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J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
J Daniels US CCS Policy
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J Daniels US CCS Policy

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  • 1. Jarad Daniels Office of Clean Coal & Carbon Management Thursday 19th June 2014 U.S. CCS Policy
  • 2. President’s Climate Action Plan: Three overarching themes Mitigation (Emissions Reduction) • ALL OF THE ABOVE • Efficiency, Renewables, Nuclear, Gas • Coal with CCS/CCUS Adaptation and Resilience • Smart, reliable grid • Key infrastructure investments International Partnerships • China and Asia • Coordinated Intl. Efforts 2 Once in a Generation Opportunity to Build
  • 3. 3 Effects of Market Realities on the “All of Above” Strategy • Regardless of EPA Greenhouse Gas regulations, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that no new coal-fired generation will be built in the US in the foreseeable future. • The expansion of shale gas production in the U.S. has led to lower natural gas prices, challenging the cost-competitiveness of coal- fired power generation.
  • 4. 4 Electric Utility Sector & EPA Regs Issue Federal Regulation/Compliance Air SOx & NOx crossing state lines Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) finalized 7.7.2011; 12.30.2011, DC Circuit stay of CSAPR (CAIR in effect); 8.21.2012, DC Circuit decision vacating CSAPR; SCOTUS overturned, EPA Review Pending Compliance: Unknown Mercury and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) Rule for Electric Generation Units finalized 12.16.2011 Compliance: ~2015 GHG emissions GHG New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) new rule proposed 9.20.2013 Existing GHG Regulation proposed rule delivered 6.2014; final rule expected 6.2015 (under Presidential Memorandum) Waste Coal Combustion Residuals (e.g., coal ash, boiler slag) Coal Combustion Residuals (CCR) Rule proposed rule 6.10.2010; schedule for final rule expected 1.2014 (court memorandum) Compliance: Unknown Water Cooling Water Intake Structures – impact on aquatic life CWA §316(b) Rule proposed rule 4.20.2011; final rule delivered 5.2014 (settlement agreement) Compliance: Within 8 Years Surface water discharges; Surface impoundments Steam Electric Effluent Limitations Guidelines proposed rule expected 11.2012; final rule expected 5.22.2014 (settlement agreement) Compliance: Unknown  Near-term (through 2015-2016) Compliance Horizon for EPA regulations may create potential localized reliability issues  Local reliability issues can be managed with timely notice and coordination on retirement and retrofit decisions  States and regions will play a valuable role in addressing EPA regulation impacts  Non-transmission alternatives can help alleviate reliability impacts when/where available  EPA regulations are only one aspect impacting the future of our electricity system
  • 5. 5 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 20212010 For Reliability Critical Units Technically in Effect (conditional) 316(b) Final Rule 5.2014 Compliance within 8 years of effective date Eff Guide Final Rule 5.22.2014 Eff Guide Prop Rule 6.7.2013 316(b) Prop Rule 4.20.2011 MATS Final Rule 12.16.2011 Compliance within 3 years of effective date + 1 add’l year if granted by permitting authority MATS Prop Rule 3.16.2011 CSAPR Final Rule 7.7.2011 CSAPR Prop Rule 4.26.2010 EGU GHG NSPS Final Rule 2013-2014* EGU GHG NSPS Prop Rule 3.27.2012 CCR Final Rule 2014?? Compliance Currently Unknown PROPOSED: Subtitle D – 6 months; Subtitle C – state decision CCR Prop Rule 6.21.2010 Compliance Currently Unknown •CSAPR: 4.29.2014 opinion vacating CSAPR overturned by Supreme Court; EPA is reviewing the opinion •MATS: EPA Enforcement Policy Memorandum; Presidential Memorandum; FERC Policy Statement •EPA finalized its reconsideration of MATS for new sources on 3.28.2013; only impacts new sources to be built in the future. EPA Regs Compliance Horizon CAIR in effect; CSAPR Compliance Currently Unknown; pending SCOTUS review * PM directs EPA to issue new proposed EGU GHG NSPS by 9.20.2013 and a final rule “in a timely fashion after considering all public comments, as appropriate” EGU GHG NSPS Prop Rule #2 9.20.2013 Complaince, 2018- 2030+ Existing EGU GHG Final Rule 6.2015* Existing EGU GHG Prop Rule 6.2014* * PM directs EPA to issue proposed existing source EGU GHG rule by 6.2014 and a final rule by 6.2015.
  • 6. 6 Clean Air Act - 111(b) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) from new fossil sources, burning at least 50% coal or 50% natural gas Coal-Fired Units: less than 1,100 lbs CO2/MWh Reference: New Super Critical: 1,800-2,000 lbs CO2/MWh Coal may comply with ~ 40% capture Gas NGCC:1,000 lbs CO2/MWh Gas simple cycle 1,100 CO2/MWh - Compliance is on a 12 month rolling basis - Captured CO2 may be sent for geologic storage - EOR may be used with appropriate reporting Timeline: Proposed Regulation: November, 2013 Final Regulation expected November 2014 – January 2015 (1 year after proposal) Note: 111(b) must be final before 111(d) is final!
  • 7. 7 Clean Air Act - 111(d): Summary Approach: 1.) Develop Building Blocks to guide emission reductions 2.) Set state targets for 2030 3.) Request State implementation plans by 2016-2017 4.) Gradual reduction over 12 years, with binding cap in 2030 EPA defines the “best system” as the Electricity system as a whole. Therefore, new non-emitting sources can be used EPA is seeking to provide as much flexibility to states as possible to develop individual plans Published concurrently with Modified source rule (Modified sources under 111(b). Note that this counts as a precursor to 111(d) regulations, as does the New Source Performance Standards, also under 111(b) 111(d) has only been used 5 times before for smaller rules. This is new legal territory for EPA.
  • 8. 8 111(d): Building Blocks Approach: EPA Developed 4 “Building blocks” 1.) 6% Improvement in Coal Plant Heat Rate (4% from “Best practices”, 2% from Equipment Improvements 2.) Increase existing NGCC capacity factors to 70% 3.) Expanding new, less carbon – intensive generating capacity (Renewables, New Nuclear, and credit for retaining existing nuclear) 4.) Demand Side Energy Efficiency - Building blocks are calculated on a per-state basis. - States DO NOT have to use the 4 building blocks above. - Building blocks set the state emission rate; State Implementation Plan can determine how best to meet the emission rate. - 2012 Baseline Year
  • 9. 9 CO2 emission rate = CO2 emissions from all affected fossil fuel EGUs Generation from affected fossil fuel EGUs + New RE Generation + Generation from new and “preserved” NE + Cumulative MWh saved from demand side EE State Implementation Plans: - SIPs due in June, 2016, unless states opt in to a multi-state approach - Multi-State Plans due in June, 2017. - Plans will be evaluated based on 4 criteria: - Enforceable Measures - Emission Performance - Quantifiable and Verifiable Emission Performance - Reporting and Corrective Action EPA will be publishing guidelines to aid states in developing SIPs 111(d): Emission Rates and SIPs
  • 10. 10 Draft Rule: 2 June 2014 Final NSPS: November 2014 – January 2015 Final Rule: June, 2015 (Per President’s Directive) State Plans: June, 2016 Multi State Plans: June, 2017 Initial Reductions: 2018 SIPs shall set interim goals to assess performance over the time period from 2018-2030. Binding State Goals: 2030; 3-year rolling average thereafter. 111(d): Timeframes:
  • 11. 11 Cross-Cutting Research Crosscutting technology development program Major Goals: 2016: advance 2nd gen materials, sensors, modeling technologies to applied programs 2020: develop distributed communication sensor networks (transformational tech.) CO2 Storage Safe, permanent storage of CO2 from power and industry Major Goals: 2020: technologies and tools available to measure and account for 99% of injected CO2 2020: CCS best practices and protocols completed based upon RCSP Phase III activities CO2 Capture and Compression Cost effective capture for new and existing plants Major Goals: 2016: complete 2nd gen field tests (~1.0 MW scale) 2020: complete 2nd gen pilot tests (10 to 25 MW) 2025: complete transformational tech. field tests (~ 1.0 MW) Office of Clean Coal: Program Summary Advanced Energy Systems Gasification, Adv Turbines, Adv Combustion, CBTL, and fuel cells Major Goals: 2016: Complete Warm Gas Cleanup demo. 2025: 20-30% Reduction in Combined Cycle Capital Cost (2nd gen) 2025: Advanced combustion ready for pilot scale operation
  • 12. 12 Carbon Capture Sub-program is focused on the development of post-combustion and pre- combustion CO2 capture technology for new and existing industrial and power- producing plants The National Carbon Capture Center in Wilsonville, Alabama FY 2015 Request: $77.0 Million • Post-Combustion Capture Systems (65.0 Million) • Pre-Combustion Capture Systems (12.0 Million)
  • 13. 13 Carbon Storage Sub-program advances safe, cost-effective and permanent geologic storage of CO2 FY 2015 Request: $80.1 Million • Storage Infrastructure (Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships) (60.1 Million) • Geologic Storage Technologies (8.5 Million) • Monitoring, Verification, Accounting and Assessment (4.5 Million) • Focus Area for Carbon Sequestration Science (7.0 Million) Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships
  • 14. 14 Advanced Energy Systems Sub-program focuses on improving the efficiency of coal-based power systems, enabling affordable CO2 capture, increasing plant availability, and maintaining the highest environmental standards FY 2015 Request: $51.0 Million • Advanced Combustion Systems (15.0 Million) • Gasification Systems (22.0 Million) • Hydrogen Turbines (11.0 Million) • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (3.0 Million)
  • 15. 15 Cross-Cutting Research Development of new materials, catalysts, instrumentation and sensors, and advanced computer systems that will be used in future power plants and energy systems FY 2015 Request: $35.3 Million • Plant Optimization Technologies (7.0 Million) • Coal Utilization Science (23.5 Million) • University Training and Research (2.75 Million) • Energy Analyses (0.85 Million) • International Activities (1.1 Million)
  • 16. 16 CCS & Power Systems Funding FY 2013 - 2015 ($ in thousands) FY 2013 FY 2014 Enacted FY 2015 Request Carbon Capture Post-Combustion Natural Gas CCS Prize Pre-Combustion Total, Carbon Capture 51,336 0 12,389 63,725 80,000 0 12,000 92,000 65,000 0 12,000 77,000 Carbon Storage Storage Infrastructure (Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships) Geological Storage Monitoring, Verification, Accounting and Assessment Carbon Use and Reuse Focus Area for Carbon Sequestration Science Total, Carbon Storage 76,961 13,845 6,229 719 8,991 106,745 71,866 16,300 10,000 800 9,800 108,766 60,084 8,500 4,500 0 7,000 80,084 Advanced Energy Systems Advanced Combustion Systems Gasification Systems Hydrogen Turbines Coal and Coal Biomass to Liquids Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Total, Advanced Energy Systems 14,790 36,051 13,866 4,621 23,110 92,438 18,500 36,000 15,000 5,000 25,000 99,500 15,000 22,000 11,000 0 3,000 51,000 Cross-cutting Research Plant Optimization Technologies Coal Utilization Science Energy Analyses University Training and Research International Activities Total, Cross-cutting Research 12,629 23,293 4,711 3,699 1,286 45,618 17,025 19,000 950 3,600 1,350 41,925 7,042 23,550 850 2,750 1,100 35,292 NETL Coal Research and Development NETL Coal Research and Development Total, NETL Coal Research and Development 33,338 33,338 50,011 50,011 34,031 Total, CCS & Power Systems 341,864 392,202 277,407 16
  • 17. 17 Fossil Energy Budget: 2015: $205,000 1,600 19,950 15,580 Research and Development CCS Demonstrations Natural Gas Carbon Capture & Storage CCS & Power Systems Carbon Capture Carbon Storage Advanced Energy Systems Cross-cutting Research NETL Coal R&D Total CCS & Power Systems Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Petroleum Reserves Other R&D/Prog. Direction/Mgmt.Support Total, Research and Development (Dollars in Thousands) FY2015 25,000 77,000 80,084 51,000 35,292 34,031 $302,407 $35,000 $138,093 $475,500 Request Total Fossil Energy Budget $711,030 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve* Naval Petroleum Reserves/RMOTC Elk Hills School Land Fund Rescission of CCT Prior Year Funds ($6,600)
  • 18. 18 DOE CCUS Demonstration Projects CCPI FutureGen ICCS (Area I) Hydrogen Energy California IGCC with EOR $408 Million - DOE $4.0 Billion - Total Summit Texas Clean Energy IGCC with EOR $450 Million - DOE $1.7 Billion - Total NRG Energy Post Combustion with CO2 Capture with EOR $167 Million – DOE $339 Million - Total Air Products CO2 Capture from Steam Methane Reformers with EOR $284 Million - DOE $431 Million - Total Leucadia CO2 Capture from Methanol with EOR $261 Million - DOE $436 Million - Total Archer Daniels Midland CO2 Capture from Ethanol w/ saline storage $141 Million - DOE $208 Million - Total FutureGen 2.0 Oxy-combustion with CO2 capture and saline storage $1.0 Billion - DOE $1.3 Billion - Total Southern Company Services IGCC-Transport Gasifier w/CO2 pipeline $270 Million - DOE $2.67 Billion - Total Focus – Large-scale commercial demonstration of CCUS integrated with coal power generation and industrial sources.
  • 19. 19 Southern Company Services Advanced IGCC with CO2 Capture Plant SitePlant Site Status  Plant construction >85% complete;>5,100 construction workers on site  CO2 off-take agreements signed  Lignite mine under development  Combustion turbine startup: Aug 2013  Roll Steam Turbine: Oct 2013  Gasifier heat-up: June 2014 Key Dates  Project Awarded: January 2006  Project moved to MS: December 2008  Construction: July 2010  NEPA ROD: August 2010  Operations: Nov/Dec 2014 • Kemper County, MS • 582 MWe (net) IGCC: 2 Gasifiers, 2 Siemens Combustion Turbines, 1 Toshiba Steam Turbine • Mississippi Lignite Fuel • ~67% CO2 capture (Selexol® process) 3,000,000 tons CO2/year • EOR Denbury Onshore LLC, Treetop Midstream Services LLC • Total Project: $4.3 Billion DOE Share: $270 Million (7%) DOE Reimbursement to date: $248 Million
  • 20. 20 Southern Company Services Advanced IGCC with CO2 Capture Remaining Issues/Concerns:  There are few remaining challenges for the Kemper project to overcome, but none of them are anticipated to preclude the plant from operating as planned.  Portions of the plant are presently being tested and full operations is expected to start in early 2015.  Litigation was filed by the Sierra Club on the Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity. The issue is before the Mississippi State Supreme Court.  Mississippi Power Company (MPC) has increased estimated plant costs several times over the past year. MPC will not seek to recover these increases from customers.
  • 21. 21 21 Kemper County, MS Southern Co., 2010
  • 22. 22 22
  • 23. 23 Archer Daniels Midland CO2 Capture from Biofuel Plant • Decatur, IL • CO2 is a by-product (>99% purity) from production of fuel grade ethanol via anaerobic fermentation • Up to 90% CO2 capture; dehydration (via tri-ethylene glycol) and compression – ~900,000 tonnes CO2 /year • Sequestration in Mt. Simon Sandstone saline reservoir • Total Project: $208 Million DOE Share: $141 Million (68%) DOE Reimbursement to date: $75 Million Key Dates  Phase 2 selection: Jun 15, 2010  FEED Complete: Apr 2011  NEPA FONSI: Apr 2011  Construction start: May 2011  UIC Class VI Injection Well Permit: Aug 2014  Sequestration start: Feb 2015 Status  Construction ~55% complete  UIC Class VI permit submitted: Jul 2011  Two monitoring wells drilled: Nov 2012  Commissioning compression and dehydration: began in July 2013
  • 24. 24 Archer Daniels Midland CO2 Capture from Biofuel Plant Remaining Issues/Concerns:  The ADM draft permitting process for the first UIC Class VI CO2 injection well permit is on track.  The permitting process may continue through August 2014 to get the final permit. Any delay would impact the injection well drilling schedule.
  • 25. 25 Decatur, IL ADM 2013 Compression FacilityCO2 Pipe to Injection Well
  • 26. 26 ADM - Project Monitoring Photos (June 2013) Soil Gas and CO2 Flux Networks Shallow Groundwater Sampling
  • 27. 27 ADM - Project Photos (June 2013) Four Compressor Train Compressor & Auxiliaries Dehydration System 8” High Pressure transmission Line
  • 28. 28 Air Products & Chemicals Steam Methane Reforming with CO2 Capture • Port Arthur, TX (Hydrogen plant at Valero Refinery) • 90%+ CO2 capture (Vacuum Swing Adsorption) from 2 steam-methane reformers (SMRs) yielding ~925,000 tonnes CO2/year • ~30 MWe cogeneration unit to supply makeup steam to SMRs and operate VSA and compression equipment • CO2 to Denbury for EOR - West Hastings oilfield • Total Project: $431 Million DOE Share: $284 Million (66%) DOE Reimbursement to date: $266 Million Key Dates  Phase 2 selection: Jun 15, 2010  FEED complete: Nov 2010  Permit By Rule (PBR) and Standard Air Permits issued: May 2011  NEPA FONSI: Jul 2011  Construction start: Aug 2011  Operation start: Dec 2012 Status  PA-1 initiated operation: Mar 3, 2013  PA-2 initiated operation: Dec 16, 2012 – Operating continuously since Dec 31, 2012 – Full capacity achieved: April 2013 – Total CO2 delivered: 922K tons (Mar 2014)  Final MVA report submitted: Feb 2013
  • 29. Air Products & Chemicals Steam Methane Reforming with CO2 Capture Remaining Issues/Concerns:  APCI is currently operating and there are no present issues of concern with this project.  The project reached 1,000,000 metric tons of contained CO2 in the mid-April 2014 timeframe.  APCI has requested a 2-year no-cost time extension beyond September 30, 2015 to provide additional operational data.
  • 30. VSA VesselsVSA Vessels Co-Gen Unit Blowers CO2 Compressor & TEG Unit CO2 Surge Tanks Existing SMR Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. - Port Arthur 2
  • 31. 31 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 HECA FutureGen 2.0 Archer Daniels Midland Summit TX Clean Energy NRG Energy Air Products Leucadia Southern Company TotalProjectCost(MillionsofDollars($)) DOE CCUS Demonstration Projects Funding Sources DOE Funding Industry Funding
  • 32. 32 Texas Clean Energy Project A breakdown of the financing Project Details • Advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle • Poly-generation with Enhanced Oil Recovery • 90% CO2 capture ~ 2.7 million tons of CO2 per year • CO2 used for EOR in the Permian Basin oilfields Project Funding • Foreign Investment • MOU signed by representatives of Summit, Sinopec Engineering Group, and The Export-Import Band of China • Pending a possible $ 1 billion foreign investment Sinopec Engineering Group and China’s state- owned Export-Import Bank (Chexim) • Total Funding Breakdown • $ 1.3 billion in debt financing in the form of bonds and bank loans • $ 845 million from equity and tax equity • $ 450 million in DOE Clean Coal Power Initiative funding • Federal Tax Incentives – Long-term benefits totaling $1.49 billion • $ 313 million – Advanced Coal Program Investment Tax Credit • $ 253 million – Total available Carbon Sequestration Tax Credits over the first 10 years • $ 925 million – estimated MACRS accelerated depreciation tax benefits over the first 5 years Plant Production Details • 400 MW of gross power • 160 MW net available for sale to the power grid. • 2.2 million tons of CO2 per year for EOR • 720 thousand tons of Urea per year
  • 33. 33 Loan Program Office Project Development Financing LPO Advanced Fossil Energy Solicitation $8 billion in loan guarantees CARBON CAPTURE • From traditional coal or NG generation • Saline formations or EOR ADVANCED RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT • ECBM, UCG, novel oil and gas drilling • Use of co-produced waste gases vs. flaring LOW CARBON POWER SYSTEMS • Oxycombustion, chemical looping • Syngas-, H2, or NG-based fuel cells EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS • CHP and waste-heat recovery • High-T or high-efficiency cycles
  • 34. 34 Funding CCS Projects in the United States… American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA): - $ 1 Billion, FutureGen 2.0 - $ 1.52 Billion, Industrial CCS Applications - $ 800 Million, CCPI Round 3 Expansion - $ 100 Million, Training, Research, and Program Direction U.S. DOE Office of Fossil Energy - $ 25 Million, requested for Natural Gas CCS demonstration in FY 2015 Loan Guarantees $8 Billion available for Advanced Fossil Projects - Will guarantee up to 80% of the project cost - First round of applications submitted April, 2014 Tax Credits: At least 500,000 metric tons per tax year captured and used for: (1) $20 per metric ton of carbon dioxide which is - (A) captured by the taxpayer at a qualified facility, and (B) disposed of in secure geological storage (Saline Formations) (2) $10 per metric ton of qualified carbon dioxide which is—(A) captured by the taxpayer at a qualified facility, (B) used by the taxpayer as a tertiary injectant in a qualified enhanced oil or natural gas recovery project, and (C) disposed of by the taxpayer in a secure geological storage.
  • 35. 35 Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) • A ministerial-level international climate change initiative focused on the development of improved, cost effective CCS. • Comprised of 23 members representing 22 countries and the European Commission. • CSLF member countries represent over 60% of the world’s population and over 70% of man-made CO2 emissions, world energy production and consumption, and world GDP.
  • 36. 36 Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum The CSLF aims to: – Share information on CCS Projects, policy initiatives and legal and regulatory developments in member countries; – Build the capacity for CCS in the developing country CSLF Members; – Explore methods for financing CCS projects, including in developing countries, and; – Develop global roadmaps for research, development and demonstration of CCS technologies.
  • 37. 37 Global challenge global progress: new global solutions still required Key unit of innovation – global engines of discovery Uthmaniyah (KSA) Lula (BRA) Quest (CAN) Mongstad (NOR) ESI (UAE) Gorgon (AUS) GreenGen (PRC) We just need more projects and more information
  • 38. China: necessary and equal partner • Global leader and driver – In coal use, production, & imports – In CO2 emissions – In boiler and gasifier construction – In renewable loading and production • Technically advanced – Gasification technology and use – USC-PC; developing A-USC cycles – Advanced modeling & simulation • Global economic powerhouse 38
  • 39. 39 US-China CERC: Premier bi-lateral R&D platform This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 Active as of Oct. 2010 Joint R&D platform for efficient buildings, efficient vehicles, and clean coal plus CCUS •Carbon sequestration tech. & practice • Capture technology and engineering • Coal Conversion and CO2 utilization Large industrial projects as part of R&D platform Technical management plan (with IP protections) signed Sept. 2011
  • 40. 40 U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group • Five cooperative initiative were launched after the April 2013 visit to China by Secretary Kerry: 1. Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage 2. Smart Grid 3. Emission reduction from heavy-duty & other vehicles 4. Collecting and managing GHG emission data 5. Energy efficiency in building & industry • CCUS initiative focus on partnering new China CCUS demonstration projects in EOR and water production with their U.S. counterparts.

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