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Fundamentals of CO2 enhanced oil
recovery
Webinar – 24 June, 0730 AEST
Fundamentals of CO2 enhanced oil
recovery (EOR)
Vanessa Núñez López, M.S., M.A.
vanessa.nunez@beg.utexas.edu
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR) IS…
• Oil recovery by injection of fluids not commonly
present in the reservoir
• Excludes pre...
RECOVERY MECANISMS
Conventional
Recovery
Enhanced
Recovery
Tertiary
Recovery
Other
Chemical
Solvent
Thermal
Pressure
Maint...
CO2-EOR (THE BASICS)
CO2-EOR is a technology that targets the residual oil in depleted oil
reservoirs by the injection of ...
RECOVERY TECHNIQUES WITH SOLVENTS...
• Pattern flooding
• Gravity stable
• Soak or stimulation
• Water alternating with ga...
MINIMUM MISCIBILITY PRESSURE (MMP)
• Miscible: Above MMP
• Immiscible: Below MMP
At constant temperature and composition, ...
THE EOR PROCESS
U.S Department of Energy - NETL
Recycling
Water Pump
TYPICAL PRODUCTION: WEYBURN UNIT (MIDALE SAND)
SURFACE INFRASTRUCTURE
U.S Department of Energy - NETL
Production manifoldProduction well
Injection well
Separator
CO2-EOR PRODUCTION: HISTORICAL AND FORECAST
DENVER UNIT OF THE WASSON FIELD, WEST TEXAS
More than
120 million
incremental
barrels
through
2008
SPECIFIC CO2 FLOODS
Means San Andres Unit
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 ...
CO2 INJECTION VOLUME MATTERS!
CO2 UTILIZATION RATIO
feet F % md feet API cp %HCPV %OOIP MCF/STB MCF/STB -
field scale projects
Dollarhide TX Trip. Chert...
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF CO2 FOR EOR
1. Natural CO2 supplies already found and defined in
geological structures;
2. Industrial...
U.S. CO2-EOR OPERATIONS, CO2 SOURCES: 2014
CO2 SUPPLY SHORTAGE
RECENT EXPANSION OF NATURAL CO2 SUPPLIES FOR EOR
CO2-EOR POTENTIAL IN THE U.S.
IS CO2 STORED DURING EOR? YES!
CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL IN OIL RESERVOIRS
BIG SKY
WESTCARB
SWP
PCOR
MGSC
SECARB
MRCSP
DOE Regional Sequestration Pa...
FINAL THOUGHTS…
• Massive volumes of “technically stranded” oil in the U.S.
could be developed through CO2-EOR.
• The CO2 ...
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Webinar: Fundamentals of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (English)

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Transcript of "Webinar: Fundamentals of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (English)"

  1. 1. Fundamentals of CO2 enhanced oil recovery Webinar – 24 June, 0730 AEST
  2. 2. Fundamentals of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) Vanessa Núñez López, M.S., M.A. vanessa.nunez@beg.utexas.edu
  3. 3. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR) IS… • Oil recovery by injection of fluids not commonly present in the reservoir • Excludes pressure maintenance or waterflooding • Not necessarily tertiary recovery….
  4. 4. RECOVERY MECANISMS Conventional Recovery Enhanced Recovery Tertiary Recovery Other Chemical Solvent Thermal Pressure Maintenance Water - Gas Reinjection Secondary Recovery Artificial Lift Pump - Gas Lift - Etc. Waterflood Natural Flow Primary Recovery
  5. 5. CO2-EOR (THE BASICS) CO2-EOR is a technology that targets the residual oil in depleted oil reservoirs by the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2). What is it? How does it work? CO2 is a solvent: it mixes with the oil Where is it applied? In depleted light-oil reservoirs that have gone through primary recovery (natural flow) and, in most cases, secondary recovery (mainly waterflooding). • Oil expands (swells) • Oil viscosity is reduced • Interfacial tension (IT) disappears*
  6. 6. RECOVERY TECHNIQUES WITH SOLVENTS... • Pattern flooding • Gravity stable • Soak or stimulation • Water alternating with gas-WAG (mobility control) Strong Aquifer Oil Bank Steep Dip Angle Gas Cap CO2
  7. 7. MINIMUM MISCIBILITY PRESSURE (MMP) • Miscible: Above MMP • Immiscible: Below MMP At constant temperature and composition, MMP is the lowest pressure at which miscibility can be achieved. At MMP, the interfacial tension is zero and no interface exists as the fluids have become one single phase. Types of Miscibility • First contact • Multiple contact Types of Flooding Miscibility: two fluids are miscible when they dissolve in all proportions producing a homogeneous solution. Miscibility goes beyond solubility!
  8. 8. THE EOR PROCESS U.S Department of Energy - NETL Recycling Water Pump
  9. 9. TYPICAL PRODUCTION: WEYBURN UNIT (MIDALE SAND)
  10. 10. SURFACE INFRASTRUCTURE U.S Department of Energy - NETL Production manifoldProduction well Injection well Separator
  11. 11. CO2-EOR PRODUCTION: HISTORICAL AND FORECAST
  12. 12. DENVER UNIT OF THE WASSON FIELD, WEST TEXAS More than 120 million incremental barrels through 2008
  13. 13. SPECIFIC CO2 FLOODS Means San Andres Unit 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 BOPD Year Began(Nov.'83) CO2Injection Continued Waterflood 18% HCPV CO 2 Injection 37.2 38.7 3.2 11 (7)* To Date Ultimate P+S EOR Recovery, % OOIP *Original EOR Estimate Seminole San Andres Unit 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 BOPD Year Recovery, % OOIP *Original EOR Estimate 45.2 47.2 6.7 17 (17)* To Date Ultimate P+S EOR Continued Waterflood 25% HCPV CO 2 Injection CO2Injection Began(Mar.'83) Ford Geraldine Unit 0 500 1000 1500 2000 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 BOPD Year Began(Feb.'81) CO2Injection 21.8 21.8 7 15 (8)* To Date Ultimate P+S EOR Recovery, % OOIP *Original EOR Estimate 46% HCPV CO2 Injection 20 MCF/D CO2 Source Secured End of Water Injection Continued Waterflood 100 10,000 1,000 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 (From Folger and Guillot, 1996) Actual Oil Continued Waterflood Barrels/Day Year Sundown Slaughter Began(Jull.‘92) CO2Injection
  14. 14. CO2 INJECTION VOLUME MATTERS!
  15. 15. CO2 UTILIZATION RATIO feet F % md feet API cp %HCPV %OOIP MCF/STB MCF/STB - field scale projects Dollarhide TX Trip. Chert 7,800 120 17.0 9 48 40 0.4 30 14.0 2.4 1985 East Vacuum NM Oolitic dolomite 4,400 101 11.7 11 71 38 1.0 30 8.0 11.1 6.3 1985 Ford Geraldine TX Sandstone 2,680 83 23.0 64 23 40 1.4 30 17.0 9.0 5.0 1981 Means TX Dolomite 4,400 100 9.0 20 54 29 6.0 55 7.1 15.2 11.0 1983 North Cross TX Trip. Chert 5,400 106 22.0 5 60 44 0.4 40 22.0 18.0 7.8 1972 Northeast Purdy OK Sandstone 8,200 148 13.0 44 40 35 1.5 30 7.5 6.5 4.6 1982 Rangely CO Sandstone 6,500 160 15.0 5 to 50 110 32 1.6 30 7.5 9.2 5.0 1986 SACROC (17 pattern) TX Carbonate 6,400 130 9.4 3 139 41 0.4 30 7.5 9.7 6.5 1972 SACROC (14 pattern) TX Carbonate 6,400 130 9.4 3 139 41 0.4 30 9.8 9.5 3.2 1981 South Welch TX Dolomite 4,850 92 12.8 13.9 132 34 2.3 25 7.6 Twofreds TX Sandstone 4,820 104 20.3 33.4 18 36 1.4 40 15.6 15.6 8.0 1974 Wertz WY Sandstone 6,200 165 10.7 16 185 35 1.3 60 10.0 13.0 10.0 1986 producing pilots Garber OK Sandstone 1,950 95 17.0 57 21 47 2.1 35 14.0 6.0 1981 Little Creek MS Sandstone 10,400 248 23.4 75 30 39 0.4 160 21.0 27.0 12.6 1975 Majamar NM Anhydritic dolomite 4,050 90 10.0 11.2 49 36 0.8 30 8.2 11.6 10.7 1983 Majamar NM Dolomitic sandstone 3,700 90 11.0 13.9 23 36 0.8 30 17.7 8.1 6.1 1983 North Coles Levee CA Sandstone 9,200 235 15.0 9 136 36 0.5 63 15.0 7.4 1981 Quarantine Bay LA Sandstone 8,180 183 26.4 230 15 32 0.9 19 20.0 2.4 1981 Slaughter Estate TX Dolomitic sandstone 4985 105 12.0 8 75 32 2.0 26 20.0 16.7 3.7 1976 Weeks Island LA Sandstone 13,000 225 26.0 1200 186 33 0.3 24 8.7 7.9 3.3 1978 West Sussex WY Sandstone 3,000 104 19.5 28.5 22 39 1.4 30 12.9 8.9 1982 Field Projects ==> 11.7 6.3 AVERAGE 10.4 6.3 MEDIAN Pilot Projects ==> 12.5 6.4 AVERAGE 8.9 6.0 MEDIAN Gross Net Gross Net
  16. 16. POTENTIAL SOURCES OF CO2 FOR EOR 1. Natural CO2 supplies already found and defined in geological structures; 2. Industrial, high concentration sources of CO2 (e.g. refineries and fertilizer plants) that are currently being captured and used by the CO2-EOR industry; and 3. The large volumes of low concentration power plant and industrial emissions of CO2 that needs to be captured and stored to mitigate CO2 emissions.
  17. 17. U.S. CO2-EOR OPERATIONS, CO2 SOURCES: 2014
  18. 18. CO2 SUPPLY SHORTAGE
  19. 19. RECENT EXPANSION OF NATURAL CO2 SUPPLIES FOR EOR
  20. 20. CO2-EOR POTENTIAL IN THE U.S.
  21. 21. IS CO2 STORED DURING EOR? YES!
  22. 22. CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL IN OIL RESERVOIRS BIG SKY WESTCARB SWP PCOR MGSC SECARB MRCSP DOE Regional Sequestration Partnerships
  23. 23. FINAL THOUGHTS… • Massive volumes of “technically stranded” oil in the U.S. could be developed through CO2-EOR. • The CO2 EOR industry has extensive experience and a proven record of injecting CO2 into geologic formations in a safely way. • EOR could be an enabling path for large-scale carbon sequestration efforts.
  24. 24. Questions?

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