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  1. 1. Police in America Chapter 15 The Future of Policing in America McGraw-Hill © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Police Technology  Major technology applications  1. Database and information technology • Computerized systems that operate like a card-file index and allow the police to store large amounts of information from a variety of sources  2. Computer-aided dispatch (CAD) • Reduce officer confusion, send clear messages instantaneously to officers’ mobile computers, keep officers safe, prioritize calls for serves  3. Records management systems • Used to input and organize information from different types of reports in an easy-to-access format  4. Mobile computing • Primary mechanism used by officers to access and deposit information • Eliminates all the paper generated by reports 15-2
  3. 3. The Use of Technology in the Field  COMPSTAT  Provides timely data on crime and disorder by neighborhood  Early Intervention (EI) Systems  An application of personnel records management for the purpose of increasing the accountability of police officers  License Plate Readers  Installed on police vehicles and fixed sites such as traffic intersections  Five potential uses: • • • • • 1. Crime analysis 2. Alerts and hot lists 3. Tracking individuals 4. Identifying previously undetected crimes 5. Revenue generation 15-3
  4. 4. The Future of Police Information Technology  Technology to increase information sharing between law enforcement agencies  National Crime Information Center (NCIC) of the FBI  Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM)  Allows criminal justice agencies to maintain their information in a standardized language  Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS)  Increased effectiveness and job performance at the San Diego sheriff’s department 15-4
  5. 5. Technologically Advanced Weapons  Taser: An acronym for Tom Swift’s Electric Rifle.  Introduced in early 1975, designed as a non-lethal weapon resembling a handgun.  Once the trigger is depressed, two small barbed contacts trailing fine conducting wires are shot from one of the cassettes along the line of aim into the target.  The dart-like contacts need not actually touch the skin. If the darts are imbedded in clothing, the electrical charge is capable of reaching the body, since the Taser provides a 1½-inch spark from its high-voltage power supply. 15-5
  6. 6. Crime Analysis  Functions  Collect, Analyze, Disseminate CrimeRelated Data  Identify crime-suspect correlations  Support Patrol Officers  Assist Investigations  Identify conditions that facilitate crime and incivility  Types  Tactical Crime Analysis • Involves identification of specific crime problems in particular geographic areas  Strategic Crime Analysis • Focuses on long-term crime trends  Administrative • Provides summary statistics and data to police managers 15-6
  7. 7. Crime Mapping  Permits analysts to identify spatial patterns and hot spots for different types of crime  About 13% of police departments use crime mapping  The Department of Justice (DOJ) is allocating substantial resources toward promoting the use of crime mapping at police agencies around the country 15-7
  8. 8. The Outlook for Police Employment   Opportunities in Local, County, and State Law Enforcement Local, County, and State Salaries  Average annual salary of $49,980 in 2010  Detectives make around $68,820 annually  Opportunities in Federal Law Enforcement  Department of Homeland Security  Federal Salaries  FBI agents begin at $61,000-70,000 a year  Salaries of most federal law enforcement officers is determined by the General Schedule (GS) pay system 15-8
  9. 9. The Future of Police Research  Research Revolution  Product of large investment of funds, mostly from federal government, into scientific research  Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)  Does Research Do Any Good?  Yes!  Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment found that increasing level of patrol did not deter crime more effectively than normal amount of patrol  Rand Corporation study found that traditional detective work did not increase number of crimes solved  The Future of Federal Funding  Very uncertain, varies year to year  Poses a serious threat for the future of American police 15-9
  10. 10. Demographic Change     Immigration Trends  Hispanics/Latinos  Other Groups The New Minority: Hispanic/Latino Population Potential Problems and Conflicts What laws do you think should be passed? 15-10
  11. 11. Impact of the War on Terrorism   Foreign Policy Domestic Policy     Role Expansion Immigration Enforcement Racial & Ethnic Profiling Personnel Shortages 15-11
  12. 12. Role Expansion  Investigating suspected terrorists  Preparing for and responding to specific terrorist acts  Preparing for possible terrorist acts involving weapons of mass destruction 15-12
  13. 13. Racial and Ethnic Profiling  War on terrorism has lead to increased stereotypes about Arab Americans  As a result, Department of Justice created a four-hour cultural competency course to educate local and federal law enforcement officers about Arab and Muslim culture and customs 15-13
  14. 14. Personnel Changes  Post 9/11:  Mobilization of National Guard and military reserves led to loss of personnel • Especially detrimental to small agencies  Increasing demands to fulfill homeland security needs • Leading to diversion from regular patrol 15-14