Microseismic monitoring at the CCS fields - what we learnt from Nagaoka
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Microseismic monitoring at the CCS fields - what we learnt from Nagaoka

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Dr Ziqiu Xue, Chief Researcher of the CO2 Storage Group at Japan’s Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) will lead a Global CCS Institute webinar to review and discuss......

Dr Ziqiu Xue, Chief Researcher of the CO2 Storage Group at Japan’s Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) will lead a Global CCS Institute webinar to review and discuss microseismic monitoring at CCS storage sites.

The secure storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep geological formations requires a sufficient overlying cap rock layer to contain the CO2 within the formation. Injection of CO2 increases the formation pressure in the target reservoir. This will decrease the effective pressure and will also lead to geomechanical deformation of the rocks. Therefore, to ensure safety of storage, the CO2 injection must be controlled to maintain integrity of the cap rock.

This webinar will give a simple review on microseismic monitoring results observed at onshore CO2 injection sites such as Weyburn, Canada and Lacq, France. Case study results from the Nagaoka pilot site in Japan will also be introduced, including the field survey results after an earthquake hit the area during CO2 injection.

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  • 1. Microseismic Monitoring at the CCS fields -- What we learned from Nagaoka -- Ziqiu Xue (xue@rite.or.jp)Research Institute of Innovative Tech for the Earth
  • 2. ContentsPrevious studies of fluid injection Geothermal and oil fieldsSeismicity at CO2 injection fields Weyburn (Canada), Lacq (France)Fi ld survey results at N Field lt t Nagaoka k after the two earthquakes(2004,2007) CO2 Retention (well log, x-well seismic) Caprock & Wellbore integrity
  • 3. Fluid Injections: Stimulation & Production at geothermal and oil fields S Site Activity Rock R k Sensors Wells Unconsolidated sandstone Low porosityHot-Dry Rock Granite Phillips et al, 2001
  • 4. Lessons from Previous Fluid InjectionsMicroseismic monitoring must be performed by downhole i t instruments due to the small size t d t th ll iMost events fall in the magnitude - 4 to -2 range, 2 formed surrounding the injection point.Microseismic techniques equally useful if sufficient f l f ff events observed in sedimentary reservoirs.Lower Frio: 54 located from 2900 events (too small for location).Clinton Co.: 3200 events recorded clearly associated with Co : production rate, with time lag.Fenton Hill: over 11,000 locatable events recorded in a volume 11 000 of 1 km x 1 km x 300m.
  • 5. ContentsPrevious studies of fluid injection Geothermal and oil fieldsSeismicity at CO2 injection fields Weyburn (Canada), Lacq (France)Fi ld survey results at N Field lt t Nagaoka k after the two earthquakes(2004,2007) CO2 Retention (well log, x-well seismic) Caprock & Wellbore integrity
  • 6. Microseismic Monitoring at Weyburn g y CO2- CO2-EOR field Verdon, 20108-level, 3-components geophones installed in well 101/06-08, about 50 m awayfrom injection well 121/06-08, CO2 injection rate 100-500 ton/day, 2003.8 – 2004.11
  • 7. Map (a) and East-West cross-section (b) view of p( ) East- cross- ( ) Phase 1B events plotted by Verdon (2010)Yellow: pre-injection (Aug-Dec 2003); Magenta: initial injection period (Jan-Apr 2004);Red: during elevatedRed d ring ele ated injection rate period (J l No 2004) b Verdon (2010) (Jul-Nov by (2010).
  • 8. Event magnitudes plotted as a function ofdistance from the array by V d (2010)di f h b Verdon the limit of detectability Verdon, 2010
  • 9. Summary of Microseismic Monitoring at Weyburn CO2-EOR field CO2-Event magnitudes ranged between -3 t -1, evenE t it d db t 3 to 1 magnitudes of -2 are still detectable over 400 m away.Comparison with production data, the timing of events located in and just above the reservoir correlates with periods temporarily stopped production.Microseismicity occurs at the onset of CO2 i j tiMi i i it t th t f injection, and also appears to correlate with periods of increased injection.Events are characterized by a low dominant frequency (15 - 80 Hz) and poor signal-to-noise ratio.
  • 10. Billiot (2011) ( )
  • 11. Billiot (2011)
  • 12. Microseismic Monitoring at the Offshore Potential Storage Sites in Japan Observation Well Injection Well j CO2 SeismometerOBS OBC Seismograph g p Hi-net Hi net Seismograph Caprock CO2 plume Saline AquiferDownhole Geophones(Cemented or Clamped) Natural Seismicity
  • 13. Waveforms of a Natural Seismicity by OBC Vertical (Z) Sea side M=0.6 P offshore Japan (depth: 100km) Horizontal (Y1) Permanent OBC (Ocean Bottom Cable) S 4D Seismic Survey Microseismic Monitor Horizontal (Y2) (hydraulic fracturing) Magnitude: -3.0 Chambers et al., 2010 S
  • 14. ContentsPrevious studies of fluid injection Geothermal and oil fieldsSeismicity at CO2 injection fields Weyburn (Canada), Lacq (France)Fi ld survey results at N Field lt t Nagaoka k after the two earthquakes(2004,2007) CO2 Retention (well log, x-well seismic) Caprock & Wellbore integrity
  • 15. Microseismic Monitoring at Nagaoka Site Protective case GPS Antenna A t 100m Seismic sensor (3C) 3C Seismic sensor →To Recorder Concrete base PavementSeisimic sensor specificationsItem specificationSeismic Sensor Sensor type: triaxial EpiSensor force balance accelerometer(ALTUS Enta; Kinemetrics) Full scale: ±2G Frequency range: DC~100Hz Dynamic range: 135dBSeismic Recorder Number of channels: 6ch(ALTUS –K2; Kinemetrics) Sampling time: 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 250Hz Frequency range: DC~40Hz(in 100Hz sampling case) Dynamic range: 114dB(19Bit) Power supply: Internal battery 12V, 12Ah
  • 16. Geophysical Monitoring (incl. earthquake safety surveys)
  • 17. Pressure Changes at Injection and Observation Wells Formation Pressure Bottom Hole Pressure
  • 18. hypocenter
  • 19. The Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004NSN-S Earthquake ents umber of EveE-WEW NuU-D Date Histogram of microseismic events by the i i th seismic sensor of Nagaoka site. fN k it Injection period is July 2003 to January 2005. Earthquake Wave-forms observed by the Natural earthquakes and surface noises seismic sensor of Nagaoka site are included in these events.
  • 20. Likely Events Recorded at Nagaoka Site y g (2004.10.23 - 2006.3.6) 1000 total events イ ントの累積数 イベントの累積数 地震類似波形のイベントの累積数 likely events event count 地震類似波形のイベント ounts ト数 100E イベントEvent Co 10 Likely events appeared just after the earthquake 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 minated itoring 06 ection 23 29 10 18 26 arted / / /01/ / / / 6/03 4/10 5/05 5/08 5/11 ded 005 Re-sta 200 End 200 200 200 200 Term Inje Moni 2 Date
  • 21. Likely Events Observed from starting y g injection to Mid-Niigata Earthquake Mid- 21
  • 22. Comparison with Hi-net data Hi-JK005 IY087 JJ0172004/10/06 / / 2004/05/03 2004/09/10 (injection) (injection) (i j i ) JJ005の記録開始時刻 IY087の記録開始時刻 JJ017の記録開始時刻 JJ013JL009 2004/09/092004/10/17 (injection) : matched event JJ013の記録開始時刻IY065 JL009の記録開始時刻 JJ0162004/04/17 2004/09/10(suspended) (injection) IY065の記録開始時刻 JJ016の記録開始時刻
  • 23. Comparison with Hydrophone data ith H drophone : matched with Hydrophone record,phase lag in P,S-waves record phase P S-waves → possibly seismic event : no record in Hydrophone data,no phase lag in P,S waves P,S-waves → Noise
  • 24. Ultra Sonic Imager  Cement Evaluation casing-to-cement bond quality Depth OB2 2001/12 (USI) OB2 2005/2 (USI) OB2 2011/10 (BHATV) (m) 0° 90° 180° 270° 0° 0° 90° 180° 270° 0° 0° 90° 180° 270° 0° 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130
  • 25. Field Surveys after the EarthquakesField survey results after the Mid-Niigata and Chuetsu- Mid Niigata Chuetsu Oki Earthquakes indicated the safety of CO2 storage at Nagaoka site.No sign of CO2 leakage from the reservoir and no damages in Caprock and Wellbores from formation pressure measurements and results of geophysical well loggings and cross well seismic tomography. cross-wellUltra Sonic Imager and BHATV surveys indicated no clear changes in cement even at the depth where the Class-A cement has been exposed to CO2 for about 8 years at observation wells OB 2 and OB 4 OB-2 OB-4.
  • 26. Acknowledgements• This project is funded by Ministry of Economy, Economy Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan.• We thank staff of ENAA, GSC, OYO, GJI ENAA GSC OYO and RITE involved in this project.