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Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010
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Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality 2009-2010

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  • 1. MDG-4 Campaign Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality GLOBAL REPORT June 2010
  • 2. Agenda
    • Introduction and objectives
    • Middle class population survey
    • Leaders Interviews
    • Main results
    • Annex I – Questionnaires used
    • Annex II – Middle Class definition for each country
  • 3. Introduction and objectives After 10 years of policy and programme efforts since the Millennium Development Goals were established, progress has been made towards the achievement of MDG-4 ( see  www.childinfo.org/mortality.html  ) However, though the rate of decline in under-five mortality increased over the past few years, it is still clearly insufficient to reach the goal by 2015. Equally importantly, child mortality is increasingly concentrated : recent data indicate that approx. 75% of child deaths occur in only 18 countries. India and Nigeria together account for nearly one third of the total number of child deaths worldwide. Therefore, the GMC encouraged social mobilization campaigns, in countries where the problem is most serious, to galvanize public opinion in order to push for a redoubling of efforts to reduce child mortality. Through a multi-level communications and grassroots activation strategy, the GMC particularly recommends engaging the middle class - a so far neglected section of the public- who might have little insight or experience in the issue, but who has influence on decision-makers by virtue of its position in the society. Middle class members can hold the Government accountable as they represent taxpayers, and often share similar backgrounds, education, cultural references or even product tastes. In addition, wealth creators ( the business community ), opinion formers and reflectors ( people in the media ), academics and students are all categories that have the ability to influence governments.   The GMC believes that by targeting this section of society and shifting their attitude towards child mortality along a continuum from “acceptable/unavoidable” to “unacceptable/solvable” will create the pressure required for Government action.    Following these objectives the GMC conducted a research to develop insights and better understand these groups attitudes and opinions towards child mortality, particularly their degree of awareness of the problem and their willingness to do something about it. It was felt that such information is clearly a pre-requisite to design any meaningful communication strategy.   The research was carried out in 8 countries : India; Cambodia; Mali; Nigeria; Kenya; Zambia; Ethiopia and Bolivia. The presentation that follows shows the main results for all countries. For further detail regarding results by country, specially at a regional level, please refer to the country specific report
  • 4. Coverage Bolivia: La Paz Santa Cruz Cochabamba Mali: Bamako Segou Sikasso Nigeria: Yenagoa Akure Onitsha Ilorin Kebbi Damaturu Lagos Enugu Kano Zambia: Lusaka Ndola Livingstone India: Delhi Mumbai Chennai Kolkata Bangalore Ethiopia: Addis Ababa Awassa Mekele Arba Minch Nazareth Ambo Awash Gambella Assosa Jijiga Kenya : Nairobi Mombasa Kisumu Cambodia: Phnom Penh Battambang Siemreap Sihanoukville Kampong Cham
  • 5. Middle Class opinions
  • 6. Methodology
  • 7. Universe: Middle Class The target of study, in terms of middle class, was the population group (in many cases a minority) with formal education and professional work. The assumption is that this group has better access to media and information, and is an influential section of the public . In all cases middle class was defined in terms of Socio economic level, and in a country by country basis according to the country context. For further information see Annex 2 - Middle class definition by country Data collection technique: Face to face interviews in household Sample size: 1000 interviews were conducted in each country. Total: 8121 interviews Sampling method: stratified probabilistic Margin error: + 4.2% Methodology Specifications
  • 8. General Context
  • 9. Bolivia: -Corruption -Crime -Economic problems Mali: -Hunger -Corruption -Education Nigeria: -Corruption -Poverty -Economic problems Zambia: -Corruption -Unemployment -Poverty India: -Corruption -Poverty -Economic problems Ethiopia: -Poverty -Economic problems -Corruption Kenya : -Corruption -Poverty -Unemployment Cambodia: -Drugs -Economic problems -Corruption Top 3 problems by country Question: Which of the following do you think is the most important problem your country faces today?
  • 10. Countries’ main problems Corruption is one of the main concerns in all countries Basis: Middle class population in each country Top problem by country 2 nd main problem by country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Corruption 36% 30% 38% 21% 14% 32% 20% 26% Poverty 14% 18% 14% - 24% 14% 10% 7% Hunger/ Not enough food 2% 7% 5% 51% 2% 2% 2% 1% Economic problems 10% 3% 11% 3% 18% 10% 20% 9% Unemployment 16% 16% 8% - 6% 8% 5% 8% Crime / Insecurity 1% 3% 4% 4% 2% 5% 2% 25% HIV/ AIDS 11% 9% 2% - 10% 1% 3% 1% Drugs and drug abuse 1% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 26% 6% Education 1% 1% 3% 15% 2% 6% 3% 3% Terrorism/ internal conflicts/ human right violations - 1% 2% - 5% 7% 1% 5% Child Mortality 2% - 1% 3% 3% 8% 2% 2% The gap between the rich and the poor 2% 4% 1% - 3% 1% 1% 1% Lack of democracy / lack of freedom 1% 1% 2% - 5% 1% 1% 3% Other health problems 1% - 2% - 2% - 2% 1% Environmental issues 1% 1% 2% - - 2% 2% 1%
  • 11. Trust in institutions Percentage A lot + Some Confidence Basis: Middle class population in each country % below 50% Percentages are calculated excluding don´t know / no answer Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Donor Countries 86% 92% 73% 74% 84% 83% 95% 72% International Development Organizations 84% 93% 76% 74% 89% 83% 94% 66% Hospital/ Clinics 87% 84% 84% 70% 85% 83% 93% 65% Religious Groups / Institutions 85% 84% 85% 67% 78% 67% 73% 62% Civil Society Organizations 78% 84% 70% 62% 78% 78% 86% 53% Schooling System 85% 81% 74% 49% 68% 76% 94% 53% Press 79% 82% 67% 50% 62% 72% 87% 47% National Government 66% 65% 71% 54% 74% 80% 93% 35% Major Companies 62% 71% 55% 48% 65% 59% 68% 42% The Civil Service 60% 44% 58% 43% 68% 67% 69% 38% Labor Unions 48% 48% 55% 30% 60% 55% 70% 14% Armed Forces / The Military 39% 48% 41% 39% 51% 65% 71% 24% The Justice System 51% 31% 52% 34% 62% 61% 52% 21% The Police 36% 24% 21% 27% 64% 42% 66% 22% Political Parties 35% 27% 32% 16% 34% 34% 49% 9%
  • 12. Trust in HOSPITAL/ CLINICS Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 13. Trust in DONOR COUNTRIES Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 14. Trust in INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 15. Trust in NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 16. Trust in POLITICAL PARTIES Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 17. Trust in RELIGIOUS GROUPS / INSTITUTIONS Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 18. Trust in THE PRESS Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 19. Trust in SCHOOLING SYSTEM Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 20. Trust in CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 21. Trust in MAJOR COMPANIES Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 22. Trust in ARMED FORCES / THE MILITARY Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 23. Trust in LABOR UNIONS Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 24. Trust in THE CIVIL SERVICE Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 25. Trust in THE JUSTICE SYSTEM Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 26. Trust in THE POLICE Basis: Middle class population in each country Question: Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all?
  • 27. Interest towards Politics Question: In general, how interested would you say you are in politics? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 28. Influence in Social and political environment Question: To what extent would you say that people like you may have an influence in social and political events that surround us? Would you say that you may influence: a great deal, a fair amount, not very much, or not at all? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 29. Question: Now I’m going to read out some forms of political action that people can take, and I’d like you to tell me, for each one, whether you have done any of these things, whether you might do them or would never under any circumstances do them. Social Actions Basis: Middle class population in each country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Signing a petition Done 10% 9% 6% 19% 9% 19% 12% 19% Might 56% 63% 32% 67% 28% 54% 43% 56% Never 25% 27% 51% 8% 35% 18% 43% 22% Attending a demonstration Done 20% 18% 16% 42% 24% 14% 4% 16% Might 39% 37% 30% 49% 27% 66% 14% 39% Never 37% 44% 45% 6% 30% 16% 82% 44% Volunteering in a non-profit organization Done 23% 39% 23% 16% 25% 14% 19% 13% Might 67% 56% 45% 67% 51% 60% 61% 68% Never 6% 4% 27% 11% 14% 22% 20% 17% Being a member of a political party Done 19% 10% 17% 24% 12% 6% 19% 4% Might 37% 35% 30% 41% 16% 32% 23% 17% Never 39% 54% 45% 28% 48% 55% 57% 75% Donating money or something else for a cause Done 35% 42% 31% 32% 29% 22% 52% 22% Might 62% 52% 48% 58% 44% 63% 40% 61% Never 2% 6% 15% 3% 12% 9% 8% 14% Advocacy Done 22% 19% 18% 23% 36% 12% 17% 8% Might 68% 67% 50% 64% 46% 54% 48% 65% Never 6% 13% 24% 7% 9% 27% 34% 24%
  • 30. What they would NEVER do Social Actions Basis: Middle class population in each country Barrier for the country – more than half the middle class would never do it Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Signing a petition 25% 27% 51% 8% 35% 18% 43% 22% Attending a demonstration 37% 44% 45% 6% 30% 16% 82% 44% Volunteering in a non-profit organization 6% 4% 27% 11% 14% 22% 20% 17% Being a member of a political party 39% 54% 45% 28% 48% 55% 57% 75% Donating money or something else for a cause 2% 6% 15% 3% 12% 9% 8% 14% Advocacy 6% 13% 24% 7% 9% 27% 34% 24%
  • 31. Awareness of the Millennium Development Goals Question: In the year 2000 the world leaders agreed on a certain number of programs to solve the world’s most important problems. A set of goals was established to be accomplished by 2015. This agreement is known as the Millennium Development Goals. Have you heard of this initiative? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 32. Bolivia: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Achieve universal primary education -Reduce child mortality Mali: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Achieve universal primary education -Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Nigeria: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Achieve universal primary education -Reduce child mortality Zambia: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Achieve universal primary education -Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases India: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger - Reduce child mortality - Achieve universal primary education Ethiopia: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Achieve universal primary education – Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Kenya : -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases - Achieve universal primary education Cambodia: -Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger -Promote gender equality and empower women -Reduce child mortality -Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Top 3 MDG by country Question: Which of the following do you think is the most important problem your country faces today?
  • 33. Main MDG for the country Question: I will enumerate the different Millennium Development Goals. Could you please tell me which one you consider the most important one for this country? And which one do you think is the second most important goal for this country? 1 ST + 2 ND MENTION Basis: Middle class population in each country Top MDG by country 2 nd main MDG by country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger 75% 82% 73% 60% 80% 58% 69% 75% Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 53% 52% 21% 31% 31% 17% 25% 10% Achieve universal primary education 21% 16% 26% 50% 37% 31% 16% 27% Reduce child mortality 11% 8% 23% 23% 16% 39% 25% 26% Improve maternal health 7% 8% 22% 11% 10% 22% 16% 16% Promote gender equality and empower women 12% 10% 13% 7% 12% 16% 25% 7% Develop a global partnership for development 14% 11% 9% 12% 8% 6% 16% 15% Ensure environmental sustainability 5% 13% 11% 5% 7% 11% 7% 19%
  • 34. Child Mortality as the main MDG for the country 1 st + 2 nd mention Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 35. Child mortality: Awareness & Problem dimension
  • 36. Awareness on child mortality Question: Focusing on what you know about child mortality, how much would you say you know…? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 37. Main sources of information about child mortality Question: Which sources of information have you used to learn about the issue? Basis: Middle class population in each country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia TV 54% 78% 69% 71% 68% 90% 70% 73% Radio 40% 65% 59% 62% 64% 17% 52% 27% Magazines / Newspapers 46% 60% 27% 29% 47% 80% 23% 30% Comments of someone you know 8% 16% 23% 15% 21% 16% 16% 6% Campaigns in public places 8% 16% 12% 6% 12% 15% 8% 7% Community centers 10% 14% 11% 9% 11% 10% 8% 3% Internet 8% 10% 7% 13% 22% 10% 1% 17%
  • 38. Question: And from the following causes of child mortality that I am going to mention, which one would you say is the most relevant one in your country? Main cause of child mortality Basis: Middle class population in each country Top cause by country 2 nd main cause by country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Malnutrition 27% 17% 20% 25% 24% 39% 9% 56% Malaria 16% 34% 28% 47% 8% 4% 7% -  Lack of access to health services 21% 15% 23% 7% 24% 7% 11% 18% Lack of improved water & sanitation services 6% 8% 9% 9% 15% 18% 31% 8% HIV / AIDS 18% 8% 2% 2% 12% 3% 7% 1% Diarrhea 4% 3% 4% 2% 8% 6% 8% -  Acute Respiratory infections 2% 1% 2% 1% 4% 9% 15% 5% Infections 2% 3% 3% 2%   - 7% 2% 2% Tetanus   - -   - -    -   - 3% -  Measles 1% 4% 6% -    - 1% 1% 1% Pneumonia 1% 4% 1% 1% 1% 3% 4% 1% Droughts -  2%   -   - 3% 1% 1% -  Wars / Tribal conflicts 1% - 1%   - 1% -  - - 
  • 39. Concern about child mortality in their country Question: How concerned would you say you are about child mortality in (MENTION COUNTRY)? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 40. Assessment of child mortality as a serious problem Question: How would you rate the problem of child mortality in your country? Would you say it is...?
  • 41. Number of children dying every year Question: According to what you may know or may have heard: how many children under 5 die every year in your country? I know this is a difficult question and that you probably don’t know the number but your best estimation based on what you know or believe will do. ( CARD SHOWN)
  • 42. Evolution of child mortality in the last years Question: Regarding the present situation of child mortality in Mali in the last 3 years, would you say that it has improved, it has got worse, or it has stayed the same?
  • 43. Expectations on Child Mortality for the next years Question: And thinking about the next 3 years, would you say that it will improve, it will get worse, or it will stay the same as it is now?
  • 44. Likeliness of achieving MDG4 Question: One of the objectives to be achieved by 2015, as set by the world leaders in the Millennium Development Goals, is to reduce under-five mortality rate by two thirds. How likely do you think it is for this goal to be achieved in your country?
  • 45. Can child mortality in the country be solved? Question: There are different opinions regarding child mortality. Which one would you say is closer to your view?
  • 46. Question: When it comes to child mortality, who do you think is mostly responsible for its solution in the country? Institution most responsible for solving child mortality Basis: Middle class population in each country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia The national government 62% 66% 49% 52% 59% 31% 42% 18% The local government 20% 19% 20% 21% 25% 45% 25% 69% International development organizations 3% 4% 9% 12% 4% 10% 14% 4% Civil society organizations 8% 7% - 8% 8% 12% 5% 3% Donor Countries 3% 2% 7% 4% 3% 2% 12% 3% DK/NA 3% - 3% 1% - - - 1%
  • 47. Question: And who do you think would be the most efficient one in solving the problem in this country? Institution most efficient for solving child mortality Basis: Middle class population in each country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia The national government 36% 47% 34% 26% 25% 48% 40% 25% The local government 23% 13% 10% 16% 19% 21% 18% 37% International development organizations 13% 17% 14% 29% 23% 11% 19% 15% Civil society organizations 16% 12% - 19% 21% 16% 8% 11% Donor Countries 9% 7% 11% 8% 12% 2% 13% 5% No one - - - - 1% 1% - 3% DK/NA 4% - 3% 1% - - - 2%
  • 48. Question: And who would be the most reliable one? (CARD SHOWN) Institution most reliable for child mortality Basis: Middle class population in each country Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia The national government 27% 34% 36% 19% 25% 35% 41% 19% The local government 14% 11% 15% 15% 11% 17% 16% 28% International development organizations 14% 18% 20% 22% 23% 15% 19% 20% Donor Countries 23% 22% 12% 24% 16% 10% 13% 9% Civil society organizations 16% 8% - 17% 18% 18% 9% 10% No one 1% 1% - 1% 2% 4% - 8% DK/NA 5% 1% 4% 1% - 1% - 4%
  • 49. Child mortality: People’s initiatives
  • 50. % who have taken actions/ initiatives regarding child mortality Question: Have you taken any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 51. Actions/ initiatives carried out regarding child mortality Question: Which kind of action/ initiative have you carried out? Basis: Middle class population – respondents who declare to have taken any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years. Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Volunteering 38% 62% 46% 26% 69% 50% 54% 44% Donate Money 24% 40% 34% 24% 39% 66% 59% 28% Advocacy 51% 32% 27% 26% 21% 23% 23% 19% Participate in demonstrations 11% 3% 16% 24% 5% 31% 1% 5% Sign petitions / requests 3% 3% 4% 4% 5% 28% 10% 6% Support a political party / politician depending on their interest on this matter 5% 5% 9% 13% 9% 6% 3% 2% Others 7% 8% - 21% 3% 1% - 29% DK / NA - - - 8% 1% 3% - -
  • 52. Reasons for not taking any actions/ initiatives Basis: Middle class population – respondents who declare NOT to have taken any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years. Question: And why didn’t you take any action/ initiative regarding the child mortality issue in your country? Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia I do not know what I can do to help 41% 56% 25% 17% 51% 41% 34% 26% Nothing that I could do would make a difference 15% 21% 22% 18% 18% 13% 3% 11% I don't have enough money/resources 25% 17% 30% 42% 20% 4% 17% 12% I have no time 20% 18% 11% 14% 6% 28% 50% 42% It is not my responsibility to solve it 6% 3% 23% 12% 4% 7% 6% 5% I am not interested in the issue 2% 2% 3% 13% 16% 6% 22% 4% It is not a serious problem 2% 2% 2% 1% 3% 3% 2% 3% Never had an opportunity 1% 1%   - - 2% -    - 1%
  • 53. Reaction to Child Mortality Facts and Figures
  • 54. Stimulus Child Mortality Fact and Figures in the different countries Some figures about child mortality in [country] In [country] [#] children under 5 die every year. More than 50% is due to [main causes for the country]. Most of these deaths could be prevented by providing [simple everyday solutions for each cause, for example: antibiotics for Respiratory Infections; sleeping under mosquito nets for Malaria and giving the child to drink a simple solution made of sugar and salt in case of diarrhoea]. Most of these things are available locally and they are not expensive. Interviewer: Next, I will show you a short document about the issue of child mortality… DOCUMENT SHOWN ABOUT CHILD MORTALITY:
  • 55. Are aware of the facts & figures shown Question: Did you know the information you have just read? ANSWERED YES Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 56. Most outstanding information Question: What piece of information was most outstanding for you? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 57. Stimulus impact: Interest in the information presented Question: While you were reading this information on child mortality, did you have the feeling that people like you may be interested in the subject? ANSWERS ‘YES’ Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 58. Stimulus impact: Interest in receiving information Question: Would you like to receive similar information occasionally? ANSWERS ‘YES’ Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 59. Stimulus impact: Information worth Communicating Question: Did this information on child mortality give you the feeling that what was said or shown was worth communicating? ANSWERS ‘YES’ Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 60. Stimulus impact: Word of mouth Question: If you were talking to someone about child mortality, do you think that you would mention any of the points of the information you have just read? ANSWERS ‘YES’ Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 61. Impact on concern on child mortality Question: As a result of reading this information on child mortality, would you say that you are…? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 62. More interest in carrying out actions Question: Has this information on child mortality that you have just read raised your interest in carrying out actions in order to improve the situation? ANSWERS ‘YES’ Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 63. Likeliness in carrying out actions Question: And how likely are you to carry out any actions in order to fight child mortality in the next 12 months? Basis: Middle class population in each country
  • 64. Actions to carry out Question: What actions would you carry out/ are you currently carrying out? Basis: Middle class population – respondents who declare to be willing to take action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years. Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Volunteering 54% 80% 47% 44% 79% 51% 59% 54% Donate Money 24% 58% 40% 36% 49% 56% 60% 25% Advocacy 38% 39% 29% 36% 51% 30% 28% 21% Participate in demonstrations 12% 16% 16% 46% 22% 25% 3% 9% Sign petitions / requests 7% 12% 4% 19% 17% 22% 18% 19% Support a political party / politician depending on their interest on this matter 12% 13% 14% 27% 14% 8% 9% 3% Others 1% 3% - 14% 2% - 3% 12% DK / NA 1% - 1% - 1% 1% - 2%
  • 65. Reasons for not willing to carry out actions Question: Why wouldn’t you carry out any actions? Basis: Middle class population – respondents who declare NOT to be willing to take any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years. Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia I don't have the time 32% 18% 11% 13% 25% 48% 60% 45% I do not know what I can do to help 20% 36% 17% 20% 33% 26% 32% 17% I don't have enough money/resources 22% 25% 28% 29% 10% 5% 29% 13% Nothing that I could do would make a difference 19% 18% 22% 16% 30% 8% 5% 7% It is not my responsibility to solve it 6% 7% 19% 14% 11% 12% 6% 5% I am not interested in the issue 4% 3% 5% 13% 17% 3% 14% 8% It is not a serious problem 2% 6% 1% 2% 1% 6% 9% 3% DK / NA 4% 16% 3% 5% 1% 2% - 3%
  • 66. Whom would they contact? Question: Could you please tell me the kind of organization or institution you would approach? Basis: Middle class population in each country who would know who to contact Ministry of Health and/or Local Government Health Department 42% Zambia Kenya Nigeria Mali Ethiopia India Cambodia Bolivia Hospital / clinics 55% 47% 38% 32% 66% 42% 53% 40% Community center 39% 27% 19% 34% 30% 26% 21% 18% International organizations 14% 27% 14% 35% 36% 31% 31% 20% Schools 20% 20% 22% 26% 41% 21% 32% 13% Civil society organizations 23% 20% 11% 18% 23% 53% 27% 15% Religious groups / institutions 25% 38% 32% 12% 26% 15% 3% 15% Political Parties 8% 10% 9% 10% 8% 20% 5% 5%
  • 67. Leaders opinions
  • 68. Universe: Leaders: policy makers and influencers Leaders belonged to different spheres: Policy makers, politicians, Religion leaders, Business leaders, Well known sport men and Women, singers, actors, Heads from local national NGOs, Journalists, media and broadcasting Data collection technique: Face to face interviews Sample size: 30 interviews were conducted in each country. Total: 120 interviews Sampling method: Convenience Sampling Methodology Specifications
  • 69. General context
  • 70. Top problems by country Basis: Leaders in each country Bolivia: Unemployment Poverty Lack of politic consensus Nigeria: Corruption Poverty Electricity problems Illiteracy India: Corruption Poverty Inflation Ethiopia: Poverty Economic problems/HIV Corruption Question: What would you say are the country’s most serious problems? (OPEN ENDED) And from these which one would you say is the most serious problem? (ONE MENTION) Mali: Unemployment Corruption Education Zambia: Corruption Unemployment Poverty HIV Kenya: Corruption Poverty Unemployment Health problems/ HIV Cambodia: Traffic accidents Drug/ Alcohol abuse Poverty Economic problems
  • 71. Underlying reasons behind the biggest problems in the country Question: What is the underlying reason for … to be the biggest problem your country faces? OPEN ENDED
    • Bolivia : Lack of political stability and poor management are seen as drivers of the economic problems Bolivia faces.
    • Kenya: The unemployment level is perceived as very high, with a direct impact on people’s living conditions. Rising prices, partially explained by an increase in commodity prices, are also a serious concern. The reasons of the economic problems are attributed to bad leadership and also to climate change. There is a deep concern for poverty in the country.
    • Cambodia : Lack of job opportunities and of education are seen as drivers of the economic problems Cambodia faces. Environmental issues are also considered relevant.
    • Zambia : A privatization process of public companies and the closure of industries is one of the causes mentioned for economic problems. There is criticism regarding an unequal distribution of wealth in the country.
    • Ethiopia : Lack of job opportunities and of education are seen as drivers of the economic problems Ethiopia faces. Also political corruption is mentioned by some leaders
    • Mali : There is a deep concern for poverty in the country. The income of the population is considered as too low and prices are rising, particularly commodity; also there is concern because the income distribution is unequal.
    • Nigeria : Poverty and lack of power supply/ shutdowns are seen as drivers of the economic problems Nigeria faces. Lack of energy affects adversely companies, employment and individual life.
    • India : The global crisis as well as the country's corruption and the lack of education are all seen as drivers of the economic problems India faces. Environmental issues and increasing population are also seen as relevant facts
    ECONOMY The underlying reasons for the economic problems in these countries are mainly related to poor management of governments. An unequal distribution of income and unemployment are a result of these. In Bolivia, leaders mention lack of political consensus. Environmental problems are mentioned in India and Cambodia, while in Nigeria the lack of energy supply worries most of the leaders.
  • 72. Underlying reasons behind the biggest problems in the country Question: What is the underlying reason for … to be the biggest problem your country faces? OPEN ENDED POLITICS
    • Bolivia : Lack of political stability is associated to lack of consensus among different sectors .
    • Kenya: Policy makers and politicians are perceived as having too much power. There is criticism towards the lack of leadership and the way decisions are made. There is also concern regarding political instability and violence, specially with the conflict of the Mau Forest evictions, and tribal conflicts. Corruption is considered to be widespread among politicians. Lack of control and impunity are some of the causes of corruption. Corruption is both the cause and consequence of a crisis of values
    • Cambodia : Lack of political will and internal and external conflicts are the underlying reasons for political problems
    • Zambia : Political problems are caused by the lack of leadership and the inability of politicians to be opened to dialogue. Regarding corruption, the high rate of unemployment seems to be one of its causes.
    • Mali : Policy makers and politicians are perceived as not taking care of the people’s necessities, There is criticism towards lack of power. There is also concern regarding corruption.
    • Nigeria : Leadership issues and corruption are behind the social and political issues mentioned by leaders. Disregardment of political leaders is mentioned.
    • Ethiopia : Political corruption is mentioned by some leaders.
    • India : Corruption is the main political problem and is associated to the lack of government power and bad governance
    Corruption is signaled as a major problem for their countries by leaders. Politics issues are caused by lack of leadership, bad governance and lack of consensus among the different sectors. In some countries there’s a perception of negligence by governments towards people and their needs.
  • 73. Underlying reasons behind the biggest problems in the country Question: What is the underlying reason for … to be the biggest problem your country faces? OPEN ENDED SOCIAL ISSUES
    • Bolivia : Lack of political decision and a weak educational system are the underlying reasons for the social problems Bolivia faces
    • Cambodia : Poverty, lack of education in the law and social conflict are the underlying reasons for the social problems Cambodia faces
    • Zambia : HIV/AIDS is being caused by prostitution and employment. The lack of proper health facilities is causing health problems
    • Ethiopia : The economic issue is behind the social issues mentioned by leaders (poverty, unemployment)
    • Mali : There is a deep concern for poverty in the country. The considerable level of famine worsens the situation
    • India : Terrorism, education and large population are the social issues. Poverty and education are the underlying reasons for the social problems India faces
    The reasons for the social issues impacting in these countries are mainly related to lack of political decision or carelessness. Poverty and unemployment are issues in these countries, which lead to lack of education and no proper health care for the population
  • 74. Child mortality
  • 75. Concern on Child Mortality Question: How concerned would you say you are about child mortality in your country? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 76. Assessment on seriousness of the issue Question: How would you rate the problem of child mortality in your country? Would you say it is...? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 77. Causes of Child Mortality Question: You’ve said child mortality is a … problem in your country. Why would you say this? What is the underlying reason? OPEN ENDED
    • Bolivia : The lack of access to education and health for everyone, therefore the lack of prevention of child sickness.
    • Kenya: Healthcare system is perceived to be too expensive and remote. There is also criticism regarding its poor quality
    • Cambodia : Lack of health facilities and disease: Not enough health centres, not available for everyone, no access from rural areas, public health service is weak and ineffective. The lack of knowledge and awareness of parents and, subsequently, their neglecting of children
    • Zambia : There is a perceived lack of infrastructure and resources in the health system. There is also criticism regarding negligence in the healthcare service (laziness of personnel). The lack of parents´ education is one of the reasons
    • Ethiopia : Lack of health facilities is the main reason for child mortality (specially in rural areas) lack of access financial and distance. Also inadequate skills among doctors. However, some leaders are optimistic and think this problem is somewhat improving nowadays.
    • Mali : There is a perceived lack of infrastructure and resources in the health system. The lack of parents´ education is one of the reasons for child mortality.
    • Nigeria : Lack or deficiency of health facilities and lack of parental and society awareness are the main reason for child mortality.
    • India : The lack of knowledge and awareness, especially among parents. Lack of health facilities: basic healthcare is not available in hospitals, there is a lack of adequate number of doctors, nurses, beds and treatment facilities in government hospitals. This problem is a bigger issue in rural India.
    LACK OF ACCESS TO EDUCATION AND HEALTH Leaders of all these countries agree that the lack of proper health facilities is causing high rates of child mortality. Besides, the difficult access to education for a large portion of the population is causing parents unawareness on how to take proper care of their children. Rural areas are the most affected by these two problems.
  • 78.
    • Bolivia : Poverty, and malnutrition as a sub derivate. Government responsibility.
    • Kenya: Poverty is seen as a major obstacle for accessing good health services. Poor living conditions also increase the risk for children. Some regions appear to be more affected. Government is regarded as the main responsible actor for child mortality. But parents also have a share of responsibility
    • Zambia : Poverty itself is causing the death of children
    • Ethiopia : Poverty itself is seen by some leaders as the reason of child mortality in Ethiopia
    • Mali : Poverty itself is causing the deaths of children, and the absence of consistent policies to take care of the issue
    • India : Poverty itself is causing the deaths of children: malnutrition increases. Government responsibility: carelessness and negligence of government towards health care
    POVERTY Causes of Child Mortality Question: You’ve said child mortality is a … problem in your country. Why would you say this? What is the underlying reason? OPEN ENDED Some leaders explain child mortality by poverty itself and, subsequently, malnutrition of children, bad living conditions and lack of access to proper health care attention and education. Government is seen as having the main responsibility for it.
  • 79. Evolution on solving Child mortality in the past 3 years Question: Thinking about the present situation of child mortality in your country in the last 3 years, would you say that it has improved, it has got worse, or it has stayed the same? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 80. Evolution on solving Child mortality in the next 3 years Question: And thinking about the next 3 years, would you say that it will improve, will get worse, or will stay the same as it is now? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 81. Opinion on the possibility of solving Child Mortality Question: There are different opinions regarding child mortality. Which one would you say is closer to your view?: Child mortality in your country is a problem that … Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 82. Measures for solving child mortality HEALTH SERVICES
    • Bolivia : Education is key to solve the problem, in a preventive role. Improving access to health, meaning FREE health services.
    • Kenya: Free medical assistance and improvement of health care facilities.
    • Cambodia : Strong demand for more health services and facilities, build some more hospitals, provide medicine and trained doctors in rural areas. Education on sanitation
    • Zambia : Some mention aspects related to the healthcare infrastructure and resources. This is especially important in rural areas, where the access to medical services is more difficult. Another aspect is to count with more and better human resources in the Healthcare system
    • Ethiopia : Although some point out this issue is being taken care of, there is a demand for more health services and facilities. Building more facilities and increasing the number of health workers, equipment and medicine. Give free health service.
    • Mali : Leaders ask for more government presence in improving the health care system, providing free assistance, especially in rural areas
    • India : There is a demand for more health services and facilities and especially for FREE health services; this is seen as the government's responsibility.
    Question: W hat things do you think your country could do to solve this problem? What else? Is there anything else you can think of? OPEN ENDED. And what do you think is the one best thing your country could do that would have the biggest impact on solving this problem? What is the underlying reason for it to be the best solution for child mortality in your country? OPEN ENDED Given the difficulties for poor people to access healthcare services, most leaders mention free medical assistance as one of the most important measures to reduce child mortality. This would include free medical attention and drugs (especially for children and mothers) and provision of mosquito nets and supplies. Some mention aspects related to the healthcare infrastructure, including the need to create and improve medical centers. This is especially important in rural areas, where the access to medical services is more difficult. Another aspect is to count with more and better human resources in the Healthcare system.
  • 83. Measures for solving child mortality PUBLIC POLICIES/ GOOD GOVERNANCE Question: W hat things do you think your country could do to solve this problem? What else? Is there anything else you can think of? OPEN ENDED. And what do you think is the one best thing your country could do that would have the biggest impact on solving this problem? What is the underlying reason for it to be the best solution for child mortality in your country? OPEN ENDED
    • Bolivia : Strong belief in the governments´ responsibility towards this issue. Besides, some point out the need to get the support of the community to make effective this public policy:
    • Kenya: The level of corruption in the institutions is perceived as a major obstacle for effective public policies that could reduce child mortality. Thus, tackling this problem becomes crucial. There is also a demand for better leadership
    • Zambia : There is a demand for better leadership and smart policies to face the problem
    • Mali : There is a demand for better leadership by the government
    • Nigeria : Leaders agree that the Government should take more action on the subject, by improving the health sector as well as the sanitation system and general living conditions. Raising awareness and education are also measures demanded to the Government. Some leaders point out the need of community participation and institution interaction to make these measures effective.
    • Kenya: Many interviewees think that better economic conditions are necessary in order to reduce child mortality
    • Kenya: The problems of the economy have a direct impact in people’s daily lives and the welfare of children
    • Zambia : The perception is that in order to improve child mortality, the country’s economy should also improve
    IMPROVE THE ECONOMY The need for more, and better, public policies addressing child mortality is mentioned by some leaders. This has to be accompanied by good governance: decision and proper use of resources by the Government In Kenya and Zambia some leaders mention the improvement of the economy in general as the main measure to take regarding child mortality
  • 84. Measures for solving child mortality Question: W hat things do you think your country could do to solve this problem? What else? Is there anything else you can think of? OPEN ENDED. And what do you think is the one best thing your country could do that would have the biggest impact on solving this problem? What is the underlying reason for it to be the best solution for child mortality in your country? OPEN ENDED EDUCATION
    • Bolivia : Education is key to solve the problem, in a preventive role.
    • Kenya: The Government should implement education campaigns oriented to teach people on how to prevent causes of child mortality
    • Cambodia : Most leaders point out promoting awareness of the issue and educating parents as the main actions to do. Some mention that education on child mortality issues must be led by NGOs and government
    • Zambia : The Government should implement education campaigns oriented to teach parents on how to prevent causes of child mortality
    • Ethiopia : Awareness and education, especially among mothers, and empowerment of women in general are the main measures suggested to fight child mortality. There is a strong belief in community participation and networking to make these measures effective.
    • Mali : Government should implement education campaigns oriented to teach prevention among parents and children
    • India : Some mention specific education on child mortality issues led by NGOs and government. But others mention the improvement of education in general
    Raising awareness of child mortality is key for some leaders. They mention education campaigns oriented to parents and the society as a whole. Government and NGO’s are the institutions mentioned to lead these actions.
  • 85. Actions
  • 86. % who have taken actions/ initiatives regarding child mortality Question: Have you taken any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 87. Actions/ initiatives regarding child mortality Question: Have you taken any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years? Basis: Leaders in each country
    • Mainly lack of awareness of the problem
    • Lack of time or resources
    • Different duty
    • Lack of knowledge/ information on the subject
    • Other institutions taking care of the problem
    WHY NOT?
    • Advocacy
    • Volunteering/ working or leading a non-for-profit-organization
    • Social plans (government members)
    • Donations
    • Educating people by reaching the community
    PERCEIVED IMPACT MOST COMMON ACTIONS
    • Those who have taken actions think they are making a contribution to reduce child mortality
    BARRIERS
    • Lack of coordination with the Government
    • Lack of awareness or interest in society and target population
    • Lack of resources.
    • The financial and transaction costs
    • Lack of collaboration by society
    • Low education of target population/ illiteracy
    • However, many think there are no barriers for help
  • 88. Reaction to Stimulus
  • 89. Concern on the issue after seeing the stimulus Question: As a result of reading this information on child mortality, would you say that you are…? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 90. Interest on carrying out actions after seeing the stimulus Question: Has this information on child mortality that you have just read raised you interest in carrying out actions in order to modify the situation? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 91. Call for action Question: And how likely are you to carry out any actions in order to fight child mortality in the next 12 months? Basis: Leaders in each country
  • 92. EDUCATION/ AWARENESS Question: What actions would you carry out/ are you currently carrying out? OPEN ENDED Actions that would carry out In Bolivia, Zambia and Mali some leaders are willing to work, or already working, on social plans to fight child mortality. SOCIAL PLANS Most leaders in all these countries mention awareness as the main action they would carry out. There is a high interest in educating people (especially mothers and pregnant women) about preventive measures for child mortality. Some interviewees related to the media are willing to use their position to reach a large public; religious leaders claim they will work with their community educating people on this issue.
    • Bolivia : The leaders that are part of the Government or institutions dedicated to the issue are conducting different measures:
    • Zambia : Some mention direct involvement in health centers and health policies
    • Mali : Some mention direct involvement in health centers and health policies
  • 93.
    • Bolivia : Some think about giving economic contributions or volunteer work to support institutions dedicated to fight child mortality.
    • Kenya: Some interviewees are willing to fight child mortality by getting actively involved in the community, supporting institutions related to the issue
    • Cambodia : Some leaders are willing to volunteer by reaching out to the community and providing supplies
    • Zambia : Only a few think about donations
    • Ethiopia : Some leaders are willing to volunteer by reaching out to the community and donating money or clothing
    • Mali : Only a few think about donations
    • Nigeria : Some leaders are willing to volunteer by reaching out to the community and donating
    • India : Some think about donations, in some cases related to education
    SUPPORT TO INSTITUTIONS Question: What actions would you carry out/ are you currently carrying out? OPEN ENDED Actions that would carry out Some of the leaders declare that they will get involved, or continue to participate, in existing organizations, while others say that they will use their position to create and promote new ones. Whilst education and volunteering are the main actions considered, only a few think of donations
  • 94. Summary
  • 95. Summary (I)
    • Corruption and poverty, the two common issues of the surveyed countries’ agenda . When asked about the most important problem for the country, in general, the most frequently mentioned issues are corruption and poverty. However, each country has its own particularities. In Mali, hunger stands out; in Zambia, unemployment; in Cambodia, drugs; in Bolivia, the economic problems as well as crime and insecurity (according to other studies, a common topic in Latin America).
    • As for the specific Millennium Development Goal, “Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger” is, according to the respondents, the most important for the country. The importance of fighting 'HIV/AIDS' increases significantly in Zambia and Kenya. As per 'reduce child mortality', this goal is mentioned among the top 3 in 4 out of the 8 countries, especially in India
    • Hospitals, institutions with good reputation among the middle classes. Considering a number of organizations and institutions, trust in donor countries and international development organizations is high. Regarding local institutions, it is significant the trust in hospitals and clinics. When it comes to undertake initiatives to fight child mortality, hospitals and health centers are also the places where people would go. In contrast, political parties and the police are the institutions that people distrust the most.
  • 96. Summary (II)
    • Respondents call for state intervention to solve the problem of child mortality. Considering a number of potential actors, the national government is viewed as primarily responsible for solving this problem. In two countries (Bolivia and India), greater responsibility is allocated to the local governments than to the national government. In terms of efficiency and reliability, although governments receive the better assessment, other actors like international development organizations and civil society organizations are also well regarded. In Africa, the donor countries are considered more reliable to solve the issue of child mortality.
    • Child mortality is perceived as a serious problem. Although it does not come up as one of the top concerns for the middle class, when asked about child mortality, this issue is regarded as a serious problem in all the countries. At the same time, most respondents say they are very or fairly concerned about it.
  • 97. Summary (III)
    • Respondents perceive improvements and are optimistic regarding the future. Respondents recognize improvements in the field of child mortality. In most countries, especially in Cambodia, it is believed that child mortality has improved over the past three years. The exception is Bolivia, where the largest proportion of the middle class is critical on this issue. Another finding of this study indicates that, in general, there is a strong optimism about the evolution of this problem. Most respondents also agree that child mortality is a problem that will improve; they consider that the MDG4 objectives on child mortality will be achieved.
    • Respondent say they know more of what they actually do. In all countries, middle class members say they know a great deal or a fair amount about child mortality. However, when specifically asked about the main causes of child mortality, the most frequently mentioned reasons are not the most relevant for the country. Additionally, the vast majority underestimates or ignores the number of children who die every year in their countries.
  • 98. Summary (IV)
    • Respondent say they know more of what they actually do: In all countries, middle class members say they know a great deal or a fair amount about child mortality. However, when specifically asked about the main causes of child mortality, the most frequently mentioned reasons are not the most relevant for the country. Additionally, the vast majority underestimates or ignores the number of children who die every year in their countries.
    • The magnitude of the problem, one of the most surprising aspects of child mortality: When respondents are shown specific information on three aspects of child mortality (a. the dimension of the problem, b. the principal causes and c. some solutions), the most striking information for them, in almost all countries, is the number of children who die every year. Only in one country, Nigeria, the solutions to the problem became the most valuable piece of information for respondents.
  • 99. Summary (V)
    • The magnitude of the problem, one of the most surprising aspects of child mortality. When respondents are shown specific information on three aspects of child mortality (a. the dimension of the problem, b. the principal causes and c. some solutions), the most striking information for them, in almost all countries, is the number of children who die every year. Only in one country, Nigeria, the solutions to the problem became the most valuable piece of information for respondents.
    • Receiving information on child mortality motivates people to action. After being shown information about child mortality (dimension, causes and solutions), respondents report feeling more concerned about this issue, more willing to talk and to receive information about it. Respondents say they are motivated to carry out concrete actions to improve the situation. Regarding the main actions they are willing to carry out, middle class members mention volunteering, donating money and advocacy (talk about, communicate and position the issue on the agenda). Those who deem unlikely to undertake any action, mention as the main reason for it, “the lack of time”. Other barriers mentioned, which could be addressed in a potential campaign, are “lack of knowledge about what can be done” or the belief that “individual action does not make any difference”.
  • 100. Summary (VI)
    • Non-governmental leaders are potential allies of MDG4. Regarding the leaders, it is remarkable and positive to see their interest in the issue, as well as their willingness to participate in the solution of it. This is especially true for non-political leaders, like those in the media, actors, singers, business men, etc. These respondents have undertaken some initiatives and are interested in taking action to fight child mortality. At the same time, there are not great obstacles to take action; it is mainly a matter of lack of coordination or knowledge.
  • 101. Main Ideas
    • Child mortality is considered an important issue, although it is not on the agenda
    • People believe they know more of what they actually do
    • Receiving information on child mortality increases the commitment to the issue
  • 102. Annex I – Questionnaires used
  • 103. Middle class population Questionnaire    Your usual introduction, but add: We are conducting this survey in several countries around the world, asking people like you for their views and opinions regarding social issues. Please be assured that we are not selling or soliciting anything and that your responses will remain anonymous and only aggregated results will be reported General context – Agenda   Q1. Which of the following do you think is the most important problem your country faces today? SHOW CARD 1 WITH PROBLEMS AND READ PROBLEMS OUT LOUD – SINGLE ANSWER   Corruption Crime / Insecurity Drugs and drug abuse Economic problems Child Mortality Education Environmental issues HIV/ AIDS Other health problems Human rights violations Hunger/ not enough food Lack of democracy / lack of freedom Poverty Refugees, asylum, and refugee problems Religious / Ethnic problems Terrorism Unemployment Internal conflicts External conflicts The gap between the rich and the poor Others– specify DK/NA Q2. In the year 2000 the world leaders agreed on a certain number of programs to solve the world’s most important problems. A set of goals was established to be accomplished by 2015. This agreement is known as the Millennium Development Goals. Have you heard of this initiative? Yes No   
  • 104. Middle class population Questionnaire Q3. Next, I will enumerate the different Millennium Development Goals. Could you please tell me which one you consider the most important one for this country? READ OUT AND ROTATE. SINGLE ANSWER   Q4. And which one do you think is the second most important goal for this country? READ OUT AND ROTATE. SINGLE ANSWER Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development None of these (DO NOT READ) DK/NA (DO NOT READ) Child mortality: Awareness – Problem dimension – People’s initiatives   Now we are going to talk more specifically about child mortality   Q5. Focusing on what you know about child mortality, how much would you say you know…? READ OUT – SINGLE ANSWER A great deal Fair amount Not very much Nothing DK / NA Q6. Which sources of information have you used to learn about the issue? READ OUT – MULTIPLE Magazines / Newspapers Radio TV Internet Campaigns in public places Community centers Comments of someone you know Others – specify   None DK / NA  
  • 105. Middle class population Questionnaire Q7. How concerned would you say you are about child mortality in (MENTION COUNTRY) ? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER Very Somewhat Not very much Not at all DK / NA Q8.How would you rate the problem of child mortality in your country? Would you say it is...? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER Very serious Somewhat serious Not too serious Not serious at all DK / NA   Q9. According to what you may know or may have heard: how many children under 5 die every year in your country? I know this is a difficult question and that you probably don’t know the number but your best estimation based on what you know or believe will do. SHOW CARD 2 - SINGLE ANSWER From 5,000 to 10,000 From 10,000 to 50,000 From 50,000 to 100,000 From 100,000 to 200,000 From 200,000 to 300,000 From 300,000 to 500,000 From 500,000 to 1,000,000 From 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 From 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 From 2,000,000 to 2,500,000 From 2,500,000 to 3,000,000 From 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 More than 4,000,000 DK/NA Q10. Regarding the present situation of child mortality in (MENTION COUNTRY) in the last 3 years, would you say that it has improved, it has got worse, or it has stayed the same?   Improved Got worse Stayed the same DK/NA
  • 106. Middle class population Questionnaire Q11. And thinking about the next 3 years, would you say that it will improve, it will get worse, or it wil l stay the same as it is now? Will improve Will get worse Will stay the same DK/NA Q12. One of the objectives to be achieved by 2015, as set by the world leaders in the Millennium Development Goals, is to reduce under-five mortality rate by two thirds.   How likely do you think it is for this goal to be achieved in your country? READ OUT – SINGLE ANSWER Very likely Somewhat likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely DK / NA Q13. There are different opinions regarding child mortality. Which one would you say is closer to your view? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that cannot be solved Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that can only be slightly improved Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that can be greatly improved Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that can be fully solved DK/NA FOR THOSE WHO ANSWER CODE 1 OR 2 IN Q13 – OTHERS GO TO Q15   Q14. Why do you think that child mortality is a problem that can not be solved / can only be slightly improved? ASK ACCORDING TO ANSWER IN Q13 ? OPEN ENDED ASK ALL   Q15. a) When it comes to child mortality, who do you think is mostly responsible for its solution in MENTION COUNTRY ? (SHOW CARD 3) b) And who do you think would be the most efficient one in solving the problem in this country? c) And who would be the most reliable one?   The local government The national government Civil society organizations International development organizations Donor Countries Others, who?   No one DK/NA
  • 107. Middle class population Questionnaire Q16. From what you may know or may have heard: what would you say is the main cause of child mortality in your country? UNAIDED – SINGLE ANSWER Q17. And from the following causes of child mortality that I am going to mention, which one would you say is the most relevant one in your country? SHOW CARD 4 – SINGLE ANSWER   Malnutrition Lack of improved water & sanitation services Malaria Measles Acute Respiratory infections Diarrhea HIV / AIDS Droughts Wars / Tribal conflicts Lack of access to health services Pneumonia Infections Tetanus Other, specify DK/NA Q18. Have you taken any action/ initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years? Yes No IF IN Q18 THE ANSWER IS YES (CODE 1)– OTHERS GO TO Q20   Q19 Which kind of action/ initiative have you carried out? DO NOT READ OUT – IT CAN BE MULTIPLE Volunteering Donate Money Advocacy Sign p etitions / requests Participate in demonstrations Support a political party / politician depending on their interest on this matter Others – specify   DK / NA
  • 108. Middle class population Questionnaire IF THE ANSWER IN Q18 IS NO (CODE 2)– OTHERS GO TO Q 21   Q20. And why didn’t you take any action/ initiative regarding the child mortality issue in NAME COUNTRY ? DO NOT READ OUT – IT CAN BE MULTIPLE I am not interested in the issue I have no time It is not a serious problem Nothing that I could do would make a difference I do not know what I can do to help It is not my responsibility to solve it I don’t have enough money/resources Others – specify DK / NA Child mortality – Stimulus reaction   Next I will show you a short document about the issue of child mortality   SHOW DOCUMENT (CARD 5) ABOUT CHILD MORTALITY Some figures about child mortality in Kenya   In Kenya 175.000 children under 5 die every year.   More than 50% is due to acute respiratory infections, malaria and diarrhea.   Most of these deaths could be prevented by providing antibiotics for Respiratory Infections; sleeping under mosquito nets for Malaria and giving the child to drink a simple solution made of sugar and salt in case of diarrhea. Most of these things are available locally and they are not expensive. Q21. Did you know the information you have just read? Yes No DK/NA Q22. What piece of information was most outstanding for you? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER The number of children dying every year The causes The solutions Other, specify (DO NOT READ OUT) Dk/ Na (DO NOT READ OUT)
  • 109. Middle class population Questionnaire Q23. While you were reading this information on child mortality, did you have the feeling that people like you may be interested in the subject? Yes No DK/NA Q24. Would you like to receive similar information occasionally? Yes No DK/NA Q25. Did this information on child mortality give you the feeling that what was said or shown was worth communicating? Yes No DK/NA Q26. If you were talking to someone about child mortality, do you think that you would mention any of the points or impressions of the information you have just read? Yes No DK/NA Q27. As a result of reading this information on child mortality, would you say that you are…? READ OUT – SINGLE ANSWER More concerned about this issue As concerned as before Less concerned about this issue DK/NA ( DO NOT READ) Q28. Has this information on child mortality that you have just read raised your interest in carrying out actions in order to improve the situation? Yes No No, I already do so (UNAIDED) DK/NA Q29 And how likely are you to carry out any actions in order to fight child mortality in the next 12 months? READ OUT – SINGLE ANSWER Very likely Somewhat likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely DK / NA
  • 110. Middle class population Questionnaire ASK ONLY THOSE WHO MENTIONED CODE 1 OR 2 IN Q29 - OTHERS GO TO Q31   Q30. What actions would you carry out/ are you currently carrying out? ASK ACCORDING TO ANSWER IN Q28. READ OUT –ROTATE ORDER – IT CAN BE MULTIPLE Volunteering Donate Money Advocacy Sign petitions / requests Participate in demonstrations Support a political party /politician depending on their interest in this matter Others– specify DK / NA ASK THOSE WHO MENTIONED CODE 3, 4 OR 9 IN Q29   Q31. Why wouldn’t you carry out any actions? I am not interested in the issue I don’t have the time It is not a serious problem Nothing that I could do would make a difference I do not know what I can do to help It is not my responsibility to solve it I don’t have enough money/resources Others – specify   DK / NA ASK ALL   Q32. If you were interested in carrying out any action in order to change the situation, would you know what organization or institution to approach? Yes No Q33. Could you please tell me the kind of organization or institution you would approach? DO NOT READ OUT –ROTATE ORDER – IT CAN BE MULTIPLE Schools Political parties Community center Religious groups / institutions Hospital / clinics International organizations Civil society organizations Others specify   DK/ NA  
  • 111. Middle class population Questionnaire   Q34. And would you know how to reach this organization? Yes No ASK ALL   Q35. Could you please tell me how much confidence you have in each of the following? Would you say you have a lot of confidence, some confidence, not much confidence or no confidence at all? READ OUT AND ROTATE INSTITUTIONS – ONE ANSWER EACH Schooling system The press Political parties Religious groups / institutions Armed forces / the military Labor unions The justice system The civil service The police Hospital / clinics National government Major companies Civil Society Organizations International development organizations Donor Countries Q36. To what extent would you say that people like you may have an influence in social and political events that surround us? Would you say that you may influence: a great deal, a fair amount, not very much, or not at all?   A great deal Fair amount Not very much Not at all DK / NA Q37. In general, how interested would you say you are in politics? READ OUT – SINGLE ANSWER A great deal Fair amount Not very interested Not interested Don’t know (DO NOT READ) No answer (DO NOT READ)  
  • 112. Middle class population Questionnaire Q38. Now I’m going to read out some forms of political action that people can take, and I’d like you to tell me, for each one, whether you have done any of these things, whether you might do them or would never under any circumstances do them. READ OUT PHRASES –ROTATE ORDER - SINGLE ANSWER Signing a petition Attending a demonstration Volunteering in a non-profit organization Being a member of a political party Donating money or something else for a cause Advocacy Demographics Gender Age Total household income before taxes Education: Highest attained Employment Religion Family Do you have any children? If yes: Do any of them live with you? Do you have any children under the age of 5? City Interview duration Interview date Supervision
  • 113. Public opinion Leaders/ Influencers Questionnaire    INTRODUCTION We appreciate that you have agreed to respond to our survey today. As we mentioned on the phone, you have been chosen at random from a diverse group of influential leaders and thinkers to take part in a survey about some challenges in NAME COUNTRY. Your responses to the survey will be kept confidential, and neither your name nor your professional position will be used in any publication. Results will be reported in aggregate form only.   1. What would you say are [COUNTRY] most serious problems? OPEN ENDED 2. And from these which one would you say is the most serious problem? ONE MENTION 3. What is the underlying reason for [RESPONSE TO 2] to be the biggest problem your country faces [COUNTRY]? OPEN ENDED Now we would like to talk specifically about one of [COUNTRY] problems: child mortality   4. How concerned would you say you are about child mortality in [COUNTRY]? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER Very Somewhat Not very much Not at all DK / NA 5. How would you rate the problem of child mortality in your country? Would you say it is...? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER Very serious Somewhat serious Not too serious Not serious at all DK / NA 6. Thinking about the present situation of child mortality in [COUNTRY] in the last 3 years, would you say that it has improved, it has got worse, or it has stayed the same? Improved Got worse Stayed the same DK/NA 7. And thinking about the next 3 years, would you say that it will improve, will get worse, or will stay the same as it is now? Will improve Will get worse Will stay the same DK/NA
  • 114. Public opinion Leaders/ Influencers Questionnaire 8. You’ve said child mortality is ANSWER IN Q5 problem in [COUNTRY]. Why would you say this? What is the underlying reason? OPEN ENDED 9. Having said that, what things do you think [COUNTRY] could do to solve this problem? What else? Is there anything else you can think of? OPEN ENDED 10. And what do you think is the one best thing [COUNTRY] could do that would have the biggest impact on solving this problem? ONE MENTION ONLY. 11. What is the underlying reason for [RESPONSE TO 10] to be the best solution for child mortality in [COUNTRY]? OPEN ENDED 12. There are different opinions regarding child mortality. Which one would you say is closer to your view? READ OUT - SINGLE ANSWER Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that cannot be solved Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that can only be slightly improved Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that can be greatly improved Child mortality in NAME COUNTRY is a problem that can be fully solved DK/NA FOR THOSE WHO ANSWER CODE 1 OR 2 IN Q12 – OTHERS GO TO Q14   Q13. Why do you think that child mortality is a problem that can not be solved / can only be slightly improved? ASK ACCORDING TO ANSWER IN Q12 ? OPEN ENDED 14. Have you taken any initiative regarding child mortality in the last 5 years? OPEN ENDED Yes No IF THE ANSWER IN Q14 IS YES (CODE 1)– OTHERS GO TO Q17   15 Which kind of initiative have you carried out? OPEN ENDED 16.a And how do you believe that this initiative could impact on the problem of child mortality? OPEN ENDED 16.b Which were the main issues and barriers that you faced when conducting this initiative? OPEN ENDED IF THE ANSWER IN Q14 IS NO (CODE 2) – OTHERS GO TO Q 18   17. And why haven’t you taken any initiative regarding child mortality in NAME COUNTRY ? Is there any other reason? OPEN ENDED
  • 115. Public opinion Leaders/ Influencers Questionnaire SHOW DOCUMENT ABOUT CHILD MORTALITY: Some figures about child mortality in Kenya   In Kenya 175.000 children under 5 die every year.   More than 50% is due to acute respiratory infections, malaria and diarrhea.   Most of these deaths could be prevented by providing antibiotics for Respiratory Infections; sleeping under mosquito nets for Malaria and giving the child to drink a simple solution made of sugar and salt in case of diarrhea. Most of these things are available locally and they are not expensive. 18. As a result of reading this information on child mortality, would you say that you are…? READ OUT – ONE ANSWER More concerned about this issue As concerned as before reading the information Less concerned about this issue DK/NA ( DO NOT READ) 19. Has this information on child mortality that you have just read raised you interest in carrying out actions in order to modify the situation? Yes No No, I already do so (UNAIDED) DK/NA 20 And how likely are you to carry out any actions in order to fight child mortality in the next 12 months? READ OUT – ONE ANSWER Very likely Somewhat likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely DK / NA ASK ONLY THOSE WHO MENTIONED CODE 1 OR 2 IN Q20. OTHERS GO TO Q21     21. What actions would you carry out/ are you currently carrying out? ASK ACCORDING TO ANSWER IN Q20. OPEN ENDED ASK THOSE WHO MENTIONED CODE 3, 4 OR 9 IN Q20   22. Why wouldn’t you carry out any actions? OPEN ENDED
  • 116. Public opinion Leaders/ Influencers Questionnaire ASK ALL   23. Is there anything else you would like to add regarding [COUNTRY] child mortality and how it could best meet its challenges? OPEN ENDED Thank you very much for your time.   Type of leader policy makers, politicians Religion leaders Business leaders well known sport men and Women, singers, actors heads from local national NGOs Journalists, media and broadcasting City Delhi Mumbai Chennai Kolkata Bangalore   Interview duration : Please record in minutes   Interview date : Please record DD/MM   Supervision Was the interview supervised? This refers to directly as well as interviewee re contacted Yes No  
  • 117. Annex II – Middle class definition for each country
  • 118. Bolivia In Bolivia, socioeconomic level is defined in terms of education, occupation and household income Middle class correspond to socioeconomic C, where: C1 or middle high represents 4% of the population and are households with monthly income above 1.500 US$ and whose head of household has university studies and works as manager in middle size and large companies, or owns and SME or is a successful independent professional.   C2 or middle represents 12% of the population and are households with monthly incomes between 800 US$ y 1.500 US$ and whose head of household has more than high school studies (some specialization or university) and works as middle management in a private company or high management in public offices or as an independent professional.   C3 or middle low represents 19% of the population and are households with monthly incomes between 500 US$ and 800 US$ and whose head of household has finished high school and works in a private company, in a public office or in a shop or as an independent professional.
  • 119. Cambodia In Cambodia socioeconomic level is defined in terms of income. Based on Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey 1999 from the National Institute of Statistic, socioeconomic levels are defined as: US$ per month SEC Class More than 400 A 301 to 400 B 201 to 300 C 101 to 200 D Less than 100 E Where middle groups B and C are consider middle class. In order to decided if an interviewee belonged to middle class the following question was asked: Could you please tell me, which category on this card best describes your household income? Monthly Income Less than 50 USD (<200,000 R) 50 to 100 USD (200,001-400,000R) 101 to 150 USD (400,001-600,000R) 151 to 200 USD (600,001-800,000R) 201 to 250 USD (800,001-1,000,000R) 251 to 300 USD (1,000,001-1,200,000R) 301 to 350 USD (1,200,001-1,400,000R) 351 to 400 USD (1,400,001-1,600,000R) More than 400 USD (>1,600,000R) Don't Know Refused
  • 120. India In India, socioeconomic level is defined in terms of education and occupation Below is the Socioeconomic grid for India – those highlighted in yellow correspond to the middle class   Illiterate School up to 4 th School 5 th -9 th SSC/ HSC Grad. SSC/HSC. Not gradu GRAD/ P.G Genl GRAD/ P.G Profl Unskilled E2 E2 E1 D D D D Skilled worker E2 E1 D C C B2 B2 Petty trader E2 D D C C B2 B2 Shop owner D D C B2 B1 A2 A2 Business with number of employees  D C B2 B1 A2 A2 A1 -       None -      1  -  9 C B2 B2 B1 A2 A1 A1 -      10 + B1 B1 A2 A2 A1 A1 A1 Self empl profl. D D D B2 B1 A2 A1 Clerical/ salesman D D D C B2 B1 B1 Supervisory level D D C C B2 B1 A2 Off  / exec - junior C C C B2 B1 A2 A2 Off/exec-mid/senior B1 B1 B1 B1 A2 A1 A1
  • 121. Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Zambia and Ethiopia In these countries Middle Class was defined in terms of the “ Living Standard Measure “ LSM is the most widely used tool in Africa to segment the population in Social Classes. It groups people according to their living standards using criteria such as degree of urbanization and ownership of cars and major appliances. In order to achieve this categorization a questionnaire is applied where each response implies a number of points, depending on the points is the social class the person belongs too. AB = 70 points and more C1 = 56 to 69 points C2 = 35 to 55 points D = less than 35 points In general, middle class belong to the C1 Social Economic Classification scale. These are individuals who have attained high education (University degree or slightly lower), live in a Medium density environment (in flats not necessarily detached, likely to own major household appliances e.g. Car, TV, fridge, etc. Questionnaire: Ownership - Which of the following things do you have at home? Description Points Household help 2 Fridge / deep freezer 3 Video 1 Car 2 Colour TV 1 Music system 1 Description Points Cable satellite 2 Telephone (land) 3 Telephone (mobile) 1 Personal driver 2 Multiple cars 3 Computer 3 Computer laptop 4 Generator 4 Description Points Air conditioning unit (split) 4 Satellite dish 3 Washing machine 4 Black & White TV 1 DVD (Digital video disk) 4
  • 122. Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Zambia and Ethiopia LSM Questionnaire (continuation) Cooking - What type of cooking facilities do you have at home? Toilet type - What type of toilet do you have at home? Main water source - What is your main water source? Description Points Gas / Electric cooker 2 Kerosene stove 1 Charcoal / wood 0 Description Points Inside / Outside WC 2 Pit latrine 1 None 0 Description Points Inside tap 2 Outside pipe borne tap 1 Self-owned borehole 3 Communal borehole 1 Well 1 Stream 0
  • 123. Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Zambia and Ethiopia LSM Questionnaire (continuation) Education - What is your highest level of achieved education? Residential area Type of house - How would you describe the place where you live? Description Points Primary incomplete 1 Primary complete 2 Secondary incomplete 3 Secondary complete 4 University / Polytechnic: OND 4 University / Polytechnic: HND 5 Post University incomplete 3 Post University complete 5 Illiterate / No education 0 Description Points Low density 3 Medium density 2 High density 1 Description Points Self-occupied bungalow 2 Villa 5 Flat 3 Duplex 4 Mini flat 2 Room and parlour 1 Room 1
  • 124. Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Zambia and Ethiopia LSM Questionnaire (continuation) Occupation - How would you describe your occupation? Lifestyle - Which of the following apply to you? Description Points Senior Management / Admin 5 Managing Director 5 Head of Department / Senior Manager 4 Manager 3 Professional e.g. Doctor, Lawyer, Engineer, Surveyor etc. 4 Skilled workers e.g. Mechanic, Tailor, Carpenter, Bricklayer etc. 2 Unskilled workers 1 Clerical workers 1 Unemployed, Housewife / Househusband, Student, Retired 0 Description Points I have membership to social / recreational club 3 I travel abroad for holidays 4 I read regularly as a habit 2 I spend leisure time with friends 1 I attend social occasions 1 I like modern fashion 1
  • 125. MDG-4 Campaign Middle class population and Leaders’ attitudes and opinions towards Child Mortality GLOBAL REPORT June 2010 Preliminary Report

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