow division• Can you grow cash crops?• Can you adopt water saving technologies?
  5. 5. Multifunctionality• Multiple Uses of Water is a common practice !• On a subset of 30 systems only 2 appear as single use !• Actual water productivity much higher than WP(crop) ! 100% Share of estimated benefits 80% Power 60% Drainage, Flood control, transport, environment Homestead garden & natural 40% vegetation Fish 20% Domestic & Industry (incl tourism) 0% Animals a am am a a di in nk In tn tn ch La Crops ie ie ka he V V ri ta S ng H H na H H Za iB ar B P rK IS g ta on O pu g D K on ha im Lu ha K S
  6. 6. Poor water delivery service at all levels
  7. 7. Poor service levelsOverestimated bymanagement(chaos <1)
  8. 8. Applying modern water control concepts helpsespecially at main canal levels • A
  9. 9. Improving the main canals assists inimproving service down to the farm
  10. 10. • Well-run management outfits help• Budgets help but are not sufficient
  11. 11. Lessons & Issues in short (3)Multivariable analysis performed to explain L&W ProductivityModel [Log WP] = 3.3-0.642*Log duty -0.287*LogCA -0.463*ETo-0.238 *Rain[ 70 % of variability explained]Duty = Irrigation depthCA= Command areaMost variability explained by duty !Land Productivity: No significant model !
  12. 12. Log WP = 3.3-0.642*Log duty -0.287*Log CA-0.463*ETo-0.238 *Rain 0.4 0.2MODEL = f(log Duty, log CA, ETo, Rain) 0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 -1.4 -1.6 -1.8 Log Water Productivity
  13. 13. Lessons learntSignificant correlation betweenTypes of systems for SERVICES & L&W PRODUCTIVITY Group High High 1965 $/ha 0.18 $/m3 [High service at MC-SC and High at field] Group Medium Low 1200 $/ha 0.10 $/m3 Group Low Low 924 $/ha 0.073 $/m3
  14. 14. Actual Water Service individual unitAWDS = f[ Employees, MCI, Size of WUA]explain 45 % of the variability Partial Regression Plot Partial Regression Plot Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: Actual WDS to individual ownership units Dependent Variable: Actual WDS to individual ownership units Dependent Variable: Actual WDS to individual ownership units Actual WDS to individual ownership units Actual WDS to individual ownership units 1.5 1.5Actual WDS to individual ownership units 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0 -1.5 -1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Main Canal Indicator Employees Size of WUA hectares
  15. 15. • Strength of water WUA’s strength users associations & Services plays very little role in improving service to farmers, productivity and upper level service
  16. 16. Having modern employee management (incentives, Employee & Services empowerment, supervision, capacity building) is useful Note: the less the employees per ha the better for service 4.0 y = 0.5755x + 0.7342 R2 = 0.3165 3.5Actual WDS to individual ownership units 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 4.0 y = 0.5839x + 1.1763 1.0 R2 = 0.2369 3.5 0.5 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 MC-SC Services 2.5 Employee 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 EMPLOYEE
  17. 17. % Unlined & Services most dowsntream3.5 Canal lining3. y = -0.0036x + 1.747 No influence on R2 = 0.04371.0 performance0.50.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 productivity and cc lining 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 $/m3 0.6 0.4 0.2 y = -0.0013x + 0.2515 2 R = 0.06 0.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 % unlined
  18. 18. THE PROBLEM OF CANAL LINING • Canal lining is a very expensive element in canal construction. Cost of lining typically represents about 40% of total cost. • Before making such a large investment, there must be a clear idea of the benefits to be obtained • Seepage losses typically represent 10 to 40 percent of diverted water • The reduction of seepage losses is often assumed to be constant for the expected life of the lining to have a chance of achieving a favorable economic return • Most favored by agencies• There is now strong evidence that hard surface linings deteriorate within a few years until seepage losses return to that for an unlined canal
  19. 19. Questions related to decision- making• What is the reality do we want to improve?• Water scarcity: what does it mean?• How are decisions made?• What are our objectives?
  20. 20. Virtual water reality …Officially a dry crop system Virtual water reality THE TAIL-ENDER PROBLEM? Upper reach of a field channel near Mudhol Ghataprabha LBMC
  21. 21. THE TAIL-ENDER PROBLEM? End of the same field channelGhataprabha LBMC
  22. 22. IWMI3. Output per unit irrig. supply ($/cu. m.) . RID 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 Lam Pao, Thailand Dez, Iran Guilan, Iran Seyhan, Turkey Majalgaon, India Dantiwada, India Bhakra, India Muda, Malaysia Kemubu, MalaysiaBeni Amir, Morocco GLBC = US$0.23/m3Office du Niger, Mali Rio Yaqui Alto, DR Coello, Colombia No sugarcane Saldaña, Colombia Cupatitzio, Mexico Rio Mayo, Mexico ch112 Cam Sun, Vietnam
  23. 23. Sanctioned areas Sanctioned supply Groundwater pumped from within CA (left) to outside the CA (right)Ghataprabha LBMC
  24. 24. • Head of WUCSWrong hydraulics: they receive much more than they shouldGhataprabha LBMC
  25. 25. West Krishna Delta
  26. 26. ency I TRC10. Annual Pr oj ect I r r i gat i on Ef f i ci . 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Th la L a mPa o , a i n d r I De z , a n a r l I Gu i n , a n Tu Se y h a n , r k e y ag n I a Ma j l a o n , d i w i n I a Da n t a d a , d i n I a Bh a k r a , d i Ma a a Mu d a , l y s i Ma a a Ke mu b u , l y s i Ami MoBe n i r , r o c c o c i f g Ma iOf e d u Ni e r , l o o Al DR Ri Ya q u i t , confidence interval is +/- 30% o Co o a Co e l , l mb i improve efficiency by 20% if the d Co o a Sa l a ñ a , l mb i Uncertainty on basic z i o Me c Cu p a t i , x i o performance indicators How can you evaluate an objective to o Me c Ri Ma y o , x i o Vi n Ca mSu n , e t a m ch125
  27. 27. Virtual reality 1: pretend that it does not existTypes of problems with virtual reality:• Policy: maybe what we see outside the window is good but are the bad aspects? What can be made more sustainable and how to fix it?• We ignore problems: because infrastructure exists does not mean it is alright and that the only problem is governance or management• We invent problems that don’t exist to justify a favored solution• We ignore opportunities: • WUAs focused on canal management- can we reduce their pumping costs? • Multiple Use Systems: more MDGs per drop, more $/m3
  28. 28. Improving productivity or efficiency? “As irrigation is inefficient (30% of the water diverted reaches the plant), we can reduce the waste and losses and reallocate this to other users by increasing irrigation efficiency”Physical water scarcity• Basin closure• What is recoverable is recovered
  29. 29. Irrigation efficiency• Confusion between field/system efficiency and basin efficiency is common and underpins many policies and investments• Field efficiency and more efficient technologies can be very good (energy, water quality, sometimes in-stream flow, reducing drainage, money, labor, etc.)
  30. 30. River basin closure processes• overbuilding of river basins• overallocation of entitlements• overdraft of reservoirs and aquifers• double squeeze of agricultural water use, due to declining water availability and quality and rising urban and environmental needs
  31. 31. Virtual reality 2: “problems are serious but we can easily save much and/or get additional water”• Some water can be saved but not as much as is claimed• When agricultural water management is moderately good, things tend to a zero sum game• Increasing efficiency, more efficient technologies (and thus water rights and water pricing) often leads to increased water consumption (ET)• Problems are becoming wicked
  32. 32. Irrigation agencies• Development ethos• Bureaucratic top-down management• Accountability, clientelism• Rigidity and path dependency: – How things are seen – Education – Management style and incentives – Standard designs – Consulting firms– Vested interests
  33. 33. South Asia• Many trends favor atomistic/informal except energy prices• The groundwater crisis and energy prices may generate a pressure to improve public irrigation• Need to manage atomistic irrigation within large scale canal commands=> Incentives for large-scale effects of individual behavior may be needed in addition to interventions on the surface side
  34. 34. South AsiaA BIG STRATEGIC CHOICE TO MAKE:ignore or acknowledge atomistic irrigation and groundwater issuesAFFECTS ALL FORMS OF IRRIGATION AND LARGE SCALE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT• Existing large-scale to mimic atomistic irrigation
  35. 35. Modernization:From supply-driven to service-oriented management Service: • Equity • Reliability • Flexibility – Rate – Duration – Frequency • Adequacy • Lift/ pressure
  36. 36. Service => Operationstrategy/flow control system => Infrastructure design and management needs
  37. 37. Working out evolution paths• Unbundling – Different levels, each providing service to the lower level (this may include recharge) – At each level: • Service transactions: water, information, money • Nature of operator • Conveyance technology: canal/pipe • Seepage or no seepage • Surface/pressure • Interface: extend or separate management: » Buffer reservoir or pond/tank » Pumping
  38. 38. Working out evolution paths• Major decisions: • Radical or progressive improvement – Service to farmers and other uses and users – Service/technology to farmers – If competition from atomistic or unsustainable atomistic • Match/mimic • Conjunctive management – Energy an increasing factor => surface or lower lift or water conservation – How many levels of operators (not PIM committees) – Costs: Financial or investment strategies at each level – Final delivery point
  39. 39. Improving the decision making process• Exit the virtual reality• Water auditing and accounting• Strategic planning• Capacity building• Institutions• Policy• Governance• Monitoring of investments and results
  40. 40. Policy• Acknowledge the nature of the water economy• Monitoring of investments and results• Plan B, second-best and lateral options• Policy/politicians: the art of the possible• Change the practice on the ground to improve conditions for feasibility or acceptability of new policies: build a constituency for change• Focus on important details
  41. 41. Institutions• Beyond classical IMT/PIM• Not just PPP• Improve service to water user federations/associations• Many institutional innovations in both informal economies and formal economies• MASSCOTE, large powerful professional farmer-owned organizations managing (not necessarily themselves) canal supply, rainfall and groundwater• How to combine service orientation and regulation of atomistic irrigation?
  42. 42. Governance• Can one separate evolution of governance from the political system?• From representative democracy to monitory democracy : a lot of action and political innovation in the water area (because water is important), e.g. yellow score cards, mass social movements (John Keane, Life and death of democracy)
  43. 43. CONCLUSIONS• Existing large scale systems need to transform• Towards a fluid logic of complementarily, combination and convergence between public, small scale and atomistic irrigation• There are some good ideas and strategies, inspiring examples, tools/knowledge
  44. 44. ONE ISSUE• Will the present crises and challenges in cluding food crisis, economic crisis, energy crisis, climate change … will be met by more of the same supply- driven top-down responses or by a wholesale change of management of the sector and innovation? => Strategies to bring about this change? => What/who can serve as catalysts?
  45. 45. Revitalizing Asia’s irrigation1. Modernise yesteryears’ schemes for tomorrow’s needs2. Go with the flow by supporting farmers’ initiatives3. Look beyond conventional PIM/IMT recipes4. Build for the future: Expand capacity and knowledge5. Look beyond irrigation: Invest outside the water sector Combine elements from all 5 strategies for improving the performance of irrigation