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    1. 1. Police in America Chapter Nine The Police and Crime McGraw-Hill © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
    2. 2. The Police and Crime  Crime Control Strategies  Proactive versus Reactive • Proactive: Anticrime strategies initiated by the police themselves, not citizens requesting service • Reactive: Anticrime strategies used by police when responding to a civilian’s request for service  General versus Specific • Directed at the community at large vs. directed at particular crimes, places, offenders, or victims     Particular crimes Specific places Specific offenders Specific victims 9-2
    3. 3. Crime Control Assumptions   Citizens are co-producers of police services Police and other social institutions are interdependent  Communities, families, schools, labor markets, workplaces, other criminal justice programs  Measuring effectiveness requires meaningful definitions and reliable data 9-3
    4. 4. Preventing Crime  Routine patrol is primary crime prevention activity  Specialized crime prevention units  Meet with citizens to discuss crime prevention options  Work alongside neighborhood groups  Educating youth about crime, drugs, and gangs 9-4
    5. 5. Apprehending Criminals  Second major crime-fighting responsibility of police officers  Citizen Reporting of Crime – Citizens act as “gatekeepers” of the criminal justice system – Patrol officers rarely discover crimes in progress – Some victims do not report crimes because they do not think the crime is important 9-5
    6. 6. Reporting and Unfounding Crimes “Unfounding” a Crime: Failure of a police officer to complete an official crime report when a citizen reports a crime.  Reasons for Unfounding a Crime   Citizens do not understand the criminal law  Insufficient evidence  Abuse of officer’s discretion 9-6
    7. 7. Criminal Investigation  Myths About Detective Work     Work is exciting and dangerous Detectives are heroic, courageous and skillful These myths create unreasonable public expectations about the ability of police to control crime The Organization of Detective Work  Located in separate unit of department  Considered a high-status assignment to be a detective  Offers great opportunity to control one’s work and exercise initiative 9-7
    8. 8. The Investigation Process  The Preliminary Investigation  1. Identify and arrest suspects 2. Provide aid to victims 3. Secure crime scene and prevent loss of evidence  4. Collect relevant physical evidence  5. Prepare preliminary report     Arrest Discretion  Interview witnesses  Canvass crime scene  Discuss the case with patrol officers  Interview suspects  Check records and NCIC files   Based on the following factors: 3. Victim request of arrest Reality of Detective Work  Not glamorous or exciting 1. Strength of evidence 2. Seriousness of crime Follow-Up Investigations  Superficial, routine, non-productive  Case Screening 4. Victim and suspect are strangers  Based on seriousness of crime and existence of evidence 5. Suspect is hostile “ Case solvability factors”  Caseload varies: nominal, workable, and 9-8 actual
    9. 9. Measuring the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigations  The Clearance Rate     Traditional measure of success in a criminal investigation Only 21% of all reported Index crimes are cleared Nationally Unreliable since it is based on only reported crimes and data can be manipulated Defining an Arrest  Legally arrested: deprived of rights by legal authority  Behaviorally arrested: asked by police officer to stop, told they are under arrest, or physically restrained by officer  Subjectively arrested: when an individual believes he/she is not free to go  Officially arrested: when officer makes an official report of arrest 9-9
    10. 10. Success and Failure in Solving Crimes  Three main case solvability factors:  Case Structural Factors • Related to the crime committed  Organizational Factors • Lack of resources does not keep clearance rates low  Environmental Factors • Characteristics of the community the police work in • Officers have no control over these factors 9-10
    11. 11. Success and Failure in Solving Crimes Continued  Officer Productivity   Some officers make more arrests than others Quality of arrests differs as well: many arrests do not lead to a conviction  The Problem of Case Attrition  Only ½ of felony arrests result in conviction  Detectives and officers typically express little interest in why this happens and how to fix it 9-11
    12. 12. The Use of Eyewitness Identification, Criminalistics, and DNA in Investigations  Eyewitness Identification  Typically unreliable due to problems with human perception and memory  Criminalistics  Technical specialists in crime lab analyze evidence, etc.  DNA  All DNA samples forwarded to the FBI and put into the National DNA Indexing System • Stores forensic data and convicted offender index data 9-12
    13. 13. Improving Criminal Investigations  Changes in community policing  Structural changes • Headquarters changed to beats and precincts • Assigning investigators to particular areas  Procedural changes • Greater intergovernmental communication • Assistance from other criminal justice orgs.  Functional changes • Role and responsibility changes for investigators 9-13
    14. 14. Special Investigative Techniques  Undercover Police Work  Deliberate deception that may promote a habit of lying  Befriending criminals • May erode the standards of policing  Less supervision  Informants  Used especially in victimless crimes  Criminals who possess special knowledge  Potential problems because police must give something in return for access to that information 9-14
    15. 15. Policing Drugs  Drug Enforcement Strategies  Supply reduction strategy • • • • Buy and bust “Trading up” Long-term undercover work Drug crackdown: intensive enforcement effort  Demand reduction strategy • Drug education programs  Minorities and the War on Drugs  African Americans arrested more frequently than whites, although usage is about the same  Demand Reduction: The D.A.R.E Program  Operating in 70 percent of all public school systems 9-15
    16. 16. Policing Gangs and Gang-Related Crime  Gang Suppression  The police gang unit: specialized unit  Has at least one sworn officer whose job it is to engage in gang control effort  Gang Prevention: G.R.E.A.T. Program    Gang Resistance Education and Training Operates in all 50 states Study showed that it was not very effective at preventing students from joining gangs 9-16
    17. 17. Policing Career Criminals  Career Criminals: People believed to be committing a high rate of offenses  Repeat Offender Programs  Targeting suspected high-rate offenders for surveillance and arrest  Targeting those with outstanding warrants  Case-enhancement programs to provide information about offendor histories 9-17
    18. 18. Policing Guns and Gun Crimes    Victims are most likely to be African American, American Indian and Hispanic Men are twice as likely to be victims compared to women Gun Suppression  Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN)  Kansas City Gun Experiment • Targeted a high-crime precinct with problem-oriented policing and directed patrol • As a result, gun crimes fell 49% 9-18
    19. 19. Policing Hate Crime  Hate Crime – bias motivated crimes  The Scope and Nature of Hate Crime      50.8% racial bias 18.4% religious bias 16.6% sexual orientation bias 13.2% ethnic/national origin bias Five main characteristics of Hate Crimes • Higher level of assaults against persons than crimes generally • More violent • Attacks preceded by series of confrontations that escalate in severity • More likely to be committed be group perpetrators • Likely to be committed by someone the victim knows  Police Response to Hate Crime  Creation of specialized bias crime units 9-19
    20. 20. Policing Terrorism  The Scope and Nature of Terrorism  Terrorism: “The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.”  Domestic Terrorism  Planned and carried out by Americans on American soil  Foreign Terrorism  Terrorist activities coordinated and perpetrated by foreign persons or countries against the U.S. 9-20
    21. 21. Responding to Terrorism  In the wake of September 11  Department of Homeland Security created  Increasing number of U.S. Coast Guard and Customs Service personnel  FBI Office of Intelligence  FBI Counterterrorism Watch  Local police first to respond in a terrorist event • But issues between federal law enforcement agencies and local police arise due to refusal to share critical information 9-21