Webinar: CO2 pipeline infrastructure: Lessons learned


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Some 6,500 km of CO2 pipelines has been operating for years, primarily in the United States. More recently, a number of these pipelines have been used for CO2 re-use or carbon capture and storage (CCS) operations in Europe and the Americas. Valuable experience and lessons learnt are available from these projects relevant for all phases of CO2 pipeline projects:, from early identification to execution and operation.

Based on a wide range of interviews and literature, Ecofys and SNC-Lavalin gathered information on 29 CO2 pipeline projects and then made the results accessible in a database. A reference manual was then written based on this information. This comprehensive document offers an overview of results and lessons learnt, serving as a guide to key issues on CO2 pipelines. The document relates to a number of examples in the database.

In this webinar, Frank Wiersma from Ecofys presented an overview of the study, discussing the process, lessons learnt, and findings relevant for the development, realisation and operation of CO2 pipelines.

This study was commissioned by the IEA GHG on behalf of the Global CCS Institute.

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Webinar: CO2 pipeline infrastructure: Lessons learned

  1. 1. CO2 pipeline infrastructure: Lessons learned Webinar – 15 January 2014, 0000 AEDT
  2. 2. QUESTIONS  We will collect questions during the presentation.  Your MC will pose these question to the panel of presenters after the presentation.  Please submit your questions directly into the GoToWebinar control panel. The webinar will start shortly.
  3. 3. Frank Wiersma Unit manager Conventional Energy Systems, Ecofys Frank has over 15 years of experience in the energy and infrastructure sectors. He has worked on ports and coastal protection works, LNG production facilities, refineries and offshore wind projects. Frank’s involvement includes all project phases from feasibility studies, design, construction to operation and maintenance. He has carried out assignments in the US, Russia, China, South East Asia and the Middle East. Frank holds a master’s degree in civil engineering and a bachelor’s in economics.
  4. 4. CO2 pipeline infrastructure Lessons learned database Webinar Global CCS Institute 14 January 2014 Frank Wiersma, Paul Noothout (Ecofys), Omar Hurtado and Doug Macdonald (SNC Lavalin)
  5. 5. CO2 pipeline infrastructure - Lessons learned database Contents 1. Background 2. Scope 3. Approach 4. Challenges 5. CO2 pipeline database: a first impression 6. Reference manual: scope and contents 7. Key findings and conclusions 8. Questions © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  6. 6. Background CO2 pipelines are nothing new >Over 80 operational CO2 pipelines worldwide, length > 6,500 km; >Numerous CO2 pipelines operating since 1980s; >Most transport CO2 from natural occurrences to EOR operations. Wealth of existing information >Published in articles and reports; >Among owners, businesses and operating companies Numerous lessons learned, valuable for CCS projects >Themes ranging from regulation, permitting, planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance; >Covering full project life cycle; >Including broad range of physical environments. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  7. 7. Scope Objectives >To collect information on existing CO2 pipeline infrastructure. >To organise this information in a database. >To make the lessons learned available to project developers and regulators. Scope >Include CO2 pipelines from around the world. >Existing projects and some in advanced planning stage. >Focus on what is particular to CO2 pipelines. >Public information. Making results accessible >Database. >Reference Manual document. >Webinar. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  8. 8. Approach 1. Select subset of CO2 pipelines: 29 no. 2. Checklist Data elements 4. Pipeline infrastructure; Operation & Maintenance; Risk & Safety; Regulatory regime; Sources 3. • • • • • • • • FEED-studies; Environmental Impact Assessm. Journal articles; Project reports; • • • Pipeline owners; Pipeline operators; Pipeline builders. Literature review Interviews Interviews 5. Organise information in Database 6. Analyse findings and capture in Reference Manual © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  9. 9. Approach Selection of 29 CO2 pipelines 17 Europe: 10 CO2 pipelines North-America: 16 CO2 pipelines 1 4 2 3 7 9 6 19 5 8 10 11 18 20 21 26 16 12 25 23 24 Qinshui Rhourde Nouss-Quartzites 13 1. CO2 Slurry 14 15 2. Quest 3. Alberta Trunkline 4. Weyburn 5. Saskpower Boundary Dam 6. Beaver Creek 7. Monell 8. Bairoil 9. Salt Creek 10. Sheep Mountain 11. Slaughter 12. Cortez 13. Central Basin 14. Canyon Reef Carriers 15. Choctaw 16. Decatur © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 22 17. Snøhvit 18. Peterhead 19. Longannet 20. White Rose 21. Kingsnorth 22. ROAD 23. Barendrecht 24. OCAP 25. Jänschwalde 26. Lacq | Gorgon Legend: Planned Operational Cancelled
  10. 10. Challenges in data gathering Data availability varied from project to project >Oldest projects typically good information available from publications. >Information on projects from the 1980s more difficult to access hard copies. >Little willingness to share commercially relevant data on operational projects. >No willingness to share information on some operational CO 2 pipelines. >Confidentiality of CCS projects that are in development in competition for grants. >Detailed studies available for some recently cancelled projects. Data on some topics proved difficult to collect >Costs. >Auxiliary equipment. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  11. 11. CO2 pipeline database: a first impression Table of Contents © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  12. 12. CO2 pipeline database: a first impression Example: excerpts for Cortez Project, USA © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  13. 13. CO2 pipeline database: a first impression Geographical Web-viewer © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  14. 14. Reference manual Scope > Complementary to the database: guide to accessing, pointing to relevant examples in the database where further information can be found. > Provides overview of building blocks of a CO 2 pipeline and issues a proponent or regulator will have to consider. > Highlights key design, construction, operational and regulatory learnings from existing CO2 pipeline infrastructure. > Overview rather than detail - if you are in the CO2 pipeline business already, this manual probably isn't for you. > Target audience – Project developers that are interested in building a CO 2 pipeline but who do not cover detailed engineering calculations or cost estimates. – Governments and regulators, addressing different phases of a CO 2 pipeline project, including permitting and regulating. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  15. 15. Reference manual Outline 1. Introduction SECTION A Lessons learned from existing projects 2. Drivers for CO2 pipeline projects 3. Pipeline infrastructure and related equipment 4. Regulatory regime and permitting 5. Public concern and safety statistics 6. Research and centres of excellence SECTION B Guideline for assessment of CO2 pipeline projects 7. CO2 pipeline project phasing 8. CO2 pipeline cost 9. CO2 pipeline permitting 10. CO2 pipeline FEED studies and Design 11. Construction of CO2 pipelines 12. CO2 Pipeline operation, inspection and maintenance 13. CO2 Pipeline decommissioning and abandonment SECTION C Overall findings and conclusions 14. Key findings and conclusions © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  16. 16. Key findings and conclusions Public Concern Key issues to focus on in the development of CO2 pipelines are: >Unfamiliarity of the public and regulatory bodies with CO2 pipelines in many places, where such projects would be first of kind. >Risks perceived with CO2 storage are not separated in the public mind from CO2 pipelines. >Regulatory framework and design standards that are either not as well developed or less mature than for natural gas pipelines. Public Concern >CO2 pipeline themselves tend not to be a focal point of public concern and have typically not been regarded different than other pipeline projects. >Instead, public concern is typically related to the power plant or CO 2 storage project that the pipeline is tied to, if relevant. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  17. 17. Key findings and conclusions Permitting and Regulation For most pipelines environmental assessments have been prepared: >Only a few were mandatory for the pipeline itself. >Mostly voluntarily or because of the related EOR or CCS project. Regulations: >1970s: designs based on codes for natural gas pipelines in the absence of specific design codes or standards. >1989 specific regulations for CO2 pipelines introduced in the United States: – Not driven by good safety record, but due to risk of a high-consequence incident if a failure in a CO2 pipeline were to occur. – In EU the CCS directive that the framework used for natural gas transportation pipelines would be adequate to regulate CO2 transport. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  18. 18. Key findings and conclusions Planning and Design > In CO2 pipelines for EOR, private companies or consortia may join forces to develop a project, commercially viable with the revenues from extra oil produced. > Where multiple CO2 sources and sinks exist, a collection, transmission and distribution network may developed – some examples in the US. > Design for CO2 pipelines mostly comparable with natural gas pipelines. > Broad range of basic specs found: Low 1.9 - 97 116 - 380 656 - 808 28 External diameter (mm) 152 - 270 305 - 508 600 - 921 26 Wall thickness (mm) 5.2 – 9.5 10 - 13 19 - 27 12 Capacity designed (Mt/y) 0.06 - 2 2.6 - 7 10 - 28 26 Pressure min (bar) 3 - 10 31 - 35 72 - 151 14 Pressure max (bar) 21 – 40 98 - 145 151 - 200 17 Initial feed Compressor capacity (MW) | High Length (km) © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 Medium Number of data points available 0.2 - 8 15 - 17 43 - 68 16
  19. 19. Key findings and conclusions Planning and Design Corrosion poses a risks for CO2 pipelines. >Dehydration systems. >Protection measures (cathodic protection and coatings) and inspections. >Water content monitoring – notoriously unreliable. >Water content should be kept as low as possible. >Broad range of values encountered in the projects: – <50 ppm for Snøhvit, Kingsnorth, Lacq, Weyburn, OCAP – < 630 ppm for Central Basin, Sheep Mountain, Monell, Slaughter, Bairoil, Salt Creek – 840 ppm = limit theoretically tolerable, for typical conditions in USA. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  20. 20. Key findings and conclusions Safety Statistics > Incidents with CO2 pipelines are rare and seem to be less severe than those in natural gas systems when they do occur. > Limited statistical data for CO2 pipelines provide no indication that the frequency of incidents would be materially different from natural gas pipelines. > However scarcity of data prohibit drawing robust conclusions on this. Data on Incidents Records Office of Pipeline Safety (US Department of Transportation) for USA 1972 – 2012: •no known reports of civilian injuries or casualties associated with CO 2 pipelines. •46 reported incidents involving CO2 pipelines, including: incidents due to relief valve failure; incidents associated with weld, gasket or valve packing failure; incidents due to corrosion; incident due to outside forces damaging the pipeline. Some anecdotal evidence on a small number of incidents with CO 2 pipelines in Europe, again no personal injuries or casualties. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  21. 21. Key findings and conclusions Operational reliability > Can accommodate and flexibly handle the operational needs of source and destination. > CO2 pipelines have been among the most operationally reliable components of overall projects. © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  22. 22. Thank you for your attention! © ECOFYS |14/01/2014 |
  23. 23. Q&A Panel • Frank Wiersma, Unit manager Conventional Energy Systems, Ecofys • Paul Noothout, Consultant, Ecofys • Doug Macdonald, Principal Consultant, Studies and Developmental Projects, Environment and Water, SNC Lavalin The webinar will start shortly.
  24. 24. QUESTIONS / DISCUSSION Please submit your questions in English directly into the GoToWebinar control panel. The webinar will start shortly.
  25. 25. Please submit any feedback to: webinar@globalccsinstitute.com Full report available at: www.globalccsinstitute.com/publications/co2-pipeline-infrastructure