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Walker-8-chapter-5

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    • 1. Police in America Chapter Five Police Officers I: Entering Police Work McGraw-Hill © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
    • 2. The Changing American Police Officer    More female, African American, Hispanic officers compared to 40 years ago Many college educated or hold masters’ degrees Openly gay and lesbian officers 5-2
    • 3. Aspects of the Personnel Process  A Career Perspective  Many departments have personnel problems because: • • • • • • Don’t train recruits properly Don’t supervise officer adequately Poor evaluation systems Failure to discipline Failure to provide career opportunities Don’t promote the best officers 5-3
    • 4. Beyond Stereotypes of Cops  Stereotypes can be either positive or negative  Positive: Heroic saints, risking their lives  Negative: Uneducated, untrained, prejudiced, brutal or corrupt  These stereotypes can discourage women from becoming police officers 5-4
    • 5. The Personnel Process: A Shared Responsibility  Shared with other governmental agencies (civil service system)  Attracting a pool of applicants:    Minimum qualifications The recruitment effort Applicant’s motivations to apply 5-5
    • 6. Recruitment  Minimum Qualifications    Most departments - 21 years of age Height and Weight Education • 82% high school diploma • Educational incentive pay  Criminal record  No felony—Drug offenses major problem  Misdemeanor?  Residency  About 25% of departments require living within the city limits 5-6
    • 7. Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career  Applicants motivations      Help people Job security Fight crime Excitement Prestige  Barriers to recruitment  Negative image of officers  Traditionally male occupations 5-7
    • 8. Selecting Officers from the Recruit Pool  Selection tests  Oral interviews  Written and medical exams  Background Investigations  Previous employment, possible criminal record, interviews with neighbors  Educational background, financial status, home visit 5-8
    • 9. Screening Methods Used by Local Police Depts. (2003) Method           Personal interview Criminal record check Background investigation Driving record check Medical exam Psychological screen Drug test Written aptitude test Physical agility test Polygraph exam % Dept Using 99 100 99 99 89 72 83 48 60 26 5-9
    • 10. Predicting Police Officer Performance  The difficulty of predicting good police performance:  Screening Methods  Measuring Police Performance  Screening Efforts vs. Actual Job Performance 5-10
    • 11. Equal Employment Opportunity  Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act  Race, color, religion, sex, or national origin  Protected class  1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Act  1990 Americans With Disabilities Act Bona Fide Occupational Qualification  5-11
    • 12. “Not Your Father’s Police Department”: Diversity in Policing  Employment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities   More seriously underrepresented than racial or ethnic minorities  Concentrated in lower ranks  Reflect the composition of the community it serves  Hispanic and Latino officers  Fastest growing population  Spanish-speaking officers recruited Women  Gay and Lesbian officers  Increasingly open over the last 20 years  African American Officers  Previously underrepresented in the police force  Employment discrimination litigation has helped to increase number of African American officers in the police force 5-12
    • 13. Achieving Diversity in Police Employment   U.S. Supreme Court held that diversity is a “compelling state of interest” Three basic goals       Ensure employer is not discriminating Improve police service Improve image of police department Employment Discrimination Suits Controversy over affirmative action The question of quotas  Reverse discrimination 5-13
    • 14. The Police Academy  Provides formal training  Pre-service training  Process for weeding out unqualified recruits  Field training Rite of passage that socializes recruits  State training and certification  5-14
    • 15. Training Average number of hours 1,000,000  Police Academy  Big departments have own academy  Small departments use state-run academies  Field training  FTO program  2/3 of departments use this process 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 500,000999,999 250,000499,999 100,000249,999 50,00099,999 25,00049,999 10,00024,999 2,5009,999 under 2,500 5-15
    • 16. State Training and Certification     Every state has some form of mandated pre-service training for certification State-required content of training Decertification Shortcomings of current police training:  Don’t cover important subjects like discretion and ethics  Pre-service training not adequate  Classroom training alone is not adequate 5-16
    • 17. The Probationary Period  Can range to six months to two years after being sworn in as an officer  Officer can be dismissed without cause during this period  Rules for this process determined by local civil service regulations  Average of 7 percent of all recruits dismissed during this period 5-17