Global status andperspectives on CCSThe ENGO Network on CCSCamilla Skriung, ZERO
The ENGO Network on CCS• Created in 2011• Members:Clean Air Task Force, E3G, Environmental DefenseFund, Green Alliance, Natural Resources DefenseCouncil, The Bellona Foundation, The ClimateInstitute, The Pembina Institute, World ResourcesInstitute and Zero Emission Resource Organisation• A coordinator based in Texas• Informal network
Background• ENGOs coming together aroundthe safe and effectivedeployment of CCS as a timelymitigation tool for combatingclimate change.• To have a common voice• A tool for cooperation andsharing knowledge
The networks goals• Ensure that CCS is performed andregulated safely, in a manner thatprotects our climate, human health andthe environment.• Pursue domestic and internationalpolicies, regulations and initiatives thatenable CCS to deliver on its emissionsreduction potential.• Disseminate scientifically sound andobjective information on CCS technology.
• Work toward common positions and responsesto international developments in the CCS arena.• Work to phase out the construction of newunabated, conventional coal-fired power stationsas soon as possible, with CCS playing a part of thesolution.• In developed countries, no new, conventionalcoal-fired generation should be constructedwithout CCS.• Work to incorporate CCS in other types of fossil-fired power generation, industrial sectors, and incombination with sustainable biomass.
The ENGO Network paper«Perspectives on CCS»• To broaden the discussion ofCCS as a complement to the keystrategies of energy efficiencyand renewable resources incombating climate change• Made to present at COP18• Written by members of TheENGO Network on CCS
• Describes the status of CCS inour respective countries andregions• A call to action for increasedinternational, governmentalsupport.• Gives recommendations forpolicy framework globally and ineach country
What seem to make CCSwork• Economic viability• Securing permits and approvals• Testing applicability of existinglegislation and regulations• Gaining trust and support oflocal communities, governmentand NGOs• Taking that leap of faith
Policy needs for CCS• Limits on carbon emissions and anassociated price on carbon• Overcome the initial high-costhurdle for projects• Regulations mandating orproviding a pathway for CCSdeployment• Regulations for ensuringenvironmental protection andmanaging the risks associated withCCS
EUrecommendations/needs• Show that CCS can clearly form part of alow-carbon future. Especially the casefor the use of CCS on industrial sourcesof CO2 emissions or on gas-fired powerplants.• Such an approach would also appeal topoliticians who are concerned by theimpact of the economic crisis and the riskof carbon leakage and job losses.• A positive motivation for CCS is sorelyneeded to counteract the (oftenerroneously) negative perceptions of CCSto date.
• Increase the carbon price todemonstrate that it can be aneffective means of reducingemissions and shaping longtimeinvestment decisions• Strengthen the Emission TradingScheme (ETS)• Solve the issue around the (evenon short term) continued use ofcoal and CCS as part of that
• Finalize and fasten theprocesses of the CO2 storagedirective, the 6 EuropeanEconomic Recovery Planprojects, and the New EntrantsReserve of the ETS (NER300)funding.• Sharing knowledge: a goodexample is the EU CCS Network
Germanyrecommendations/needs• A better CCS law that allows fortesting and demos of the wholeCCS chain• An educated debate: Thepublic/NGO/citizen groups needscientifically accurateinformation and proof (demos)that CCS can be safe, effectiveand environmentally friendly
• The info and messaging comingfrom trusted actors that carryobjectivity and credibility• More focus on CCS on industrialapplications(concrete, cement, steel..)• Investigate the pipelineinfrastructure possibilities: offshore storage
Norwayrecommendations/needs• Continued and extended use ofthe policy of obligatory CCS inpermits for building any newgas-fired power• Establishing an infrastructure fortransport and storage• A new political and financialframework for CCS:
• The offshore CO2 tax should beincreased and used for a funddedicated to climate changetechnical solutions, like CCS
USArecommendations/needs• a federal tax incentive for EOR-CCSintended to drive CCS deploymentat large-scale• CCS must be deployed on all fossilpower generation units• the Clean Air Act are providing anopportunity to address emissionsreduction from the powersector, and a potential driver forCCS deployment
Canadarecommendations/needs• Adopt higher price on carbonand/or mandate CCS on newfacilities.• Adopt strong, protectivestandards throughout Canadaregulating sequestrationfacilities.
Growing economiesrecommendations/needs• Use UNFCCC to agree on mechanismto provide:• financial aid for CCS projects• Tech transfer• Support for mapping of storageformations• Market mechanisms to support CCS• Capacity building for safe and effectiveregulation.• MEF: Strengthen Technology ActionPlan
CCS large scale projectsgloballyIn total, 8 large-scale CCS projectsoperating worldwide storing23 million tonnes of CO2 every year• Sleipner• Snøhvit• Great Plains (US)/ Weyburn-Midale (Canada)• In Salah CO2 Injection (Algeria)
• Enid Fertiliser CO2-EORProject (US)• Val Verde Gas Plants (US)• Shute Creek GasProcessing (US)• Century Plant GasProcessing (US)
Other significant CCSprojects• Boundary Dam 3, Canada• Texas Clean Energy Project, US• Plant Barry Demo, US• Callide Oxyfuel, Australia• ROAD Demo, The Netherlands• Air Products Port Arthur, US• Illinois CCS Project, US
• Quest project, Canada• Gorgon LNGproject, Australia• Alberta Carbon TrunkLine, Canada• Kemper County IGCC, US
Why so few in Europe?• Financial models too dependenton EU/states/carbon price• Low price on carbon• The financial crisis• Public distrust and opposition• Info often given by «wrong»messenger• An overall distrust in fossil energy