Intake & output measurement


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Intake & output measurement

  1. 1. Measuring Fluid Intake and Output<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />Discuss measuring fluid intake and output according to its<br /> Measurement of volume <br /> Significance <br />Discuss the clinical dos and donts on measuring intake and output correctly.<br />
  3. 3. Intake and Output<br />Defines as the measurement and recording of all fluid intake and output during a 24 – hour period provides important data about the client's fluid and electrolyte balance.<br />Unit of measurement of intake and output is mL (milliliter).<br />To measure fluid intake, nurses convert household measures such as glass, cup, or soupbowl to metric units.<br />Gauge fluid balance and give valuable information about your patient's condition.<br />
  4. 4. Remember!<br />Intake<br />Oral fluids<br />Ice chips<br />Foods that are tend to become liquid at room temperature <br />Tube feedings<br />Parenteral fluids<br />Intravenous medications<br />Catheter or tube irrigants<br />
  5. 5. Output<br />Remember!<br />Urine<br />Vomitus and liquid feces<br />Tube drainage<br />Wound drainage and draining fistulas<br />
  6. 6. Measurement of Volume<br />1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 milliliters(ml)‏<br />3 teaspoons(tsp) = 15 milliliters(ml)‏<br />1 cup(C) = 240 milliliters(ml)‏<br />8 ounces(oz) = 240 milliliters(ml)‏<br />1 teaspoon(tsp) = 5 milliliters(ml)‏<br />1 cup(C) = 8 ounces(oz)‏<br />16 ounces(oz) = 1 pound(lb)‏<br />1 ounce (oz) = 30milliliters(ml)‏<br />
  7. 7. Significance of Measuring Intake and Output <br />Inform<br />Required<br />Explain<br />Emphasize<br />
  8. 8. Clinical Do's and Dont's<br />
  9. 9. DO<br />Identify whether your patient has undergone surgery or if he has a medical condition or takes medication that can affect fluid intake or loss.<br />Measure and record all intake and output. If you delegate this task, make sure you know the totals and the fluid sources.<br />At least every 8 hours, record the type and amount of all fluids he's received and describe the route as oral, parenteral, rectal, or by enteric tube.<br />
  10. 10. DO<br />Record ice chips as fluid at approximately half their volume.<br />Record the type and amount of all fluids the patient has lost and the route. Describe them as urine, liquid stool, vomitus, tube drainage and any fluid aspirated from a body cavity.<br />If irrigating a nasogastric or another tube or the bladder, measure the amount instilled and subtract it from total output.<br />
  11. 11. DO<br />For an accurate measurement, keep toilet paper out of your patient's urine.<br />Measure drainage in a calibrated container. Observe it eye level and take the reading at the bottom of the meniscus.<br />Evaluate patterns and values outside the normal range, keeping in mind the typical 24 – hour intake and output.<br />
  12. 12. DO<br />When looking at 8 – hour urine output, ask how many times the patient voided, to identify problems. <br />Regard intake and output holistically because age, diagnosis, medical problem, and type of surgical procedure can affect the amounts. Evaluate trends over 24 to 48 hours.<br />
  13. 13. DON’TS<br />Don't delegate the task of recording intake and output until you're sure the person who's going to do it understands its importance.<br />Don't assess output by amount only. Consider color, color changes, and odor too.<br />Don't use the same graduated container for more than one patient.<br />
  14. 14. Thank you!<br />