Youth and World Governance            Youth and         World Governance                                 By Anugraha John ...
Youth and World Governance    Contents    1. Youth and World Governance    Anugraha John ....................................
Youth and World Governance                              Youth and World Governance                                        ...
Youth and World Governance                                                                                                ...
Youth and World Governanceexample of the many challenges that we            We need to do something about theseface today....
Youth and World Governance                    while thousands of innocent lives were              perfect, but in all this...
Youth and World GovernanceAnd the new world governance we perceiveshould be inclusive of the same principles, itshould be:...
Youth and World Governance            These are some fundamental components                Many young people from Asia and...
Youth and World Governanceadulthood and the largest underrepresented         dissatisfaction experienced by the youth with...
Youth and World Governance    Internet has   opened many             internet. Young people today are networking     again...
Youth and World Governance                                                                                                ...
Youth and World Governance                     The involvement of today’s youth in               local, national and inter...
Youth and World Governanceneglected by the government. Conflict in the     or youth council has worked well in fewregion d...
Youth and World Governance                     Forum and the Citizens Assemblies have              to overcome problems of...
Youth and World Governanceand international developmental programmes      Global Citizens for Sustainable Developmentand i...
Youth and World Governance     i	      Extract from the speech of Severn Suzuki at the Rio       xiv	   The Commonwealth o...
Youth and World GovernanceYouth Governance Models in Canada – The Case of the UnitedNations Association in Canada         ...
Youth and World Governance     Through Model UNs, students develop                   from every province in the country to...
Youth and World GovernanceA Perspective on Youth and Governance       Lucinda Hartley                             Lucinda ...
Youth and World Governance     with young people. There are a number of         for young people.     advantages to having...
Youth and World GovernanceYouth and World Governance: A North American(USA) perspective        Ben Knight                 ...
Youth and World Governance     promote great design. Architecture for            grants, etc. The organization continues t...
Youth and World GovernanceYouth and Governance A Chinese perspective         Dunfei Chen                             Dunfe...
Youth and World Governance                have the opportunity to go to school. By           of environment protection, th...
Youth and World Governance
Youth and World Governance
Youth and World Governance
Youth and World Governance
Youth and World Governance
Youth and World Governance
Youth and World Governance
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Youth and World Governance


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This proposal paper is an attempt to look at the perspective of youth (the term "youth" generally applies to those persons between the ages 15 and 30 in this paper) on world governance and their active role in world governance.

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Youth and World Governance

  1. 1. Youth and World Governance Youth and World Governance By Anugraha John 1 Regional perspectives from Dara Parker, Lucinda Hartley Ben Knight, Dunfei Chen, Safira De la Sala Forum for a new World Governance & Global Citizens for Sustainable Development (India)
  2. 2. Youth and World Governance Contents 1. Youth and World Governance Anugraha John .............................................................................................................................. 3 Background and context What is World Governance? ...................................................................................................... 5 What do young people (really) need the world governance to be? ............................6 - Workable - Organized - Re-affirmative (of Rights and Responsibility) - Local to Global, Legal to Legitimacy - Democratic to Transforming (of our attitude and behaviour) Who are Youth? .............................................................................................................................8 Why Youth? .....................................................................................................................................9 - Increased level of awareness, participation, competence and leadership skills - Education, Information and Communication Society - Sustainability and Intergenerational Partnership Role of Youth in World Governance ......................................................................................11 (a) Role of youth in United Nations and its subsidiary organizations - Case Study 1: Youth Engaging Youth in Educational Opportunities - Case Study 2: Incubating Women and Youth Resource Center in A Conflict2 Zone (b) Role of youth in national government and multilateral institutions (c) Role of youth in civil society movements - Youth and Charter of Human Responsibilities (CHR) - Youth-Led Development Programmes - Global Citizenship Conclusion and the Way Forward .........................................................................................14 2. Youth and World Governance Perspective from different regions i) Youth Governace Models in Canada The Case of the United Nations Association in Canada Dara Parker ....................................................................................................................................17 ii) Youth and Governance – An Australian Perspective Lucinda Hartley .............................................................................................................................19 iii) Youth and World Governance: A North American (USA) perspective Ben Knight .....................................................................................................................................21 iv) Youth and Governance: A Chinese perspective Dunfei Chen ..................................................................................................................................23 v) Youth and World Governance: A South American (Brazil) perspective Safira De la Sala .............................................................................................................................25
  3. 3. Youth and World Governance Youth and World Governance By Anugraha John Forum for a new World Governance January 2011Background and context Network, Asian Youth Climate Network, 350. org, International Youth Advisory Board for“Yet I know that if all the money spent on UN-Habitat and others, fighting for one ofwar was spent on ending poverty and finding the key challenges of the 21st century, i.e.environmental answers, what a wonderful global warming (without undermining thereplace this would be. In school you teach us are several other key challenges that we facenot to fight with others, to work things out, in this century and are presently working forto respect others, to clean up our mess, not to as well). But still we are disappointed withhurt other creatures, to share, not be greedy. most of the negotiations happening so farThen why do you go out and do the things at the world governance level as there is noyou tell us not to do? You grownups say you major us, but I challenge you, please, to makeyour actions reflect your words.” Children and youth today are frustrated with the ‘people in power’ who are unableIn 1992, at the very young age of 12, Severn to come to a tangible consensus of cappingSuzuki with the help of her friends raised our carbon emissions and implementingmoney to participate at the Rio Earth alternative solutions globally. UNFCCC’sSummit. It was at this summit she delivered Conference of Parties (CoP15) held in 3an incredible (six minute) speech which not Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009only received a standing ovation but also was a total failure. Although there were somesilenced the whole United Nations gathering. positive sings seen at COP16 meeting inLater after ten years of her activism, in her Cancum, Mexico but it is not enough.interview with the Time Magazine she admitsthat although she has seen some improvement We (the youth) demand that people insince 1992, there is nothing significant yet that power to change their diplomacy attitudehas been accomplished. In fact, her confidence and find appropriate way forward to postin the people in power was deeply shaken. Kyoto Protocol and reach a common It is a bitter understanding of their local, national truth;It should not come as a surprise to anyone and planetary responsibilities. Rio+20, something thatthat stories similar to that of Severn Suzuki i.e. the UN Conference on Sustainable happens in oneare near almost true for many other young part of the Development (UNCSD) will soon take planet has diremen and women across the globe. The youth place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and we don’t consequenceswho are genuinely concerned about some want to be patronized by just listening to on all parts ofof the key challenges of this century are ‘Our Voice’. We demand Commitments and the planet, andcertainly disappointed with the present world Action. it is not justgovernance. humans that As children, we all grew up learning that suffer but allIn the last three years, I have personally met, ‘as you sow, so shall you reap’. Here is a beings.interacted, networked, and lobbied with many most fantastic example of the direct resultyoung leaders and activists across the globe of the Industrial Revolution that has led usunder the banner of Indian Youth Climate to this situation with our carbon emissionNetwork, South Asian Youth Environment level soaring high. The consequences of
  4. 4. Youth and World Governance Fishing in Shilabati river Photo: Sudipto Das4 that period are evident now and are no and signed a document calling for global cuts surprise, that it is us, the young people and in carbon emissions. our children to come-the next generation, Several such countries which are who will be deprived of clean air quality/ economically disenfranchised and struggling environment, a basic human right. Shouldn’t to progress after their colonial regimes will we expect more from the previous generation face more problems, due to climate change, and our present world governance system? although these countries are not directly It is a bitter truth; something that happens in responsible for this situation. The climate one part of the planet has dire consequences crisis is not just catastrophic, but also exposes on all parts of the planet, and it is not just the glaring inequalities in the world. And the humans that suffer but all beings. According irony is that these nations have contributed The climate to the IPCC, Bangladesh for example will be least to greenhouse gas emissions and (as acrisis is not just one of the poor countries that due to rise consequence of climate change) but however catastrophic, in sea-level temperatures, will go through it is these countries that will have to bear the but also an intense transition process of flooding, brunt of climate change. exposes disastrous cyclones, destruction of agriculture Unsustainable growth and the relentless the glaring capacity, and various other habitat related pursuit of progress by the present and inequalities in issues, which will displace not just humans previous generations has created this the world. but also other beings. To raise awareness convergence of crisis – the crisis of climate of this grave issue, on 17th October 2009, change, the crisis of poverty and hunger President Mohamed Nasheed of the and the crisis of species loss and resource Maldives held a cabinet meeting with his consumption. Now if we look at the bigger ministers decked in scuba gear under water picture, climate change is only one such
  5. 5. Youth and World Governanceexample of the many challenges that we We need to do something about theseface today. But what about other challenges concerns and we need to do it now!and issues such as poverty, illiteracy, Youth today see themselves as the ‘Agentsoverwhelming power of the multinationals of Change’, and inspired by Gandhi’s word,over government (control influence on “You must be the change you want to see ingovernance institutions), unequal distribution this world” they are taking action both locallyof financial resources (global financial and globally.inequity), the present economic crisis, nuclearweapons, war, terrorism, fundamentalism, This paper is an attempt to look at the youthracism, increasing population growth, HIV/ perspective of world governance and theirAIDS and others? active role in the same.Some of the UN and its agencies have World Governanceastounding statistics and estimates: In the twentieth century, the term world- 10 million children die every year due to governance surfaces two important lack of health care structures, the League of Nations and the- More than 25 million people have died of United Nations. The League of Nations as AIDS since 1981 and as of 2007 there are a concept was thought of in the eighteenth 33 million living with HIV/AIDS century inspired by Emmanuel Kant but was very short lived in the twentieth century,- 884 million in the world do not have when it was operative. 5 access to safe drinking water Post World War II, since 1945 the world- 2.5 billion people in the world do not have gradually started to accept the United access to adequate sanitation Nations (UN) as the new structure of worldThe United Nations Millennium Declaration governance. ‘International relations’ in theset 2015 as the target year for achieving era of ‘globalization’ had become moremost of the Millennium Development Goals complicated, and thus world governance In the 21st(MDGs) is today less than six years away but seemed more appropriate term to replace century,the progress towards the goal is threatened the same term, although each have their own there aredue to the present (convergence of crises) distinguished meaning but the former is since several issueseconomic crisis, climate change and other then less used or relative. and factorsfactors involving the member states. But, As of 2008, the UN along with its subsidiary supportedif we wait to evaluate until the date of the organizations facilitates with 192 member by historicalachievement of the MDGs, it might raise states, cooperation in international law, facts that havedoubts about what we have achieved so far at international security, economic development, raised doubtsthe ground reality. social progress, human rights, and achieving about the role of UnitedIn the book, ‘The End of Poverty’, Jeffery of world peace. NationsSachs predicts with his study and analysis, In the 21st century, there are several issueshow the present generation can end poverty and factors supported by historical factsby 2025. But unfortunately, even he misses that have raised doubts about the role ofthe emphasis on the role of young people United Nations as the world governancewho will have to play a major role in this system. The most recent example is the wareffort and goal. in Iraq where UN remained a mere spectator
  6. 6. Youth and World Governance while thousands of innocent lives were perfect, but in all this debate, can we certainly lost at war. Then Secretary-General of the not say, United Nations is not the only way? United Nations, Kofi Annan speaking on the Global governance refers to more than invasion, said, “I have indicated it was not in conformity with the UN Charter. From formal institutions and organizations through our point of view, from the chart point of which the management of international view, it was illegal.” . Thousands have lost affairs is or is not sustained. The United their beloved, family and friends in the recent Nations system and governments are surely genocides in the last 10 years, as a result more central to the conduct of global governance, people are drawn in tentacles of poverty and but they are only part of the full picture. hunger and peace still remains elusive. The concept of global governance over the period of time has become very popular In this context, one wonders, what is world but also very complicated. The meaning governance really and how we can revive the of both words ‘global’ and ‘governance’ present one? has been interpreted differently during For any common man to understand world different circumstances and hence widely governance, Arnaud Blin best defines it misunderstood. But here James Rosenau’s according to me very simply, ‘as nothing remark brings to our light a very important more and nothing less than the collective aspect, that amidst the United Nations failing management of our planet, in its political attempt to work as a world governance and economic aspects, but also in its social, system we are missing the full picture. And human and environmental ones.’ this century we need to focus on looking at6 the world governance in totality, we need to It is an accepted fact now that globalization draw the full picture. is here, and it is here to stay. The 21st century requires global action and global effort to So, what do young people (really) manage our planet. There are several reasons need the world governance to be? that the United Nations alone cannot be seen Governance is the exercise of economic, as the only structure of world governance political and administrative authority to anymore, neither could it take that place till manage a country’s affairs at all levels… date. Nor do organizations like World Trade it comprises the mechanisms, processes Organization (WTO), G8, and Non-Aligned and institutions through which citizens and Movement have been able to play the role groups articulate their interests, exercise The United of global governance vis-à-vis the UN. The their legal rights, meet their obligations and Nations mediate their differences. UN’s role is limited and the principle of ‘one system and state one vote’ further limits the voice and This definition of governance is generally governments concerns of the majority of the people to accepted by the member states of the United are surely be heard at the United Nations. Even worst Nations. But as far as world governance is central to the conduct it can put a smaller country like Nepal or concerned, how we apply this definition in of global Bhutan at the same level as the USA, paving the global framework is the big challengegovernance, but the way for the big nations to have the upper Common principles like transparency, they are only hand to make decisions in the UN. accountability, legitimacy, participatory, part of the full There certainly can be an endless argument democratic, respecting human rights are picture. that no world governance system can be essential elements of good governance.
  7. 7. Youth and World GovernanceAnd the new world governance we perceiveshould be inclusive of the same principles, itshould be:Workable: Over the period of years therehave been several debates about theory andpractice but one of the observations weoverlook in these debates is the notion thatpractical experience leads to the developmentof theories. The League of Nations andUnited Nations in today’s context, havebecome many practical experiences. We needto move on and work on a new theory ofnew world governance which is workable in Running for glory Photo: Anugraha Johnthis century, drawing from the lessons learnt accepted by the world citizens as an essentialfrom the UN. Thus reiterating, one of themost important driving forces of the Forum third pillar.for a new World Governance programme Local to Global, Legality to Legitimacy:which not only identifies new ways of global Mechanisms of co-operation between allgovernance but also finds the means for it to levels of governance is important. Thework. decisions made at the local level are as important as the decisions made at the globalOrganized: The role of the world 7 level. World governance definitely needs to begovernance should be more of an Organizer. defined by certain rules and regulations; it hasAs an Organizer, it must help a community, to have a legal framework. But the legitimacyor communities, acquire a sense of collective of this legality rests on the sense of equity,purpose and promote participatory dialogue priorities of the biggest and poorest humanand partnerships for catalyzing collective groups.action. Democratic to Transforming (of our “The invasionRe-affirmative (of Rights and attitude and behaviour): Setting the right of armies canResponsibility): World governance should pace for an emerging global community will be resisted,ensure a balance of reaffirmation of both be a challenge for the new world governance. but not an idearights and responsibilities of all human being. It has to not only develop new strategies and whose time hasAt present, international life is underpinned plans for new challenges of the 21st century come.”by two pillars: the Universal Declaration of but also undergo a transformation processHuman Rights which focuses on the dignity so it has the capability to manage a long termof individuals and on the defense of their plan.rights, and the Charter of the United Nations, In Victor Hugo’s words, “the invasion ofwhich focuses on peace and development. armies can be resisted, but not an ideaThese two pillars have been a framework for whose time has come”. We need to reflect,undeniable progress in the organization of re-evaluate and reshape our present worldinternational relations. But new challenges governance.of the century clearly indicate that these twopillars are not enough. We need a ‘third pillar’ The time is now, today and not tomorrowand the Charter of Human Responsibilities and both young men and women have anis an effort for due consideration to be important role to play in the same.
  8. 8. Youth and World Governance These are some fundamental components Many young people from Asia and Africa that young people demand for new world feel that the UN’s age range of youth, 15-24 governance. The present crisis is not the end is very limited and narrow. And most likely, of the world. The youth today are optimistic there is a growing pressure or a debate within and determined to see opportunity in the the UN and its subsidiary organizations to present crisis. There is a light at the end of reconsider the age range of 15-24 for the tunnel, and young people like me are working ‘youth’ (as defined by them for statistical towards reaching that end, and hopefully purpose). For the first time, the UN’s it will lead our path towards new world subsidiary organization, UN-Habitat elected governance. their first Youth Advisory Board with age range 18-32 at the World Urban Forum held Who are Youth? in Nanjing, China in November 2008, a clear The concept of youth can be defined as all indication of reform and reorganization. the people within a specific age group, or as The statistics according to the UN, says a state of being or even a state of mind. The that more than one-fourth of the worlds UN, for statistical purpose, defines ‘youth’, population (about 1.7 billion between as those persons between the ages of 15 and the ages of 15-24) are youth. With this 24 years. But the Commonwealth defines information, we can further estimate that youth as those persons between the ages of youth between the ages of 15-30 could be 15 and 29, in the Indian and African context somewhere at least between 40-45 % of the it is between the ages of 15 and 35 and in world population if not more. And 60% of the context of Malaysia it may range up to the global youth population lives in Asia, 8 40 years. There are yet others at the age of and majority of the youth live in the ‘Global 60 or 70 determined to be young forever and South’. exemplify youthful attitude all their life, living and singing to the tunes of Bryan Adams, ‘18 In the 21st century, these groups of young till I die’. people are the largest ever to be enteringWho Youth
  9. 9. Youth and World Governanceadulthood and the largest underrepresented dissatisfaction experienced by the youth with Youth withsegment of the world’s population. the present local and the world governance their great system and thus increased level of awarenessWhy Youth? has led to responsible participation of enthusiasm, new ideas,Increased level of awareness, both young men and women in politics. It bountiful is also true that the national youth policiesparticipation, competence and energy, of several countries discourage youth toleadership skills participate at various local and national levels dedication and commitmentAlbert Einstein was only 25 years when he of governance and active citizenship. Few being fullywrote his famous theory of relativity. Gandhi reasons identified are; denial for right to vote aware of thewas about 25 years when he was instrumental until the age of 18, opportunity to represent complexityin founding the Natal Indian Congress their country in parliament until between know of whatwhich molded the Indian community of 21 and 25, youth preference to work at the they want toSouth Africa into a homogeneous political grassroots or local level, most common - the achieve.force before he moved on to fight for the lack of capacity building and experience, etc.freedom of India. Che Guevara was about World disorder, the challenges of a new28 years when he joined the revolutionary century due to globalization and failed oldmovement with Fidel Castro for the freedom ideologies has compelled young leadersof Cuba. Nelson Mandela was about 30 years to take responsibility of the presentold, when as a leader, he was spearheading situation, and act before it gets anyagainst apartheid policy of racial segregation. worse. Governments and institutions thatThere are several such young leaders today acknowledged this factor have encouraged 9that exemplify their leadership in the field of youth participation at local activities andscience, medicine, technology, business, art, decision making process, and such initiativesports, politics, literature, and other sections has reaped benefits with their inputs andof the society. knowledge of innovative and creative thinking.In the 21st century, when it comes to politicsvis-à-vis governance, there have been recent Youth with their great enthusiasm, new ideas,developments even for the top position of bountiful energy, dedication and commitmentthe state. Younger leaders are filling those being fully aware of the complexity know ofprofiles. In 2008, Barack Obama became the what they want to achieve. They are no moreyoungest President of United States at the the leaders of tomorrow but are leaders ofage of 47 amidst fierce competitors of the called ‘the experienced’. At the young ageof 34, Nikoloz Gilauri took the office of the Education, Information andPrime Minister of Georgia and the Bhutan’s Communication Societyking, Jigme Wangchuck who acceded to the Today, internet is a fascinating tool forthrone at the age of 17 in 1972, is presently citizens to learn and participate at differentaged 29. levels of governance both locally and globally.Traditionally, governance has always been At the tip of your finger there is informationconsidered the concern of the old and available about what is happening all over thewise. But this generation of youth is way world through several news website. There isdifferent with the young people of the music, academic and research papers, amonglast two generations. There is a mounting many other things that are available on
  10. 10. Youth and World Governance Internet has opened many internet. Young people today are networking against the reelection of President Mahmoud windows of through the World Wide Web and have the Ahmadinejad in June 2009 which is a fine opportunity potential of mobilizing youth or citizens for example of how the mobile and internet for the youth any urgent cause, in a very short period of revolution at the disposal of youth have to learn about time. changed the dynamics of politics. the various incidences If J.F.Kennedy won the election using the Internet has opened many windows of across the media of television and radio then the opportunity for the youth to learn about the globe. victory of President Obama is certainly a various incidences across the globe. Youth result of the excellent campaign through today, not only work in the framework of Think Global, Act Local but also are in the mode of Acting Global. Platform like Taking IT Global (TIG) has emerged for youth activists to network and jointly lobby effectively for causes urgent to them. Education has now become one of the top priorities for young people today. Many youth believe that education is an antidote to poverty. They also know that education by itself is not enough, nor will it solve the whole issue of poverty. Thus once educated10 they want to be trained and skilled to be ‘Social Changemakers’. Youth have positively contributed to the success of programmes like ‘Education for All and Education for Sustainable Development.’ Sustainability and Intergenerational Partnership At the ‘Youth: Trendsetters of Education for Sustainable Development-ESD’ workshop of the UNESCO and UNEP 4th InternationalPicasso - Dance of Youth Conference on Environmental Education held in India in November 2007, it was internet. Obama’s campaign was able to the young people who proposed the idea mobilize its citizens, especially young men of an intergenerational partnerships for and women using tools like Facebook, You Sustainable Development. This idea was Tube, and many other programmes available further tabled by the youth at the 4th IUCN Education has on the internet to swing the victory for the World Conservation Congress 2008 held in now become Democrats. Young people voted for Barack Barcelona, Spain. Later, in October 2008, the one of the top Obama by a far wider margin than did voters initiative of Intergenerational partnership for priorities for in other age groups. Sustainability (IPS) was successfully launched. young people Young men and women in Iran have also not Today’s youth are open to ideas, suggestions today. left any stone unturned with their protest and partnership with the older generations.
  11. 11. Youth and World Governance Magritte ClairvoyanceAnd don’t necessary believe that only youth capacity to involve young women and men in 11can bring the change by themselves nor do building and designing the future.they want to do it just by themselves. A needfor an intergenerational partnership approach Role of Youth in World Governancefor the challenges of 21st century is a must. a) Role of youth in United Nations andIn a continent with 60% of the population its subsidiary organizationsbeing youth, an intergenerational partnershipfocus will be very vital for a regional and It was only after the call by the UN Generalglobal governance perspective. The wide gap Assembly for the observance of the 1985between youth and adults needs to be filled International Youth Year: Participation,for peace and regional stability. The Asian Development and Peace that drew attentionCitizens Assembly held in Bangalore, India to the important role of young people inin August 2010 has already initiated work in the world, and, in particular, their potentialthis framework of partnership. contribution to development and the goals of the United Nations Charter. OnSustainability or Sustainable Development 18 December 2009, the United Nationshas become an important factor for manygovernance and development initiatives. Too General Assembly adopted a resolution Today’s youthoften youth are left out of the processes that A/RES/64/134 proclaiming the year are open commencing on 12 August 2010 as the to ideas,shape their future but less do we realize that International Year of Youth: Dialogue suggestionsinclusion of youth automatically ensures asustainability component in any programme. and Mutual Understanding. The Year also and partnershipThe progress of our governance is based, coincides with the 25th anniversary of the with the olderamong other elements, on each society’s generations. first International Youth Year in 1985.
  12. 12. Youth and World Governance The involvement of today’s youth in local, national and international level through The wide gap environment and development decision- representation, leadership and action.between youth making and in the implementation of Craig Kielburger founded the organization and adults programmes is critical to the long-term in 1995, and at the time he was a twelve- needs to be success of Agenda 21. year-old Canadian. In the past seven years,filled for peace Free the Children has spread to more and regional Top leaders of national government and than 35 countries and more than 1 million stability. the United Nations realized that it would be people have participated in its projects and impossible to achieve the goals set for MDGs campaigns. The organization is currently set to be achieved by 2015, without the working on many issues concerning the participation of young men and women. The protection of children’s rights and youth importance on the role of young men and representatives from Free the Children have women at the international level was by and become international spokespersons for large evident in the last decade, at the end of children’s rights and primary education for all the Millennium. children. The United Nations currently has youth One of Free the Children’s projects is ‘School advisory boards, and other means for youth Building’. The organization has built and engagement in the following: United Nations outfitted more than 375 schools around the Environmental Program (UNEP), United world providing education to more than Nations Programme for Human Settlements 30,000 children in 23 developing countries. (UN HABITAT), United Nations Population School building projects are supported and12 Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Development enhanced by alternative income programs, Program (UNDP), United Nations Educational, medical centers and clean water programs. Scientific and Cultural Organization Another project the organization has (UNESCO), UN Office for Drug Control undertaken is providing ‘School and Health and Crime Prevention (UNDCP), UN Space Kits’; it has shipped more than 175,000 Program (UNISPACE), as well as through school and health kits to children in nearly agencies for children, like the United Nations 40 developing countries, providing them with Fund for Children (UNICEF) and the Office the necessary supplies to go to school and of the Special Representative for Children and remain healthy. Free the Children owe their Armed Conflict. success to the formula: ‘young people for ‘We know what works and what needs to be young people’. done’. With this attitude youth have been Case Study 2: Incubating Women and working with commitment to fulfill the goals Youth Resource Center in A Conflict of the MDGs as their strength remains a Zone combination of both volunteerism and activism. In May 2002, Margaret Mercy Akongo, age 25, an Oxfam International Youth We will study two cases here that exemplify Parliament Action Partner in North East youth’s activism and volunteerism: Uganda founded Tedwaii Indigenous Women Case Study 1: Youth Engaging Youth in Development Organization (TIDO) with the Educational Opportunities hope it would empower young people and young women in Karamoja as active partners Free The Children is an international in the development process.77 Karamoja network of children helping children at a is stereotyped as a backward region and is
  13. 13. Youth and World Governanceneglected by the government. Conflict in the or youth council has worked well in fewregion dates back thousands of years, but countries and could be an option to bemodern warfare has made the situation even explored at places where youth participationmore deadly. Education levels are low and is limited.there is little access to information. Naturalresources are scarce and competition for Youth have been deprived of the rightthem leads to conflict. Famine, drought and to active participation in formulating ofdisease exacerbate the situation. Human international policies, and implementationrights abuses are frequent, especially against of the same. Youth should not be seen asyoung people. mere beneficiaries but also as contributors. The role of youth in international institutionsMercy, with the aid of her organization, with governmental membership, spanningbegan running workshops to educate the several regions, including financial institutionspeople in her community on issues such as such as World Bank and IMF, UN agencieshuman rights and development. She took and regional groupings is more relevantan active role at her university in advancing with the present crisis of economic andwomen’s affairs and she lobbied on behalf globalization. Youth with appropriate trainingof her community at different local, national and capacity building should be able to workand international forums. Mercy has found towards reform in some of the multilateralthat the more she speaks up, the more young institutions, which is need of the hour.people in Karamoja have called for changesto be made. At Oxfam International Youth c) Role of youth in civil societyParliament 2004, Mercy developed an Action movements 13Plan to set up a resource center for young Participation of young men and womenpeople and women in Karamoja to provide in the civil society movements has proveninformation that the community needed, but to be very positive and productive. Theirpreviously had no access to. With assistance expertise in information and communicationfrom Oxfam IYP, Mercy is currently technology has proven to be rewardingestablishing a resource center on various as well for developing programmestopics such as reproductive health, HIV/ of many countries. International civilAIDS and human rights to help empower the society movements like the World Socialyouth and women of Karamoja. Throughthe resource center, Mercy also runs regulardiscussions and debates on topics likeinvolving young people and women as activepartners in the development process.b) Role of youth in national government and multilateral institutionsThe governments of each country haverealized the potential of the youth that couldbe tapped for the various programmes runby the government. These programmes needto give a legal framework for the youth tofunction and also exercise the power to workeffectively. The idea of youth parliament Graffiti
  14. 14. Youth and World Governance Forum and the Citizens Assemblies have to overcome problems of urban poverty, increasingly included young people as Social UN-Habitat launched – The Opportunities Changemakers in their journey of:; ‘Another Fund programme which is designed provide world is possible’. financial support of up to one million dollars per year. Such programmes have indeed Youth and Charter of Human obliged youth to be seen as partners and not Responsibilities (CHR) just mere beneficiaries. At the conclusion of the World Citizens Global Citizenship Assembly held in France in 2001, Charter of Human Responsibilities emerged as a In the 21st century, citizenship is hope for young people to reassess their fundamentally plural, for each individual responsibility for their planet. Since then will inevitably be a citizen, not only of their youth have been very active in promoting the immediate community and of their state, notion of ‘responsibilities and rights as two but also of a world region and of the entire sides of the same coin’. planet. The CHR International facilitation team has Global citizenship as understood by few of organized several capacity building workshop us in one of the workshops organized in and seminars to empower youth to work Bali is, ‘a deep appreciation and embraced towards managing the planet with an intellect responsibility for the human condition, our of responsibility. essential oneness, and the unique expressions of each, beyond artificial boundaries.’14 Youth-Led Development Programmes Fortunately or unfortunately, globalization Over the past many years financial has also opened the door for a booming institutions and donor agencies have aviation and transport industry. It is inevitable donated or given on loan several millions for young people today to migrate for study, of money towards the development work work, business and personal reasons. There to governments or selected NGOs but is an urgent need for programmes which unfortunately they have not been able to educate and advocate the need of global channelize the same amount of money to citizenship. several small organizations or NGOs that could work for the same purpose but have There are several youth organizations like bigger impact. Peace Child, Taking IT Global, Global ‘A deep Citizens for Sustainable Development appreciation Youth-Led Development is a new concept (GCSD), etc. that have been working to and embraced gaining momentum which empowers youth as create a society of “Global Citizens”, a well- responsibility it allows access to funds/small grants to bring informed and committed group of young for the human effective change. Through this programme, people with a clear vision about intercultural condition, youth are able to have trainings, learn to fund- understanding in a world where local and our essential raise, build leadership skills and also engage in global issues are intertwined. oneness, and effective action. This is mostly driven by youth the unique but not necessarily only for youth but for Conclusion and the Way Forward expressions of different needs of communities and region. each, beyond Youth need to be involved actively in the Acknowledging this strategy of Youth-Led drafting of the national and international artificial Development Programmes to be a success youth policies, implementation, and decision boundaries.’ and to harness the energies of the young making process of the various governments
  15. 15. Youth and World Governanceand international developmental programmes Global Citizens for Sustainable Developmentand implementation of the same. The (NGO based in Bangalore, India) organizedopportunities for youth to be involved its first workshop on this theme, ‘Youthin politics should be expanded. Their and World Governance’ on 26th July 2009commitment to work voluntarily and in Bangalore, India and will continue toresponsibly should be tapped to the fullest. organize more workshops and discussions for youth in collaboration with the Forum for aYouth shouldn’t have to bear the brunt of the new World Governance to explore the wayfailed system of world governance. But their forward on this theme.participation and inclusion will only help tothe positive implementation of the same. 15 Serenity Photo: Anugraha John
  16. 16. Youth and World Governance i Extract from the speech of Severn Suzuki at the Rio xiv The Commonwealth of Nations, often referred as Earth Summit in 1992. the Commonwealth and previously British Common- wealth is an inter-governmental organization of 53 in- ii The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro was unprec- dependent member states. Most of them are formerly edented for a UN conference, in terms of both its part of the British empire size (172 governments, 108 at level of heads of State or Government, 2400 NGO representative) and the xv News report by Anne Ryman published in the Arizona scope of its concerns. Twenty years after the first Republic – 6 Nov 2008 global environment conference, the UN sought to xvi International Union for Conservation of Nature help Governments rethink economic development and find ways to halt the destruction of irreplaceable xvii natural resources and pollution of the planet. xviii Agenda 21 – Chapter 25 (Children and Youth) iii is an international campaign dedicated to xix Youth and UN ( building a movement to unite the world around solu- tions to the climate crisis--the solutions that science xx Page 21, Final report of the Ad Hoc Working Group and justice demand. for Youth and MDGs iv United Nations Framework Convention on Climate xxi Page 27, Final report of the Ad Hoc Working Group Change for Youth and MDGs v The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement xxii Multilateral Institution as defined in Bretton Woods linked to the United Nations Framework Convention Project glossary on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 indus- xxiii The World Social Forum (WSF) is an annual world trialized countries and the European community for network meeting, started based in Brazil, that defines reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions . These itself as “an opened space – plural, diverse, non- amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 governmental and non-partisan – that stimulates the levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. decentralized debate, reflection, proposals building, experiences exchange and alliances among move- vi Special Advisor to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan ments and organizations engaged in concrete actions and Economist towards a more solidary, democratic and fair world....a16 vii The term youth here applies to all those person be- permanent space and process to build alternatives to neoliberalism tween the age 15 and 30 xxiv Citizens’ assemblies gather women and men, associa- viii tion and organizations that would want to participate stm - BBC 16th September, 2004 in renewing democracy and act in significant changes ix What Amazonia does the World Need? Proposal Pa- in their society and at global level. Assemblies are per Series. Forum for a new World Governance (2008) not a kind of new parliaments or new institutions but they stand for social and participatory processes x James N. Rosenau, ‘Governance in the Twenty-first where trustful relations and cultural, ideological and Century’, Global Governance 1, no.1 (1995):13 religious differences are respected and they are based xi United Nations Development Programme 2001 on organizing discussions among numerous members of the society so as to gradually deduce joint and shar- xii The idea for a third pillar, an “Earth Charter”, focus- ing prospects and strategies to be achieved collectively. ing mainly on relations between humankind and the They extend an international hitherto unknown biosphere, first surfaced at the 1972 Stockholm World adventure which started in 1994 with the Alliance for Conference. It was revived during preparations for the a Responsible, Plural and United World, and later on, 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, but no Earth with the World Citizens’ Assembly, in 2001. Charter finally emerged because governments were unable to reach consensus on a wording which truly xv Pierre Calame – Principles of Global Governance addressed the global challenges. Other References from: xiii Pierre Calame – Principles of Global Governance
  17. 17. Youth and World GovernanceYouth Governance Models in Canada – The Case of the UnitedNations Association in Canada Dara is a Canadian Urban Planner with a specialization in social Dara Parker sustainability, global urbanization and local governance in poverty reduction planning. She has lived in 5 countries, travelled and/or worked in over 40, and speaks English, advanced French and intermediate Spanish. With 10 years experience in non-profit project management and local government policy development, Dara has developed an emphasis on strategic planning, cross-cultural communication, designing inclusive and participatory processes, and relationship management. Throughout her career Dara has worked with and for youth, mobilizing young people to be the change. Currently she is as Executive Board Member of the United Nations Association in Canada (Vancouver), where among her responsibilities, she manages the youth volunteer program.Youth and World Governance of nations, but a community of peoples and of individuals. UNA-Canada works toIt is young people who are the most willing make that vision a reality. UNA-Canada isto listen to new ideas while absorbing fresh a Canadian national non-profit organizationinformation – they still in their education promoting UN programmes and activitiesyears. It is young people who instinctively within Canada. The Association offersseek out partnerships and collaborate on individual Canadians a window into the work 17multi-stakeholder solutions – they are of the UN, and a channel through which tohabituated to working in peer groups. It become engaged in the critical internationalis young people who are accustomed to issues affecting us all. As the United Nationsadapting to change – change is a constant struggles to reform itself to deal with ain your youth. This adaptability will build new array of emerging global problems, theresiliency to our rapidly-changing world. If Association strives to foster an understandingwe are to effectively address issues including of what the UN is and where it is going. Bywomen’s rights, climate change, food security creating links between the work of the UNand HIV/AIDS, we will require knowledge, and the lives of Canadians, UNA-Canadacollaboration and resiliency from our leaders. is helping to build a better United Nations.When our global community is serious about Recognizing the importance of youth inaddressing international challenges then we world governance, UNA-Canada focuses thewill engage youth. Youth require preparation majority of their programs on contribute in an intelligent, innovative andempowered manner. The United Nations Model United NationsAssociation in Canada (UNA-Canada) is A Model United Nations (MUN) is an activitydoing just that. that simulates the activities of specific organsUnited Nations Association in and committees of the United Nations. ItCanada is a form of experiential education that aims to raise awareness about current global“We the Peoples…” these, the opening words issues, the benefits of cooperation, andof the UN Charter, offer the hope of a world the functions and structure of the Unitedorganization that is not simply a community Nations.
  18. 18. Youth and World Governance Through Model UNs, students develop from every province in the country to support and practice skills in research, organization, MUN activities and to encourage Model UN writing, debating, lobbying, negotiation, connectivity within each province. cooperation and compromise. Model • A Model United Nations Activity UN activities are often cited as formative Sourcebook - An essential guide to Model educational experiences with the potential UN participation and organization for to positively affect the career choices and teachers and students across Canada worldviews of its participants. wishing to be introduced to Model UN. Model UNs assist students in understanding • The ListServe & Online Resources - A the intricacies of global problems, but also comprehensive Model UN Programme underscore the potential for solutions through website, including an online inventory discussion and multilateral cooperation. In of existing Model UN conferences and essence, Model UN activities create links initiatives in Canada; and the MUN- between participants and enhance the capacity Canada ListServ. of young people to communicate and share ideas, expertise and experience with each other. The above components work together to create links between young Canadians from The Canadian MUN (CANIMUN) different regions of Canada while promoting Canada’s international role among these Since September 2000, the United Nations and among youth in other countries. UNA- Association in Canada (UNA-Canada) Canada’s Model UN Programme highlights manages a n annual Model UN Programme18 the benefits of Canadian diversity, particularly to encourage Canadian student participation vis-à-vis multiculturalism and bilingualism, at Model UNs and to support, financially and ultimately works to engage a significant and logistically, the organization of Model number of young Canadians in the work UN events throughout Canada. Six major of the United Nations and with Canadian components can be identified as pillars of the foreign policy priorities around the world. Model UN Programme. These include: • A Domestic Grant Fund - Awarded to CANIMUN Outcomes students in Canada, attending Canadian Model UNs are a form of experiential Model UN events at least 450 km away learning that have many benefits for from their homes, and to organizers of participants. Youth develop international new Model UN conferences and initiatives. awareness, learn about the goals, purposes • An International Grant Fund - Awarded and structure of the UN, develop abilities to to Team CANIMUN participants from solve complex international problems, benefit across Canada, attending pre-selected from the demonstration of cooperation, international simulation events abroad. compromise and communication, and enhance their capacity to share ideas, • The Canadian International Model United expertise and experience. The CANIMUN Nations (CANIMUN) Conference - Planning model is an excellent example of how to and realization of the only pan-Canadian and further engage and prepare youth to play a international bilingual simulation event for significant role in world governance. It is post-secondary level students. integral that the world engages youth in a • The Provincial Representatives - A Team of meaningful manner if we are to address the ten (10) Provincial Representatives selected international issues that face us all.
  19. 19. Youth and World GovernanceA Perspective on Youth and Governance Lucinda Hartley Lucinda Hartley, is a Landscape Architect and Urban Designer with local and international development experience across Australia, Asia and Pacific including positions with UN, AusAID and Habitat for Humanity. Lucinda is the founder of [co]design (Community Oriented Design) studio, a non-profit design studio that provides emerging designers with a platform to engage with community development projects. Lucinda also currently represents Asia-Pacific on the Youth Advisory Board of UN-Habitat.Youth engagement, youth participation, youth official governing bodies. Secondly, throughmainstreaming are words frequently thrown dedicated youth activities and youth servicesaround with regards to youth and governance. provide by larger community groups andHowever, to what degree are youth really non-governmental organizations. Oxfam,included or engaged in governance? In World Vision and the Salvation Army forAustralia there has been a recent shift to example all run dedicated youth programs.providing dedicated youth activities, round Thirdly, youth engagement is exemplified by an explosion of youth-led organizations. 19tables and governing committees as wellas young people becoming involved in This is in-turn being supported by grant-regional and global youth networks. While making bodies, philanthropic organizationsthis is a good step, questions remain about and government bodies who are providingthe effectiveness of youth engagement in dedicated funding, mentoring and support togovernance. This document outlines several youth-led initiatives.examples of youth and governance from an In the instance of the first types of youthAustralian perspective and suggests a need to engagement – through official governmentnot only include youth in decision making, bodies, involvement of youth tends to relybut to ensure their participation is meaningful on formalised channels of communicationand effective. and works more as a means of consultingWhile there are more young people under 25 young people, rather than engaging youthglobally than ever more – nearly 3 billion – as active partners in a particular initiative.Australia has an ageing population. Only 21% Having formalized youth engagement inof the population is under 25, compared with place is to be commended, however there is room to engage youth more meaningfully in50% or more in many countries, particularly this process.developing countries. There is, nevertheless,a shift to include young people, to varying Where youth and engaged as part of servicesextents, in decision making processes in and activities through broader organizations,Australia. Engagement of young people the type of youth governance can be highlygenerally forms one of three forms: firstly, varied. Some organizations are grass roots,through formalised youth boards and youth others set up youth-led advisory groupsround tables within local councils, and while others run programs for rather than
  20. 20. Youth and World Governance with young people. There are a number of for young people. advantages to having youth programs within While there is an overall increase of ways broader organizations, particularly in terms in which young people can be involved in of mentoring and access to funding. governance and leadership in Australia, The final model of youth-led organizations there remains a need to develop more has grown significantly over the past decade inclusive methods of youth participation, with an increasing number of young people and to provide opportunities for meaningful involved in youth-led movement. Youth-led partnerships with young people. Effective organizations typically allow for meaningful mentoring, access to resources and peer to governance by young people. Some youth-led peer development programs all contribute organizations such as the Australian Youth to meaningful youth-engagement. The real Climate Coalition or the Oaktree Foundation need is to create a level playing field where provide an avenue for thousands of young young people are treated as partners in people to have an active voice on key issues governance. Increasing global youth-networks and to be directly involved with international and international funding opportunities development projects. Pressing global issues are strengthening Australian youth-led such as climate change and urbanisation are initiatives, and enabling Australian young mobilising young people on a wide scale to people to demonstrate leadership on a take action and to demonstrate leadership regional and global level. We are likely to and a voice for young people. Youth-led see youth-led initiatives grow in the next organizations often work in partnership with few decades and as a result this will assist in20 other organizations and increasingly there is growing partnerships with young people in access to effective mentoring and resources governance. Opportunities Fund for Urban Youthled Development
  21. 21. Youth and World GovernanceYouth and World Governance: A North American(USA) perspective Ben Knight Ben Knight was born, raised, and had his formative education in New York. He is a practicing design manager (Pratt Design Management alumni, 2008) who has had an enormous amount of creative work experience in various institutions, in many contexts, throughout the world. For over 6 years he has been working full time as a staff mem- ber for the United Nations in NYC. He writes a monthly blog post at Catalyst Strategic Design Review ( North AmericaUSA, young people that the government will follow their lead.have been marginalized by the government Many new, young person run, Americanand until the latest election in 2008, many organizations have been established over thehave felt that their voices were not being past few years, and I have the pleasure ofrepresented, or were misrepresented, and presenting a few:some still feel this way. From feeling limited OLPC, the One Laptop Per Child project/and undervalued by traditional government, 21 organization has still managed to raise thethere have been a surge of new organizations bar of the democratization of computers,started and/or managed by young people. both on the hardware and software arenas.For the past ten years my work in art and Young people now have opportunities todesign related fields has given me a great connect with the world, experience peer-view of change and transformation in to-peer learning and write basic computerNorth AmericanUSAmerican organizations. programming (Python). The project has hadI have witnessed entire disciplines in these its problems from both outside and inside,creative fields embrace a new emphasis on but the main visions and short term goalscompassion when compassion was not a have been reached, and the organization andfocus of the government. Organizations the new software (Sugar Labs) and hardwareare being created to meet the world needs (Pixel Xi) offshoots have created strategicof the 21st century; they fully embrace alliances that have made the organizationintrinsic motivation, divergent thinking, even more powerful in solving the world’speer-to-peer learning, and sustainable creative education problems.thinking. The youth are driving these newinstitutions. These pioneering in these dual Architecture for Humanity has been makingfocused creative and compassionate fields tremendous progress among various globalare sprouting up everywhere, though over design initiatives. Using young professionalthe past few years some have really set designers, the organization has transformednew ground for prosperity. The message many communities around the clear the young people of America are Architecture for Humanity created an onlinecompassionate and will create lasting change open source community, Open Architecturethrough positive organizations and hope Network, to exchange design ideas and
  22. 22. Youth and World Governance promote great design. Architecture for grants, etc. The organization continues to Humanity continues to promote sustainable flourish and create a great forum for art. design and evolve. Art Codex is a young person art collective that NurtureArt, a non profit artist gallery and specializes in creating projects that focus on community art center helps artist thrive and global political and social problems. Some of that is setting a new standard for which they these issues include war, migratio.n, and the teach as well as support contemporary art. human habitat. The artists work independently, Located in a very low income neighborhood, in addition to collectively, making sustainable they help the community directly by exposure art as well as creating lasting change in to and providing free art lessons for all young communities. Art Codex continues to push the people in the area. Also holds sessions on boundaries of art as well as promote artists creation of non-profits and how to apply for who create sustainable art.22 xul Solar Fiordo
  23. 23. Youth and World GovernanceYouth and Governance A Chinese perspective Dunfei Chen Dunfei Chen is currently an undergraduate student in Mathematics and Financial Economics from University of Rochester, USA. He is the founding member of China India Forum and was a member of the organizing committee for China-India-Japan Forum which was held in Japan in July 2008. He has represented as a young Chinese leader and speaker at several forums including the China-Europe Forum. He presently engages in dialogue and development work in China and globally with his position as the Director (China Chapter) of Global Citizens for Sustainable Development. His recent research in cooperation with the local government in China includes about the food conditions in near 300 primary schools.“Youth and governance” are new words fields: education and training, voluntaryin China. Chinese society is in a big social service, development of new countryside,transition. Roles of the youth are changing, environmental protection, protectionso are values. So, youth in China are trying of rights and interests, innovation andto redefine their positions in the society. It employment, youth culture, internationalis very difficult to summarize the ways that exchanges and cooperation and exchangeyouth could be involved in with social issues programs with Hongkong, Macau and 23in China. But we can still see some patterns Taiwan. Due to its significant contributions tohere. the youth and society, the ACYF was granted the Human Resources Development AwardFirst and the most important, there are by UNESCAP in 1999, the World Youthseveral large youth organizations with Award by UN in 2000 and the Champion ofgovernment background, focusing on youth the Earth by UNEP in 2004.affairs. Even though those organizationsare somehow funded by government, the The China Youth Development Foundationoperation and daily work are relatively (CYDF), since founded in Beijing inindependent. Here I would like to present March 1989, has devoted itself to the welltwo organizations, which are of the biggest being and development of Chinese youth,and the most influential. primarily with regards to education, health, environmental protection, volunteerism andThe All-China Youth Federation (ACYF) engagement. The mission of CYDF is to helpis a federative body of Chinese youth young people build capacity and to improveorganizations and excellent youth nationwide. the environment for the development ofThrough its 52 member organizations and young people by providing aid services, givingover 77,000 individual members at all levels, a voice to the interests of young people andthe ACYF reaches over 300 million young carrying out social advocacy.people across China. The ACYF aims torepresent and protect the legitimate rights The CYDF is best known for launching andand interests of young people and promote managing its largest program to date, “Projectyouth participation and development. It Hope.” The goal of Project Hope is to ensureruns programs and activities in the following that children and youth in rural communities
  24. 24. Youth and World Governance have the opportunity to go to school. By of environment protection, the CYDF has the end of 2009, Project Hope had raised initiated the Mother River Protection Project over RMB 6 billion in donations, helped 3.5 to help young people raise environmental million children from poverty-stricken rural awareness, and plant a large number of families continue their schooling, built 16,355 trees near sources of the Yangtze River, Hope primary schools, presented Hope the Yellow River and eventually in other mini-library series to 14,636 village schools in environmentally threatened areas throughout remote areas, and trained over 60,000 village the country. In the field of health, the CYDF primary school teachers. In a survey of 29 launched Action Red Ribbon, with a mission provinces of household residents aged 16 or to increase HIV/AIDS awareness among above in China, 94% had heard of Project Chinese youth and to support the education Hope and 64% had contributed in some way. of children in AIDS-affected areas. As a result of consistent efforts by staff and Similar organizations in China give young supporters, Project Hope has become one people sufficient stages to present themselves. of the best-known and successful charity One of the advantages of those organizations programs in the country. is that they are able to bring those programs The CYDF’s work is always youth-oriented into effects in a large scale, since the and driven by critical needs. In recent years, government backgrounds. It is much easier the CYDF has launched new initiatives for those organizations to have partnerships in supporting the second generation of with schools and communities. migrant workers for vocational education to24 There are very less NGOs or NPOs, fully improve their life skills and inspiring youth to run and organized by young people, in develop their own creative charity programs China. But, voluntary programs organized and social entrepreneurship. In the field by Chinese oversea students are becoming more and more prevailing. No matter for issues like global climate change or domestic poverty, these organizations are playing more and more important roles. Although most of them are in their beginning stages, lacking enough experience and in relatively small scale, bright futures can be expected.Sanja Gjenero