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Atlantic Council - Darren Mollot

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Clean Coal – CCS RD&D Overview

Clean Coal – CCS RD&D Overview

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  • 1. Dr.  Darren  Mollot   September  2013   Clean  Coal  –  CCS  RD&D  Overview   Acting  Deputy  Assistant  Secretary   Office  of  Clean  Coal  
  • 2. 2   Office  of  Fossil  Energy   Office  of  Clean  Coal  Vision  &  Mission   A  SECURE,  RELIABLE  AND   AFFORDABLE  ENERGY  FUTURE  WITH   THE  ENVIRONMENTALLY  SOUND  USE   OF  COAL  AND  FOSSIL  FUELS   VISION   SUPPORT  THE  RESEARCH,   DEVELOPMENT  &  DEMONSTRATION   OF  ADVANCED  TECHNOLOGIES  TO   ENSURE  THE  AVAILABILITY  OF  CLEAN,   AFFORDABLE  ENERGY  FROM  COAL   AND  FOSSIL  RESOURCES MISSION  
  • 3. 3   Office  of  Fossil  Energy   Office  of  Clean  Coal  -­‐  Goals   GOALS         GOAL  1:     DEMONSTRATE  NEAR-­‐ZERO  EMISSION  FOSSIL-­‐BASED  TECHNOLOGIES     GOAL  2:     ACCEPTANCE  BY  INDUSTRY,  FINANCIAL    INSTITUTIONS,  REGULATORS  AND  THE  PUBLIC  THAT   CO2  CAN  BE  SAFELY  INJECTED,  MONITORED  AND  PERMANENTLY  STORED  IN  A  VARIETY  OF   GEOLOGIC  FORMATIONS       GOAL  3:     CONDUCT  HIGH-­‐RISK,  RESEARCH  AND  DEVELOPMENT  ON  ADVANCED  COAL  AND  FOSSIL   TECHNOLOGIES  INCLUDING  CO2  CAPTURE  AND  NOVEL  HIGH  EFFICIENCY  CYCLES     GOAL  4:     DRIVE  INTERNATIONAL  COLLABORATION  TO  ENSURE  WIDE-­‐SPREAD  ACCEPTANCE  AND   DEPLOYMENT  OF  CCS  TECHNOLOGIES     GOAL  5:     SUPPORT  POLICY,  LEGISLATION,  AND  REGULATION  IMPACTING  FOSSIL  ENERGY  BY  PROVIDE   DATA  AND  EXPERTISE    
  • 4. 4   What  Role  Will  Fossil  Play  
  • 5. 5   World  Coal  Production   China  –  U.S.A  –  India  –  Australia  -­‐  Indonesia   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Billion  Short  Tons   World  Coal  Production   China U.S.A India Australia Indonesia World Data  from  U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration  
  • 6. 6     0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 2010 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Million  Short  Tons   World  Coal  Consumption   India United  States China World  total Data  from  U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration   World  Coal  Consumption   China  –  India  –  United  States  
  • 7. 7   U.S.  Electricity  Generation   Historical  Perspective     0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Billion  kWh   U.S.  Electricity  Generation   Coal Petroleum Natural  Gas Nuclear Renwables Total Data  from  U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration  
  • 8. 8   U.S.  Electricity  Generation   Future  Projections     0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Billion  kWh   Electricity  Generation   Coal Natural  Gas Total  U.S.  Generation Petroleum Nuclear Renewables Data  from  U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration  -­‐  2013  
  • 9. 9   Meeting  global  climate  mitigation  targets  will  likely  require  CCS       IEA’s  Energy  Technology  Perspectives:   Gigatons  of  CO2   Source:  International  Energy  Agency  
  • 10. 10   Opportunities  for  Large  Scale  Projects  
  • 11. 11   Advanced  Combustion   CO2  Storage  Advanced  CO2  Capture  and   Compression      Solvents      Sorbents      Membranes      Hybrid      Process   Intensification      Cryogenic  Capture   Pressurized          O2    membrane    Chemical  looping    USC  Materials    Carbon  Utilization  (EOR)    Infrastructure  (RCSPs)    Geological  Storage    Monitoring,  Verification   and  Accounting        Gasification      Turbines      Supercritical  CO2      Direct  Power  Extraction   Integrated  Fossil  Energy  Solutions   Efficiencies    >  45%    Capital  Cost  by  50%   $40  -­‐  $10/tonne  CO2  Captured   Near-­‐zero  GHGs   Near-­‐zero  criteria  pollutants   Near-­‐zero  water  usage   Advanced  Energy   Systems   5  MWE  Oxycombustion  Pilot   Advanced  Turbines  
  • 12. 12   0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Power  Generation  Penalty  [%  of  Plant  Output]   Capture  Technology  Progress   Performance  Drives  Cost   Then   (1997)   Now   (2013)   Future     (2020)   ~  $150/Tonne     ~  $60/Tonne   <  $40/Tonne   Energy  Penalty  Reductions   Enable  Cost  Reductions  
  • 13. 13   Creating  a  Bridge  to  Affordable  CCS  Technology  
  • 14. 14   MAJOR  DEMONSTRATIONS  
  • 15. 15     Major  CCS  Demonstration  Projects   Project  Locations  &  Cost  Share     CCPI   ICCS  Area  1       FutureGen  2.0   Southern  Company   Kemper  County  IGCC  Project   Transport  Gasifier  w/  Carbon  Capture   ~$2.01B  –  Total,  $270M  –  -­‐DOE   EOR  –  ~3.0  MM  TPY  2014  start   NRG   W.A.  Parish  Generating  Station   Post  Combustion  CO2  Capture   $775  M  –  Total   $167M  –  DOE   EOR  –    ~1.4  MM  TPY  2016  start   Summit  TX  Clean  Energy   Commercial  Demo  of  Advanced   IGCC  w/  Full  Carbon  Capture   ~$1.7B  –  Total,  $450M  –  DOE   EOR  –  ~2.2  MMTPY  2017  start   HECA   Commercial  Demo  of  Advanced   IGCC  w/  Full  Carbon  Capture   ~$4B  –  Total,  $408M  –  DOE   EOR  –    ~2.6  MM  TPY  2019  start   Leucadia  Energy   CO2  Capture  from  Methanol  Plant   EOR  in  Eastern  TX  Oilfields     $436M  -­‐  Total,  $261M  –  DOE   EOR  –  ~4.5  MM  TPY  2017  start   Air  Products  and  Chemicals,  Inc.   CO2  Capture  from  Steam  Methane  Reformers   EOR  in  Eastern  TX  Oilfields   $431M  –  Total,  $284M  –  DOE   EOR  –    ~0.93  MM  TPY  2012  start   FutureGen    2.0   Large-­‐scale  Testing  of  Oxy-­‐Combustion  w/  CO2  Capture   and  Sequestration  in  Saline  Formation   Project:  ~$1.77B  –  Total;  ~$1.05B  –    DOE   SALINE  –  1  MM  TPY  2017  start   Archer  Daniels  Midland   CO2  Capture  from  Ethanol  Plant   CO2  Stored  in  Saline  Reservoir   $208M  –  Total,  $141M  –  DOE   SALINE  –  ~0.9  MM  TPY  2014  start  
  • 16. 16   8  active  projects   1  in  operation,  2  under  construction,  5  in   engineering/finance   5  electricity  generation,  3  industrial       3  IGCC,  4  post-­‐processing,  1  oxycombustion   Feedstock:    4  coal,  1  petroleum    coke,                                                         1  coal/coke,  1  natural  gas,  1  ethanol   2  polygeneration   Storage:  6  EOR,  2  saline  formations                   Major  CCS  Demonstration  Projects  
  • 17. 17   8  active  projects   1  in  operation,  2  under  construction,  5  in   engineering/finance   5  electricity  generation,  3  industrial       3  IGCC,  4  post-­‐processing,  1  oxycombustion   Feedstock:    4  coal,  1  petroleum    coke,                                                         1  coal/coke,  1  natural  gas,  1  ethanol   2  polygeneration   Storage:  6  EOR,  2  saline  formations                   Major  CCS  Demonstration  Projects  
  • 18. 18   Projects     CCPI   ICCS  Area  1       FutureGen  2.0   Major  CCS  Demonstration  Projects   Project  Locations  &  Cost  Share   Southern  Company   Kemper  County  IGCC  Project   IGCC-­‐Transport  Gasifier     w/Carbon  Capture   ~$2.0B  –  Total  CCPI  project   $270M  –  DOE   EOR  –  ~3M  MTPY  2014  start   NRG   W.A.  Parish  Generating  Station   Post  Combustion  CO2  Capture   $775  M  (est.)  –  Total   $167M  –  DOE   EOR  –    ~1.4M  MTPY  2016  start   Summit  TX  Clean  Energy   Commercial  Demo  of  Advanced   IGCC  w/  Full  Carbon  Capture   ~$1.7B  –  Total   $450M  –  DOE   EOR  –  ~2.2M  MTPY  2017  start   HECA   Commercial  Demo  of  Advanced   IGCC  w/  Full  Carbon  Capture   ~$4B  –  Total,  $408M  –  DOE   EOR  –    ~2.6M  MTPY  2019  start   Leucadia  Energy   CO2  Capture  from  Methanol/H2  Plant   EOR  in  TX  &  LA  Oilfields     $436M  -­‐  Total,  $261M  –  DOE   EOR  –  ~4.5M  MTPY  2017  start   Air  Products  and  Chemicals,  Inc.   CO2  Capture  from  Steam  Methane  Reformers   EOR  in  Eastern  TX  Oilfields   $431M  –  Total,  $284M  –  DOE   EOR  –    ~0.93M  MTPY  2012  start   FutureGen    2.0   Large-­‐scale  Testing  of  Oxy-­‐Combustion  w/  CO2  Capture   and  Sequestration  in  Saline  Formation   Project:  ~$1.77B  –  Total;  ~$1.05B  –    DOE   SALINE  –  1M  MTPY  2017  start   Archer  Daniels  Midland   CO2  Capture  from  Ethanol  Plant   CO2  Stored  in  Saline  Reservoir   $208M  –  Total,  $141M  –  DOE   SALINE  –  ~0.9M  MTPY  2014  start  
  • 19. 19   Southern  Company  Services,  Inc.  CCPI-­‐2    Advanced  IGCC  with  CO2  Capture     Status   Plant  construction  >60%  complete;  >5,400   construction  personnel  on  site   CO2  off-­‐take  agreements  signed   Lignite  mine  under  development   Subsystems  (water  treatment,  cooling  towers)  to   begin  pre-­‐commissioning   Combustion  turbine  startup:  Sep  2013   Gasifier  heat-­‐up:  Dec  2013   Key  Dates   Project  Awarded:  Jan  30,  2006   Project  moved  to  MS:  Dec  5,  2008   NEPA  Record  of  Decision:  Aug  19,  2010   Initiate  excavation  work:  Sep  27,  2010   Operations:  May  2014   Kemper  County,  MS   582  MWe  (net)  with  duct  firing;  2  TRIGTM   gasifiers,  2  Siemens  combustion  turbines,  1   Toshiba  steam  turbine   Fuel:  Mississippi  lignite   67+%  CO2  capture  (Selexol®  process);                     3,000,000  tons  CO2/year     EOR:  Denbury  Onshore  LLC,  Treetop  Midstream   Services  LLC        
  • 20. 20   Lessons  Learned  
  • 21. 21   BIG  SKY   WESTCARB   SWP     PCOR   MGSC   SECARB   MRCSP   Regional  Carbon  Sequestration  Partnerships   Developing  the  Infrastructure  for  Wide  Scale  Deployment   Seven  Regional  Partnerships   400+  distinct  organizations,  43  states,  4  Canadian  Provinces    Engage  regional,  state,  and  local  governments    Determine  regional  sequestration  benefits    Baseline  region  for  sources  and  sinks      Establish  monitoring  and  verification  protocols    Address  regulatory,  environmental,  and  outreach  issues    Validate  sequestration  technology  and  infrastructure   Development  Phase  (2008-­‐2018+)   9  large  scale   injections  (over  1   million  tons  each)   Commercial  scale   understanding   Regulatory,  liability,   ownership  issues   Validation  Phase  (2005-­‐2011)   20  injection  tests  in  saline  formations,  depleted  oil,  unmineable   coal  seams,  and  basalt   Characterization  Phase  (2003-­‐2005)   Search  of  potential  storage   locations  and  CO2  sources   Found  potential  for  100’s  of   years  of  storage  
  • 22. 22   Large-­‐Scale  CO2  Storage  Tests     8  large  scale  tests  ongoing/planned  for  6  of  7  Regional  Partnerships   Tests  based  on  strong  core  R&D  program  and  20  smaller  field  tests.       Injection  schedule:  3  currently  injecting,  3  starting  2013,  2  during   2014-­‐2015   Storage:    5  EOR,  3  saline  formations   7  of  the  8  will  inject  between  1  –  2.9  million  tonnes  CO2   CO2  sources:  NG  processing  plants,  coal  power  plants,  ethanol   production  plant,  natural  CO2  source   All  tests  have  extensive  MVA   Results  will  inform  Best  Practice  Manuals    
  • 23. 23   8   7   3   1   2   4   6   5    9   RCSP   Geologic  Province   Injection  Volume                       (metric  tons)   BIG  SKY   Kevin  Dome-­             Duperow  Formation   TBD   MGSC   Illinois  Basin-­                                                         Mt.  Simon  Sandstone   >380,000   MRCSP   Michigan  Basin-­                                                 Niagaran  Reef   March  2013     PCOR   Powder  River  Basin-­                                 Muddy  Sandstone   April  2013   Horn  River  Basin-­   Carbonates   TBD   SECARB   Gulf  Coast  -­     Tuscaloosa  Formation   >3,000,000   Gulf  Coast  –     Paluxy  Formation   >30,000   SWP   Anadarko  Basin-­   Morrow  Sandstone   Sept  2013   WESTCARB   Regional  Characterization   Injection  Ongoing   2013  Injection  Scheduled   Injection  Scheduled  2014-­‐2015     1   2   3   4   7   8   6   9   5   Three  projects  currently  injecting  CO2     Three  Additional  Scheduled  for  2013   Remaining  injections  scheduled  2014-­‐2015   Injection  Began   Nov  2011   Injection  Began         April  2009   Core  Sampling  Taken   Note:  Some  locations  presented  on  map  may   differ  from  final  injection  location     Injection  Began   August  2012   RCSP  Phase  III:  Development  Phase    Large-­‐Scale  Geologic  Tests   Injection  began   February  2013   Injection  began   June  2013  Seismic  Survey  Completed  
  • 24. 24   Best  Practices  Manual   Version  1   (Phase  II)   Version  2   (Phase  III)   Final   Guidelines   (Post   Injection)   Monitoring,  Verification   and  Accounting   2009/2012   2016   2020   Public  Outreach  and   Education   2009   2016   2020   Site  Characterization   2010   2016   2020   Geologic  Storage   Formation  Classification   2010   2016   2020   **Simulation  and  Risk   Assessment   2010   2016   2020   **Carbon  Storage  Systems   and  Well  Management   Activities   2011   2016   2020   Terrestrial     2010   2016  –  Post  MVA  Phase   III   CCS  Best  Practices  Manuals     Critical  Requirement  For  Significant  Wide  Scale  Deployment  -­‐ Capturing  Lessons  Learned  
  • 25. 25   EXTRA  SLIDES    
  • 26. 26   …And  Broad  Potential  for  CO2-­‐EOR    
  • 27. 27   World  Coal  Consumption   China  –  India  –  United  States   0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 2010 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Quadrillion  BTU   World  Coal  Consumption   India United  States China World  total Data  from  U.S.  Energy  Information  Administration  
  • 28. 28   Drivers:  EPA  Regulations  Impacting  Coal   Issue   Federal  Regulation/Compliance   Air   SOx  &  NOx  crossing  state  lines   Cross-­‐State  Air  Pollution  Rule  (CSAPR)   finalized  7.7.2011;  amendments  proposed  10.2011;   supplemental  rule  expected  early  2012;  12.30.2011,  DC  Circuit   stay  of  CSAPR;  8.21.2012,  DC  Circuit  decision  vacating  CSAPR   (subject  to  possible  EPA  challenge)   Compliance:    Unknown   Mercury  and  Hazardous  Air   Pollutants  (HAPs)   Mercury  and  Air  Toxics  Standards  (MATS)  Rule  for   Electric  Generation  Units     Finalized    effective:  4.16.2012   Compliance:    ~2015   GHG  emissions     GHG  New  Source  Performance  Standards  (NSPS)     Proposed  rule  comments  currently  under  review  (new  baseload   and  intermediate  load  units  potentially  impacted  as  of  proposal   date)   Compliance:    Unknown   Water   Cooling  Water  Intake   Structures  –  impact  on  aquatic   life     CWA  §316(b)     final  rule  expected  11.2013   Compliance:    Within  8  Years   Surface  water  discharges;   Surface  impoundments   Steam  Electric  Effluent  Limitations  Guidelines   proposed  rule    went  out  for  public  comment  4.2013   Compliance:    Unknown   Waste     Coal  Combustion  Residuals   (e.g.,  coal  ash,  boiler  slag)     Coal  Combustion  Residuals  (CCR)  Rule  proposed  rule   comments  currently  under  review   Compliance:    Unknown   Near-­‐term  (through  2015-­‐ 2016)  Compliance  Horizon   for  EPA  regulations  may   create  potential  localized   reliability  issues   Local  reliability  issues  can   be  managed  with  timely   notice  and  coordination  on   retirement  and  retrofit   decisions   States  and  regions  will  play   a  valuable  role  in   addressing  EPA  regulation   impacts   Non-­‐transmission   alternatives  can  help   alleviate  reliability  impacts   when/where  available   EPA  regulations  are  only   one  aspect  impacting  the   future  of  our  electricity   system  
  • 29. 29   CCS  Specific  Regulations   CO2  Injection     Safe  Drinking  Water  Act   Two  “classes”  of  injection,  pertain  to  CO2,   Class  II  covers  EOR  and  Class  VI  covers   long-­‐term  CO2  storage   Class  II  has  been  governing  CO2  EOR  for   decades   Class  VI  was  finalized  in  December  2010,   and  has  been  accompanied  by  a  series  of   guidance  documents  pertaining  to  various   aspects  of  compliance   – Site  Characterization   – Area  of  Review  and  Corrective  Action   – Testing  and  Monitoring   – Project  Plan  Development   – Well  Construction   – Financial  Responsibility   – Well  Plugging,  Post-­‐Injection  Site  Care  and  Site   Closure  (draft)     Clean  Air  Act   Pursuant  to  the  Clean  Air  Act,  EPA  collects   and  disseminates  data  on  economy  of  CO2   emissions  through  its  Mandatory   Reporting  Rule   – Two  sub-­‐parts,  RR  &  UU,  apply  to  CO2  injection   – RR  applies  to  geologic  sequestration  of  CO2,  Class   VI  wells  and  Class  II  wells  that  “opt-­‐in”  to   reporting   – RR  uses  a  mass  balance  approach  to  calculate   stored  CO2   – UU  applies  to  other  injection  of  CO2,  typically   business  as  usual  EOR,  and  only  requires  reporting   of  quantities  of  delivered  CO2    
  • 30. 30   Addressing  Challenges  of  Carbon  Management    Creating  knowledge  today  …  for  building  a  better  tomorrow     Then  -­‐  Recognition  of  the  Problem   Very  little  was  known  about  carbon  storage  strategies     CO2  capture  technologies  were  very  expensive  and  energy  intensive   1997,  FE/NETL  initiated  CCS  R&D  responding  to  international  GHG  initiatives   By  2007,    DOE  R&D  Program  exhibited  global  leadership  in  CCS  development   Now  -­‐  Focusing  Resources   Broad  capture  and  storage  R&D  program  underway   Capture  costs  have  been  reduced   Significant  insights  into  storage  developed   Regional  Partnerships  -­‐  building  CCS  infrastructure   Seven  Best  Practice  Manuals  -­‐  spreading  knowledge     Carbon  Sequestration  Atlas  -­‐    clarify  storage  potential   Future  -­‐  Transforming   Complete  large-­‐scale  storage  tests  and  integrated  CCS  demonstration  projects   U.S.  leadership  in  developing  advanced  power  systems  with  CCS  -­‐  providing  affordable   options  needed  to  power  the  economies  of  the  world