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Evaluation of the Results-Based Approach and M&E of Finnish Development Cooperation Interventions
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Evaluation of the Results-Based Approach and M&E of Finnish Development Cooperation Interventions



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  • The first session introduces RBM concepts and planning.
  • Managing for results brings together some elements that are familiar from project planning and some new ideasFirst is the Theory of Change – this is a description of how activities supported by OHCHR are expected to give rise to changes in behaviour and performance. More time is spent on understanding ‘Theory of Change’ later in this training course.Once the expected process of change is set down, expectations in terms of results and performance can be defined. This course deals with setting objectives and making sure they are measurable in later sessions.During implementation, results are monitored and analysed to track performance and adjust what OHCHR is doing.The evidence from monitoring should be used by OHCHR as a learning tool with specific arrangements and mechanisms for staff.Lastly, reporting against expectations helps create greater transparency and reinforces accountability.Note:Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation deal with performance measurement but assume that results will be used to improve performance.Performance management systems such as RBM build in mechanisms to actively encourage the use of information to improve performance. These include learning events, more explicit accountability and more transparent reporting.
  • This is a very important slide and adequate time should be allowed for discussion.Note the slide presentation is in three parts which correspond to important learning points.Firstly, the core sequence of Inputs to impact.Secondly, the internal/external perspectiveThirdly the matching but opposite environmental issues that management control diminishes and external factors become more important as the chain progresses further from inputs to impact.Core sequenceShow the core sequence and talk through the description of each stage from inputs to impact.The terms are in wide use in international and national public sector processes and there is wide agreement about their use.Internal/ExternalThe sequence has two parts to it: those items under the control of management and those that are more dependent on external factors.The use of inputs, management of activities and delivery of outputs are under management’s direct control. Management of output delivery is handled by processes that are within the organisation.The success of timely and accurate delivery of outputs is something that managers can be held directly accountable for.As such, this part of the results chain is considered to be ‘Internal’ to the process and comprises the internal perspective.Show the Internal Perspective – External Perspective part of the slideThe achievement of outcomes, however, depends on how the people or institution which are the focus of the activities react to the outputs that are delivered.Management of progress towards outcomes and impact requires interaction with stakeholders and an understanding of their views about the outputs. That is why it is considered to be an external perspective.This is not under the direct control of management, but, given that the reaction will depend on the quality and appropriateness of the outputs, it is said that managers can be held accountable for managing towards outcomes.Impact is a long-term aim. Impact will usually depend not on a single project or set of activities, but on many complementary interventions. Managers cannot be held accountable for impact.The step from the internal perspective to the external is often referred to as the ‘missing middle’ as it is not explicitly expressed in tools such as the logframe, yet it is the most important step in the results chain where people’s behaviour changes in response to outputs and thereby leads to progress towards outcomes.Management control versus external factorsShow the third and last part of the slideThese diagrams illustrate the internal/external dimensions. As management control diminishes so the influence of factors that are external and outside management control become more important.The risks of not achieving outcomes increase and those risks need to be taken into account during the planning process.
  • This slide and the following two close off this short session on the Results Chain with a few summarising and contextual points.Show the title and two coloured boxes. Ask for ideas around the room of what is the key difference between these two?If very divergent views are put forward, ask participants to support one or another.Show the slide and note the distinction between and output and an EA (outcome).This is the single most important distinction in the results chain because it marks the boundary between the internal perspective of things under management’s control, to the external perspective of stimulating behavioural change.Emphasise the importance of understanding the difference


  • 1. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of FinlandEvaluation of the Results-BasedApproach and M&E of FinnishDevelopment CooperationInterventions Prepared by
  • 2. Purpose of the evaluation Overall • To deepen the understanding of the results-based approach andObjective management requirements • Desk study Scope • Review of project documentation and interviews 2
  • 3. MethodologyFrom TOR to Evaluation Framework DocumentTopic list of interview questions review checklist Management Staff survey Rating assessment survey 76/120 of 17 projects 10/18 3
  • 4. RBM Conceptual framework Strategic Results Framework • Priorities • Objectives • StrategyCredible performance Use results to improve Programme Resultsreporting performance Framework•Relevant, timely & reliable •Adjust the programme •Results chain/theory of changereporting •Develop lessons & good •Align with strategic framework practices •Performance indicators Credible measurement & analysis •Measure & assess results •Assess contribution to strategic objectives 4
  • 5. Understanding the theory of changeReporting on Setting outperformance performance against expectationsexpectations How to manage for results Deliberately Measuring and learning from analysing results evidence and & contributions analysis to outcomes 5
  • 6. Developing aculture of results 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • 7. An organisation with a results culture… Engages in self- reflection & self-examination Encourages Engages in experimentation results-based & change learning 10
  • 8. Factors that help build such a cultureDemonstrated senior management leadership andcommitmentInformed demand for results informationA results-oriented accountability frameworkSupportive organizational systems, practices andproceduresResults measurement and results managementcapacityA capacity to learn and adapt 11
  • 9. Findings and recommendations
  • 10. There is no A formal approach Recommendation 1Finding 1 statement or should be document guiding established for the adoption of adopting results- results-based based management. management for the It should set out MFA. principles, objectives and accountability 13
  • 11. Recommendation 2 Develop aFinding 2 Policy documents SRF with do not clear contain a objectives to strategic guide results regional and framework country strategies 14
  • 12. Finding 3 Recommendation 3 Planning is Reorganise methodical country-level and planning with systematic measurable but lacks clear objectives outcomes and and indicators indicators at country level 15
  • 13. Despite clear and Improve quality by:Finding 4 Recommendation 4 comprehensive a) Accessible guidelines, good guidelines & standards of project checklists design are not consistently b) Provide good applied. practice examples c) Apply to all interventions d) More effective QA 16
  • 14. The Redesign reporting to Recommendation 5Finding 5 Monitoring, Reporting be more analytical at & Evaluation system is 3 levels: established but lacks a) Project reporting & added-value the supervisory board b) Semi-annual reporting by embassies c) Unit scorecards 17
  • 15. Finding 6 Recommendation 6 Meta-analysis This should by EVA-11 be continued has scope to with more consolidate analysis of evaluation trends of findings performance 18
  • 16. Recommendation 7Finding 7 Management Improve culture is risk institutional averse and culture makes little [Build on new HR use of past policy] results to set policy 19
  • 17. [Build on new HR Recommendation 8Finding 8 HR systems policy] lack Train incentives managers to be more for effective in delivering RBM results 20
  • 18. Recommendation 9Finding 9 Information Improve management information is inadequate management for document to enable retrieval and analysis of comparative performance analysis 21
  • 19. The End