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  • 1. GLOBAL CCS INSTITUTE Japan Regional Member’s Meeting 2014 The role for coal in Japan’s energy policy June 19, 2014 Hiroshi ENOMOTO Coal Division, Natural Resources and Fuel Department, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, METI
  • 2. 1. Coal in Japan’s energy mix 2. Security of coal supply 3. Environment surrounding CCT (Trends in environmental regulations and the world CCT market) 4. Promotion of coal utilization technology 5. Summary 1
  • 3. 1. Coal in Japan’s energy mix 2
  • 4. World coal consumption (2012 possibility) Source:IEA Coal Information2013 Coal import of Japan (2013) Source:Ministry of Finance, Trade statistics Deposits, a consumption and quantity of trade ○Japan depends on Australia(64%) and Indonesia(19%) for approximately 80% of the import. ○Japan is the second import country in the world following China, and import 99% of domestic consumptions. ○The quantity of world trade is approximately 1.3billion tons. (Import of Japan is 14% of those.) -Quantity of trade is approximately 16% of the whole coal production.(The coal is local production of local consumption resources basically.) 1,255,340,000t 3 World coal export (2012 possibility) World coal import (2012 possibility) Australia 63.6% Indonesia 19.1% Russia 6.4% Canada 5.2% The United Status 3.5% China 1.1% Others 1.1% 191,540,000t China 23% Japan 14% India 12% Korea 10% Taiwan 5% Germany 4%The U.K. 4% Russia 2% Spain 2% France 1% Others 23% 1,276,030,000t China 48% The United States 11% India 10% Russia 3% Germany 3% South Africa 2% Japan 2% Poland 2% Australia 2% Korea 2% Others 15% 7,696,900,000t Indonesia 30% Australia 24% Russia 11% 9% Columbia 7% South Africa 6% Canada 3% Kazakhstan , 2% China 1% Poland 1% Others 6% The United States
  • 5. Changes in Domestic Primary Energy Supply Source: "General energy statistics" in Japan’s Energy White Paper 2013, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy Oil Natural gas Hydro Coal Nuclear Geothermal, New energy,etc (FY) 4
  • 6. ○ Change in power supply sources of (general and wholesale) power generation companies after the Earthquake ○ Fuel cost increase by termination of nuclear power plants * For FY2013, the influence to cost is calculated by correcting the exchange rate used for the estimation in FY2012 to the current value of 100 yen/dollar and assuming that the operation status of the nuclear power plants would not change in FY2013 from FY2012. ○ No operating nuclear power plants →About 30% loss of power supply, Tight balance between demand and supply ○ Due to stop of nuclear power plants, the fuel cost for thermal power generation is expected to increase by about 3.8 trillion yen in FY2013, which is about 20% of electricity prices ○ The cost would increase more if the oil price increases by a tense situation in Hormuz Composition of Power Generation after the Quake Disaster Power source Fuel cost (FY2012) Influence to cost Estimation in FY2012 Estimation in FY2013 (*) Nuclear power 1 yen/kWh - 0.3 trillion yen - 0.3 trillion yen Coal 4 yen/kWh + 0.1 trillion yen + 0.1 trillion yen LNG 11 yen/kWh + 1.4 trillion yen + 1.6 trillion yen Oil 16 yen/kWh + 1.9 trillion yen + 2.4 trillion yen Total - + 3.1 trillion yen + 3.8 trillion yen 20% 25% 26% 25% 20% 27% 26% 26% 24% 23% 38% 41% 42% 47% 50% 46% 48% 48% 49% 32% 5% 7% 13% 17% 16% 13% 16% 18% 13% 5% 28% 16% 10% 5% 1% 1% 3% 2% 3% 32% 9% 11% 8% 5% 12% 12% 7% 6% 11% 8% 63% 73% 81% 90% 87% 87% 90% 92% 86% 28% 16% 10% 5% 1% 1% 3% 2% 3% Apr 2011 Jul Oct Jan 2012 Apr Jul Oct Jan 2013 Apr FY2010 Coal thermal power generation LNG thermal power generation Oil thermal power generation Nuclear power generation hydro-electric power generation Thermal power generation Nuclear power generation 5
  • 7. Change in Fuel Price ○ In comparison to crude oil and LNG, the change of the coal price has been stable at a low level. ○ As of April 2013, the crude oil price (7.36yen/1000kcal) is about 4.1 times higher and the LNG price (6.32/1000kcal) is about 3.5 times higher than the coal price (1.81 yen/1000kcal). (Yen/1000kcal) Change in fuel price (CIF) Ref: The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 原油 一般炭 LNGOil General coal LNG 6
  • 8. 2. Security of coal supply 7
  • 9. 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 再生可能エネルギー等 水力 原子力 天然ガス 石油 石炭 Role of coal in world’s energy resources ○ Coal occupies about 25% of the energy demand in the world. The demand for coal is expected to increase by about 1.2 times by 2035. Coal occupies more than 40% of generated power in the world. The amount is expected to increase by 1.4 times by 2035. ○ Competition for acquiring coal resources has become severe in the world due to rapid expansion of the coal demand in developing countries such as China and India. [Expectation of energy demand in the world] [Expectation of power generation in the world] Ref.: IEA, “World Energy Outlook 2012” [Power generation composition of major countries (2010) ][Primary energy composition of major countries (2010)] 41% Increase by a factor of about 1.4 Source: IEA, "World Energy Outlook 2012"& "Energy Balances of OECD/non-OECD Countries (2012 Edition)" Source: IEA, "World Energy Outlook 2012"& "Energy Balances of OECD/non-OECD Countries (2012 Edition)" Ref. IEA, “World Energy Outlook 2012” (TWh) 33% 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 再生可能エネルギー等 水力 原子力 天然ガス 石油 石炭 27% 25%Increase by a factor of about 1.2 (Mtoe) 41% 5% 29% 44% 26% 27% 46% 68% 78% 5% 1% 1% 1% 3% 9% 1% 3% 0% 22% 4% 46% 14% 23% 27% 23% 12% 2% 13% 76% 16% 23% 28% 26% 19% 3% 2% 16% 11% 1% 3% 11% 7% 6% 12% 17% 4% 3% 6% 15% 10% 3% 4% 2% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 世界計 フランス 英国 ドイツ EU 日本 米国 インド 中国 石炭 石油 天然ガス 原子力 水力 再生可能エネルギー等 27% 5% 15% 24% 16% 23% 23% 42% 66% 32% 29% 31% 32% 33% 41% 36% 23% 18% 21% 16% 42% 22% 26% 17% 25% 8% 4% 6% 43% 8% 11% 14% 15% 10% 1% 1% 2% 2% 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% 3% 11% 5% 4% 10% 9% 2% 5% 25% 9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 世界計 フランス 英国 ドイツ EU 日本 米国 インド 中国 石炭 石油 天然ガス 原子力 水力 再生可能エネルギー等 Renewable energy, etc. Water Nuclear power Natural gas Oil Coal Renewable energy, etc. Water Nuclear power Natural gas Oil Coal China India US Japan EU Germany UK France World total Coal Oil Natural gas Nuclear power Water Renewable energy, etc. Coal Oil Natural gas Nuclear power Water Renewable energy, etc. China India US Japan EU Germany UK France World total 8
  • 10. Crude oil (2012) Natural gas (2012) Ref.: Trade statistics, Ministry of Finance Ref.: Trade statistics, Ministry of Finance Coal (2012) Leading Fossil Fuel Exporters to Japan Straits of Hormuz Ref.: Trade statistics, Ministry of Finance 120.7 79.9 39.3 28.0 19.1 7.0 10.5 17.2 13.6 8.3 22.2 Saudi Arabia 33.0% UAE 21.8% Qatar 10.7% Kuwait 7.6% Iran 5.2% Iraq 1.9% Oman 2.9% Russia 4.7% Indonesia 3.7% Vietnam 2.3% Others 6.1% 15.7 5.5 4.0 15.9 14.6 8.3 6.2 5.9 4.8 6.2 Qatar 17.9% UAE 6.3% Oman 4.6% Malaysia 18.2% Australia 16.7% Indonesia 9.5% Russia 7.1% Brunei 6.8% Nigeria 5.5% Others 7.1% 114.8 36.1 12.5 9.9 6.3 3.5 2.2 Australia 62.0% Indonesia 19.5% Russia 6.7% Canada 5.3% US 3.4% China 1.9% Others 1.2% Middle-East dependence 83% (Hormuz dependence 80%) Total import: 3.66 million BD Middle-East dependence 29% (Hormuz dependence 24%) Total import: 87.31 million t/year Middle-East dependence 0% (Hormuz dependence 0%) Total import: 185.15 million t/year 9
  • 11. 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 3,334 13 0.4% 931 97 10.5% 545 4.4 0.8% 376 309 82.3% 345 285 82.5% 256 124 48.3% 253 72 28.3 % 111 34 30.7 % 84 76 90.1 % 76 7 9.0 % 62 8 12.8 % 57 34 58.8 % 45 24 54.9 % Top: Production Middle: Exports Bottom: Percentage of exports to production Exports  China, the US and India (the top three coal producers) consume large amounts of coal themselves; coal is basically produced for local consumption.  Australia and Indonesia, by contrast, are export oriented. Production (excluding lignite) and exports (estimates for 2011) from major coal producers Exports from major coal producing countries and their domestic consumption Production Exports (Million tons) China The US India Indonesia Australia Russia South Africa Kazakhstan Columbia Poland Ukraine Canada Vietnam Source:IEA, “Coal Information 2012” 10
  • 12. Change of coal resource price (in case of long-term contract) 53.5 53.5 50.95 41.9 39.75 42.7548.1 46.2 57.2 125 115 97 300 128.5 200 225 209 225 330 315 285 206 225 170 165 172 40.3 37.65 34.5 29.95 28.75 34.5 31.85 26.75 45 53 52.5 55.5 125 69 98 98 98 98 130 130 130 130 115 115 115 115 95 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 US$/t Fiscal year <Change in long-term contract price of coal> 原料炭 一般炭 ○ The long-term contract price of coal had not changed much but in recent years it has been increasing because of the increase of the coal demand in the world, in particular in Asia, and so on. ○ The price had been rising from 2005 to 2011 due to natural disasters in the coal countries and due to the rapid increase of the coal demand in China and India. However in very recent years, the price starts decreasing because of the worldwide economic recession and the excessive energy supply due to increased production of shale gas. *FOB price of typical Australian coal (1) Increase by coal demand increase in China, India, etc. (2) Increase by paralyzed traffic in China due to heavy snow Sudden drop by worldwide recession starting from the subprime loans problem (1)Production stop at a coal mine due to rain in QLD state, Australia (2) Paralyzed traffic and temporary stop of export in China due to snow Decrease by production increase in Australia and Canada Increase by global coal supply-demand imbalance Increase by short supply due to rain from December 2010 1st quarter in FY2013 Decrease by excess of supply due to global economic recession Raw coal General coal 11
  • 13. 3. Environment surrounding CCT (Trends in environmental regulations and the world CCT market) 12
  • 14. 774 1,766 3,070 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 2010 2011 2012 46.4% 45.3% 46.6% 43.1% 42.8% 41.8% 43.1% 44.7% 11.4% 11.5% 11.9% 13.6% 13.2% 13.7% 13.6% 11.3% 26.3% 26.3% 22.0% 23.3% 22.8% 22.3% 17.7% 16.0% 9.7% 11.0% 13.6% 14.3% 15.5% 16.5% 20.6% 22.0% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% 50.0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 石炭 天然ガス 原子力 再生可能エネルギー Impact of Shale Revolution --Changes in the Percentage of Coal in Western Electricity Consumption-- [Changes in US Power Source Structure] [Changes in US Fuel Coal Exports (from 2010 to 2012)] (million tons) About 2.3 times 2,271 5,016 About 1.5 times About 1.7 times 3,370 About 1.5 times About 2.2 times About 4.0 times 34.4% 38.1% 34.7% 32.1% 27.5% 28.4% 30.0% 40.2% 37.1% 34.3% 40.5% 44.7% 43.8% 45.7% 39.3% 25.9% 20.8% 19.2% 15.8% 13.4% 18.3% 16.2% 18.9% 19.5% 0.7% 0.7% 1.6% 2.2% 2.7% 4.1% 6.6% 9.2% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 45.0% 50.0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 石炭 天然ガス 原子力 再生可能エネルギー [Changes in UK Electricity Generation] [Changes in German Electricity Generation] Increase in US Fuel Coal Exports and Changes in Power Source Structure Changes in European Electricity (Rise in Percentage of Coal) 49.6% 49.0% 48.5% 48.2% 44.4% 44.8% 42.3% 37.4% 18.8% 20.1% 21.6% 21.4% 23.3% 23.9% 24.7% 30.4%19.3% 19.4% 19.4% 19.6% 20.2% 19.6% 19.3% 19.0% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Declining Coal Natural gas Nuclear Renewable energy Coal Natural gas Nuclear Renewable energy 13
  • 15. (1) Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD) ・ Target: Combustion plants (coal-fired power plants, etc.) with generating capacity of 50,000 kilowatts or more ・ Details: It sets emissions restrictions on both existing and new facilities with the aim of reducing air pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, PM) in the EU. Although the power plants that were constructed before 1987 and did not meet the standard were to be decommissioned in 2007, by developing a plan for the decommissioning after 2016, each country can operate these plants within an operating time of 20,000 hours from 2008 to the end of 2015. Current regulations on Coal-fired Power Generations in Europe (1) Energy and Climate Change Package ・Target: EU ・Goal:・To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) to 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. ・To boost the share of renewable energy in final consumption to 20% by 2020. ・To improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. (2) Restriction on emissions by new coal-fired power plants in the UK ・Target: UK ・Details: When a coal-fired power plant is established, it needs to have a standard for CO2 emissions of 450g-CO2/kWh and to apply CCS. Regulation concerning Air Pollution Prevention Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions News Reports about Coal-fired Power Generations in Europe  Increased coal-fired power generation and an sluggish gas-fired power generation are accounted for by soaring natural gas prices and falling prices for CO2 emissions credits. <Snip> As a result, German policy of breaking with nuclear power generation promotes coal-fired power generation. On August 15, RWE has formally started operating a brown coal-fired power plant with power generation efficiency of 43% that introduced the latest technology near Korn in the midwest of Germany. Environment Minister Peter Altmaier praised this for "making significant contributions to successful energy conversion in addition to promoting CO2 emissions reductions". (Source: Bloomberg, August 21, 2012)  In the EU, the percentage of coal-fired power generation in electricity generation rose by as much as 7% year-on-year in 2012. The growth rate hit the highest level in the past 40 years. According to a chief economist at the International Energy Agency (IEA), "Coal has been plentiful in the US, where shale gas was found, and cheap coal that has no where to go has flowed into Europe. Far cheaper gas prices in North America than appropriate prices has boosted coal consumption." (Source: Nikkei Business, March 5, 2013)  On May 6, 2013, Germany Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau announced that it would continue financial assistance to projects of coal-fired power plants. It will financially support the replacement of coal-fired power plants and the construction of highly-efficient thermal power plants, and promote the introduction and spread of sophisticated power-generating technologies. (Source: the Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan, information on topics related to overseas electricity) 14
  • 16. * IEA World Energy Outlook 2012 Calculated by 79.97yen/dollar (exchange rate as of 2011) with new construction and replacement of plants included Expected introduction of coal thermal generation in the world (2012→2035) ○According to IEA, the coal thermal power generation has a world market of about 129 trillion yen including new construction and replacement of plants in 2012 through 2035 . ○In particular in Asia, it is about 79 trillion yen and the demand of coal thermal power generation is expected to expand in Asia. Europe 11.6 trillion yen (311GW→188GW) Russia 5.9 trillion yen (52GW→42GW) Middle East 0.1 trillion yen (0GW→1GW) Africa 9.1 trillion yen (41GW→79GW) East Europe 5.5 trillion yen (57GW→42GW) India 27.7 trillion yen (101GW→341GW) Asian Pacific (except China, India) 24.0 trillion yen (159GW→300GW) North America 16.6 trillion yen (360GW→272GW) South America 0.8 trillion yen (4GW→9GW) China 27.3 trillion yen (671GW→1,122GW) Upper: Area, Middle: Investment from 2012 to 2035 Lower: Facility capacity from 2010 to 2035 World Total 129 trillion yen (1,649GW ⇒2,250GW) 15
  • 17. Coal-fired Plants(Site B) Thermal efficiency(%, HHV) 0 10 20 30 40 Years since Commissioning Coal-fired Plants(Site A) Designed Efficiency Designed Efficiency Efficiency Degradation Maintenance and improvement of Efficiency for existing thermal power plants Source : The Federation of Electric Power Companies Coal fired power generation technologies in Japan is the most efficient in the world and proper operation and maintenance keeps high efficiency. Changes in the efficiency of coal fired power generation by country 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Japan Korea Indonesia China Australia India Germany United States Source: Energy balances of OECD/Non-OECD countries-2011 (LHV) Achieving Low Carbon Economies with Technical Transfers for Overseas Coal Fired Power Generation 16
  • 18. Ref.: ・ IEA CO2 EMISSIONS FROM FUEL COMBUSTION Highlights(2011 Edition) ・Global warming countermeasure plan (J-POWER, Nov. 30, 2010) ・ RUPTL10-19, CEA "National Electricity Plan“ ・INSTITUTE of ENERGY "VIETNAM POWER sector power master plan" ○ Coal thermal power generation efficiency in Japan is now in the world’s highest level and kept high for a long period of time after starting the power generation. This is due to Japan’s high efficiency technology (supercritical pressure, ultra supercritical pressure) and know-how of the operation and control. ○ CO2 reduction is expected to be about 450 million tons (in trial calculation) if Japan’s latest coal thermal power generation efficiency is applied to coal thermal power plants planned in India, Indonesia, and Vietnam with which Japan is currently negotiating for the Joint Crediting Mechanism. ○ Overseas expansion of Japan’s high-efficiency coal thermal power generation is promoted by the technology transfer of the high-efficiency coal thermal power generation technologies or by the system export of the technologies and the coal power generation operation control technology (O&M), while the technology competitiveness is maintained Efficient CO2 emission reduction in foreign countries (International development of coal thermal power generation)CO2emission(Mt-CO2) 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 895 227 432 575 172 354 India Indonesia Vietnam Case 1: The case where the currently- used technologies are used again Case 2: The case where Japanese technologies are introduced Case 1 Case 2 Case 1 Case 2 Case 1 Case 2 320Mt-CO2 DOWN 55Mt-CO2 DOWN 78Mt-CO2 DOWN * Operating rate of a new coal thermal power plant is assumed to be 70%. [CO2 emission from coal thermal power generation (Comparison technologies to be applied; Existing technology and Japanese technology) ] 115,800MW(-2022) 32,697MW(-2019) 71,311MW(-2030) Country Newly-built facility 450 million tons 17
  • 19. When applying the efficiency of the most advanced coal-fired power plants in operation in Japan to ones in the US, China and India, the CO2 reduction effect is estimated to be about 1,500 million tons. With global demand for coal-fired power generation expected to continue to increase, we will promote overseas expansion of Japan's highly-efficient coal-fired power generations and seek to maintain technological competitiveness by transferring highly-efficient coal-fired power generation technologies tailored to the partner countries' industrial structure and exporting systems in combination with technologies for operating and managing (O&M) coal-fired power generations. International Expansion of Coal-fired Power Generations(CO2 Emissions Reduction through Technological Transfer) Source: "IEA World Energy Outlook 2011", "Ecofys International Comparison of Fossil Power Efficiency and CO2 Intensity 2012" Actual CO2 Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation (2009) and Case of Maximum Efficiency in Japan CO2emissions(Mt-CO2) 361 (million tons) +811 (million tons) +292 (million tons) About 1,470 million tons Japan US China India Actual Case of best practice Actual Case of best practice Actual Case of best practice Actual Case of best practice (27) (361) (811) (292) 18
  • 20. the Joint Crediting Mechanism  Accelerates the spread of excellent technologies, products, systems, services and infrastructures for reducing carbon emissions, and the implementation of mitigation activities, and contributes sustainable development in developing countries.  Evaluates the contribution to reducing and absorbing greenhouse gas emissions from Japan in a quantitative and appropriate way by applying measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) methodologies to utilize the results in achieving Japan's emissions reduction targets.  Contributes to the achievement of the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by complementing the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and promoting actions to reduce and absorb greenhouse gas emissions on a global basis. Japan Host country Spread of excellent technologies, etc. for reducing carbon emissions and implementation of mitigation activities MRV JCM Project Amount of greenhouse gas emissions reduced and absorbed Joint Committee develops MRV methodologies Utilized to achieve Japan's emissions reduction targets Credit 19
  • 21. 2020
  • 22. Japan’s CCT contributing to the world [Power generation and gasification] USC, SC, circulating fluidized bed, lignite-fired USC, IGCC, co-combustion of anthracite [Environmental equipment ] Desulfurization and denitrification equipment [Use of low-grade coal] Lignite drying systems, UBC, slurrification, gasification (two-column gasification, eco-processes, IGCC) [Coal segregation technology] Wet segregation, dry segregation [Coal for direct combustion] Carbonized semi-coke [CO2 separation and recovery] Post-combustion recovery (Future plan) [Power generation, gasification] IGCC, A-USC, IGFC [CO2 separation and recovery ] Pre-combustion recovery, oxygen combustion systems [Power generation – CCS system] [CMM] Methane concentration technology 21
  • 23. 4. Promotion of coal utilization technology 22
  • 24. ○CO2 emissions per thermal unit are approximately – Coal : Petroleum : LNG = 5 : 4 : 3 ○Coal fired power has approximately twice as much CO2 emissions per kWh compared to LNG power. ○Since coal has more CO2 emissions per unit compared to other fossil fuel, clean utilization is required. Ref.: Japanese Government’s report based on “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “ CO2 emissions per heat CO2 emissions per kWh from in generating fuel Comparison of CO2 Emissions of each Fuel in Power Generation 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 石 炭 石 油 LNG (g-C/1000kcal) 石 炭 石 油 LNG 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 石 炭 石 油 LNG (g-C/1000kcal) 石 炭 石 油 LNG 5   :  4  :  3 Coal Oil LNG Coal Oil LNG 1195 967 907 889 958 863.8 809.7 695.1 476.1 375.1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 インド 中国 米国 ドイツ 世界 石炭火力 (日本平均) USC IGCC IGFC 石油火力 (日本平均) LNG火力 (汽力) LNG火力 (複合平均) Coal fired power USC IGCC IGFC Oil fired power LNG power LNG power (average) (average) (average) (Combined (g-CO2/kWh) CO2 emissions from coal fired power generation overseas CO2 emissions from coal fired power generation domestic average) India China USA Germany World Source: Based on the development targets of various research businesses by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (2009) , CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2012 23
  • 25. Coal, etc. 36% Oil, etc. 40% Natural gas, etc. 18% Industrial process 4% Waste 2% (Ref.: Green house gas emission and absorption inventory) CO2 emission in FY2010 1.192 billion tons ○ 98% of the entire CO2 emission in Japan is occupied by the energy sector. 34% of direct emission is occupied by energy conversion sector and 35% of indirect emission by industrial sector. ○40% of emission is occupied by oil and 36% by coal. About 0.2 billion tons of CO2 is emitted from coal power plants. CO2 emission in Japan 34% 29% 19% 8% 5% 3%2% Energy conversion 7% Industry 35% Transportation 20% Business, others 18% Household 14% Industrial process 4% Waste 2% CO2 emission in FY2010 1.192 billion tons Outer: Indirect emission Inner: Direct emission Coal produces about 0.43 billion tons of CO2 and about 0.2 billion tons of CO2 is from coal power plants. CO2 emission from each sector in FY2010 CO2 emission from each fuel in FY2010 24
  • 26. ○ Introducing highly efficient thermal power generation (coal/LNG) ・ The Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry agreed with the clarification of requirements and streamlining the procedure of environmental impact assessments for power plants. Based on the agreement, the government will advance introduction of highly efficient thermal power generation (coal/LNG) with environmental considerations, and make efforts to improve power generation efficiency further by advancing technology development. In addition, the government promotes thorough utilization of highly efficient thermal power generation to reduce cost for energy. Tender will be introduced for expansion, installation and replacement of thermal power sources in principle so that efficiency as well as transparency will be increased. Also the government will clarify requirements and streamline the procedure of environmental impact assessments to provide an environment where private companies will be able to make smooth investment for highly efficient thermal power (coal/LNG). At the same time, the government aims to accelerate development of advanced technologies, introduce thermal power generation of the highest efficiency level in the world and deploy them positively to overseas. ○ Supporting technological development of thermal power ・ The government aims to achieve practical use of advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) thermal power generation in 2020s (generating efficiency: around 39% at present to improve to around 46%). ・ The government aims to achieve practical use of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems of 1500 °C class in 2020s (generating efficiency: around 39% at present to improve to around 46%). ・ The government aims to establish technology of integrated coal gasification fuel cell combined cycle (IGFC) by 2025 and achieve practical use in 2030s (generating efficiency: around 39% at present to improve to around 55%) ・ For LNG thermal power generation, the government aims to achieve practical use of gas turbine of 1700 °C class by around 2020 (generating efficiency: around 52% at present to improve to around 57%). Description of Coal in "Japan Revitalization Strategy" (Excerpt) Implementing “Infrastructure Export Strategy” (May 17, 2013) promptly and steadily 25
  • 27. Chapter 2. Section2. Position of each energy source and policy time frame (1) Renewable energy  Renewable energy has various challenges in terms of stable supply and cost at this moment, but it is a promising, multi-characteristic and important energy source which can contribute to energy security as it can be domestically produced free of greenhouse gas emissions. (2) Nuclear power  Nuclear power’s energy output per amount of fuel is overwhelmingly large and it can continue producing power for several years only with domestic fuel stockpile. Nuclear power is an important base-load power source as a low carbon and quasi-domestic energy source, contributing to stability of energy supply-demand structure, on the major premise of ensuring of its safety, because of the perspectives; 1) superiority in stability of energy supply and efficiency, 2) low and stable operational cost and 3) free from GHG emissions during operation. Description of "Strategic Energy Plan" (Excerpt) 26
  • 28. (3) Coal  It is now being re-evaluated as an important base-load power supply. It is an energy source that we should use while reducing the environmental load through the utilization of highly efficient coal thermal power generation technology, etc. (4) Natural Gas  Natural gas plays the central role as an intermediate power source. Natural gas is an important energy source whose role is expected to expand. (5) Oil  It’s advantage lies in its wide applicability as fuel in the transportation, consumer, power supply sectors and also as materials for chemical and other products. Especially, the transportation sector relies heavily on oil. It will continue to be used as an important energy source. 27 Description of "Strategic Energy Plan" (Excerpt)
  • 29. Chapter 3. Section5. Section 5. Environmental arrangement of an environment for efficient and stable use of fossil fuels 1. Promotion of effective use of high-efficiency coal and gas thermal power generation In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, the development and practical application of next-generation high-efficiency coal thermal power generation technology (e.g., IGCC) will be promoted. Research and development will be conducted with a view to practical use of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology around 2020 and a study will be conducted on introducing CCS-ready facilities as early as possible with due consideration given to the possible timing of the commercialization of CCS. Through these measures, the introduction of coal thermal power generation that gives consideration to further reduction of the environmental impact will be promoted. 28 Description of "Strategic Energy Plan" (Excerpt)
  • 30. 29 Chapter 4. Promotion of strategic technology development (energy- related technologies for which research and development should be intensively conducted in order to implement measures related to energy supply and demand in a comprehensive and systematic manner in the long- term) 1. Technical challenges to be addressed From now, it steadily promotes technologies related to production, storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen. Description of "Strategic Energy Plan" (Excerpt)
  • 31. Position Though coal has a problem ― it emits a large amount of greenhouse gas ― it is now being re-evaluated as an important base-load power supply because it involves the lowest geopolitical risk and has the lowest price per unit of heat energy among fossil fuels. It is an energy source that we should use while reducing the environmental load through the utilization of highly efficient coal thermal power generation technology, etc. Policy Direction 30 Position of the coal in "Strategic Energy Plan" In addition to promoting the replacement of aging thermal power plants and introducing available leading-edge technology through the construction of new facilities and the expansion of existing ones, GOJ further promotes the development of technologies to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions per unit of generated power (e.g., IGCC) by largely improving the power generation efficiency. It is necessary to use coal while reducing the global environmental load by promoting the introduction of such high-efficiency technologies not only in Japan but also globally.
  • 32. Integrated coal gasification fuel cell combined system experiment project (Osaki Cool Gen) Project details ○ Oxygen injection coal gasification technology (oxygen blown IGCC) which makes it efficient and easy to separate and collect CO2 is established. Experiments of triple-combined power generation technology by combining fuel cell of the hydrogen obtained by future oxygen injection gasification are conducted. (1) Technical characteristics ○ Gross thermal efficiency 55% (←current USC 41%) ○ Use of subbituminous coal, which can be easily gasified (use of low- grade coal) ○ Easy separation and collection of CO2 by oxygen injection (CO2 reduction) ○ Use of hydrogen by oxygen injection (fuel cell) (2) Organizer: Osaki Cool Gen (J-POWER, Chugoku Electric Power) (3) Project term: 2012-2021 (Total of 30 billion yen, total project cost of 90 billion yen) *Only 1st stage Combustible gas H2, CO etc. Air Air separati on unit Oxygen Gasification furnace Steam turbine Gas turbine H2 Burner Air compressor Generator Waste heat collection boiler Chimney CO H2 H2 CO H2 CO2 transport and storage Shift reactor CO2 collection and separation <1st stage> <2nd stage> <3rd stage> Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) CO2 collection technology Fuel cell H2 Project overview Existing waste water treatment facilities Coal gasification facilities Gas purification facilities New waste water treatment facilities CO2 separation and collection facilities Air separation facilities Combined power generation facilities Rendering Project site: Kamijimacho, Osaki, Toyoda, Hiroshima Future schedule FY 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 1st stage Oxygen blown IGCC experiments 2nd stage CO2separation and collection type GCCexperiments 3rd stage CO2 separation and collection type IGFC experiments Demonstration test Oxygen blown IGCC detailed design and construction Demonstration test detailed design and construction of CO2separation and collection Application technology assessment Image design CO2 transport and storage test Demonstration test CO2 collection integrated type of IGCC/IGFC: Detailed design and construction Technical survey, Image design 31
  • 33. 32  Ideal fuels for IGCC include untapped low-grade coal such as subbituminous coal, which can readily be gasified (effective use of untapped coal supplies).  The gasification furnace to be demonstrated (the EAGLE furnace) is designed to efficiently gasify a wider range of coal supplies (thus can accommodate a variety of coal supplies) Efficient use of untapped coal supplies Application range of conventional gasification furnaces Application range of the EAGLE gasification furnace Coal types compatible with pulverized coal combustion EAGLE coal Ash melting temperature [C] Fuelcomposition[-] 32
  • 34. Oxyfuel combustion Co2 recovery power generating system CO2 transportation/storage Oxygen generator Coal Re-circulated gas (mainly CO2) O2 Air (N2, O2) Noncondensable gas N2 Dust collector CO2 liquefaction and recovery plant Boiler CO2 Underground storage CO2 storage transportation equipment G Condenser ST Smokestack P 2008 – 2012 Retrofit of existing power station 2012 – 2014 Oxyfuel demonstration operation 2014 – 2016 CO2 injection and monitoring Japan : Japan-Australia Oxyfuel Combustion Demonstration Project Japan Limited Liability Partnership(formed by J-POWER, IHI and Mitsui & Co.) JCOAL (Supporting Collaborator) Australia: CS Energy, Xstrata, Schlumberger, Australian Coal Association (ACA) Features ・Applicable to both existing and new power plants ・Has a potential to reduce CO2 recovery energy and costs ・Has a potential to reduce NOx emissions System Oxyfuel Combustion is: Technology to facilitate CO2 recovery by burning fuel such as coal using only oxygen to make CO2 the principal component of exhaust gas from the boiler. ・Oxygen generation (air separation) equipment is installed. ・Exhaust gas is re-circulated and flame temperature is adjusted to use existing boiler technology. At Callide A pulverized coal power station (generation capacity: 30MWe) in Central Queensland, Australia, low-emission coal thermal power generation using Oxyfuel Combustion Technologies is being demonstrated toward practical application of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology. Project image Partners Schedule Callide A pulverized coal power station 33 Technological Innovation toward Zero Emission International Joint Research and Demonstration on Oxyfuel Combustion
  • 35. 圧縮機 貯槽設備 Coal gasification power plant CO2 level of exhaust gas from burning: 7-40% Off gas (Return to chimney) Liquefaction facilities Injection well ポンプ&気化器 Storage facilities <Underground storage><Transportation><Separation, collection> Transport by ships <Gasification, burning> CO2回収装置 CO2 CO2 Undergroundstorage ○Reduction of CO2 emission from coal thermal power plants is required to respond to the global warming issues. ○In the total system from power generation to CO2 storage, efficient thermal power plant is combined with CCS facilities. Total System of Highly-efficient Low-carbon Coal Thermal Power Generation ○ Storage potential of Japan? ○ Environmental impact, safety, monitoring? ○ Technology development of separation and collection Expected cost? Incentive? Who pays? 34
  • 36. ○ Power generation cost with CCS - In the direct storage case (1), total power generation cost increases by 45% (approximately the same as in NETL cases1) which increases the cost by 40%). In the transport cases (2)-(6) the total cost increases by 80% (larger than in NETL cases which increases the cost by 45%). - Transport (incl. transport of liquefied and pressurized CO2) and storage occupy 10% of the power generation cost in the direct storage case and 30% in the transport cases. (The construction cost of CO2 tank for shipment, base for receiving shipped CO2, and dedicated ship is large.) ○ CO2 treatment cost breakdown - Cost of the transportation (incl. liquefaction and pressurization) and storage is relatively large, occupying 50-70% of the CO2 treatment cost. 1) Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants DOE/NETL-2010/1397 Taken from the result of “Zero Emission Coal-Fired Power Technology Development Project” in Zero Emission Coal-Fired Power Technology Development Project (Note) Condition of each case -Storage near power plant (no transport): Case (1) Direct Storage -Transport of liquefied CO2 by ship: Case (2) Land Base (that allows berthing of ship), Case (3) Ocean base fixed to the seafloor (for shallow ocean), Case (4) Ocean Floating Base (for deep ocean) -Transport through pipe line: Case (5) Liquid, Case (6) Gas Preliminary calculation of CCS cost Transport, storage Power generation Powergenerationcost(yen/kWh) No CCS Case (1) Case (2) Case (3) Case (4) Case (5) Case (6) (No transport: 0km) Power generation: Capital charge Transport: O&M cost Power generation: O&M cost Storage: Capital charge Power generation: Fuel cost Storage: O&M cost Transport: Capital charge CO2treatmentcost(yen/tonCO2) Case (1) Case (2) Case (3) Case (4) Case (5) Case (6) (No transport: 0km) Separation and collection Energy penalty Liquefactionand pressurization Transport Storage 35
  • 37. (1) Development of gasification and slurrying technologies in accordance with the energy supply-demand balance in the coal countries (2) Hydrogen, Methane and DME, etc created by the gasification of low-grade coal will be able to contribute to the clean energy supply to Japan in future (3) Development of multi-use of gasified products: Chemical materials such as fertilizer, in addition to fuel (1) Technological development of dehydration and drying for efficient transport and better combustion efficiency 低品位炭 発電用 一般炭 産炭国 CO2 回収・貯留 メタノール DME FT合成油など 既存の LNG製造設備 で液化 LNG ガス化 液体燃料 製造 SNG製造 大量消費国 既存のLNG輸送インフラに合流 CO2 回収・貯留 灰 灰 山元発電 国内需要を賄うとと もに、海外へも輸出 高効率乾燥 システムによる 発電効率向上 1. Development and introduction of low-rank coal gasification and slurrying technologies 2. Development and introduction of low-rank coal improvement technologies for effective use of unused resources Efficient use of low-grade coal 改質炭 Ensuring export capacity and relaxing of energy supply-demand balance in coal countries Relaxing of supply shortage In Asian countries Stable supply of coal to Japan Diversification of energy sources Coal country General coal for power generation Low-grade coal Improved coal Mine mouth power generation Gasifica- tion Liquid fuel production SNG productionCO2 collection and storage Ash Methanol, DME, FT synthetic oil, etc. Power generation efficiency improvement with high-efficiency drying system Not only supply for domestic demand but also export to overseas Liquefaction at existing LNG production facilities CO2 collection and storage Ash Major consumer country Transported by existing LNG transport infrastructure 36
  • 38. Slurrying technologies Drying Carbonization SNG production technologies (Methanation, High Calorie Gas) Circulating fluidized bed gasification technology Coal Flash Partial Hydropyrolysis Technology 【 Technical Field 】 JGC :Demonstration MHI : Demonstration Babcock Hitachi IHI : Demonstration TSK(Tsukishima) :Demonstration KOBELCO :Demonstration Kyusyu Electric:FS IHI : Demonstration 【 Leading Development : Stage】 Osaka Gas:Element R&D NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING:FS Utilization Technologies of Low Rank Coal Gas processing Gasification technologies 37
  • 39. 5. Summary ○ Coal will continue to play a role in diversifying energy sources in Japan.  Coal has advantages in terms of economics and security.  The use of coal will continue to be one of the major energy sources.  We seek to improve efficiency, develop CCS-related technologies with the aim of reducing carbon emissions. ○ Japan's clean coal technologies (CCT) contribute to the reduction of global CO2 emissions and the economic development throughout the world.  By replacing coal-fired power plants in the major consumers of coal with the most advanced coal-fired power plants in operation in Japan, CO2 emissions can be reduced by 1,500 million tons.  We provide CCT tailored cooperation to the partner countries' economic levels and needs.  The government also support them through policy dialogue, assistance in verification tests and feasibility study (FS), etc.  For assistance in emissions reduction, the utilization of bilateral credit is considered. 38
  • 40. Thank you for your listening! 資源エネルギー庁 39