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Global project management

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Global project management: Communication, collaboration and management across borders …

Global project management: Communication, collaboration and management across borders

Drawing inspiration from the 17th-century samurai Miyamoto Musashi who developed the Nitoryu style of handling two swords at the same time, this workshop will address the challenge of being assertive, quick, and to the point in one culture, while succeeding in being unassertive, patient, and somewhat indirect in another.
Learning outcomes
• Understand the framework for effective cross-cultural project management
• Discover tools and techniques in
 Trust building, conflict resolution, influencing, negotiating
 Communication channels management
 Project meetings organization
 Use of the English language
 Selection of Human Resources
 Knowledge sharing
for a project team that spans different locations, time zones, cultures and languages.
Topics
• Cultural dimensions analysis
• Global project leadership
• Communication
• Project structure
• Collaborative tools

Published in: Technology

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  • 1.       Global Project Management         Communication, Collaboration    and  Management Across Borders George Liakeas, PMP Page 1
  • 2. Preface◘ Organizations  are  taking  advantage  of  geographically  distributed skills, round-the-clock  operations,  and  virtual  teams  while  struggling  to  obtain  acceptable  levels  of  efficiency  and quality from global projects. Page 2
  • 3. Program Objectives (1 of 3)◘ To journey into the world of  multiculturalism.◘ To comprehend the global aspect of  interculturalism.◘ To understand different cultures in this era  of global environment.◘ To comprehend the challenges &  opportunities of intercultural negotiation. Page 3
  • 4. Program Objectives (2 of 3) ◘ Identify opportunities strategies in a diverse  workforce.◘ Manage to interact fruitfully with people of  unique values & backgrounds.◘ Enhance your competitive positioning  through understanding the different  values of people.◘ Expatriates: tips for adaptation in an  intercultural environment. Page 4
  • 5. Program Objectives (3 of 3) ◘ Enrich your organizational strategies  & outcomes.◘ Improve interactivity in a cross-cultural  environment.◘ Understand the religious beliefs & practices that  shape behaviors.◘ Underline stereotypes & prejudices that take  place into our understanding  of other cultures. Page 5
  • 6.  Global Environment This is the era of global interactivity. Countries, businesses, institutions, organizations, & individuals interact nationally & internationally. Organizational management no longer runs as usual. Businesses, organizations, & institutions are delineating their management approach on global perspectives. Page 6
  • 7. Global Project challenges◘ Distant Locations◘ Number of different organizations◘ Country cultures◘ Different languages◘ Time zones Page 7
  • 8. Perfect communication can result  in total misunderstanding•  A high context culture information is  either in the physical context or  internalized in the person with less  communicated in the explicit words  or message• Leaders of global projects must be  bilingual Page 8
  • 9. Use of the English language • Restrict the use of English words to their most common  meaning • Select words with few alternate meanings (e.g. accurate  instead of right, 1 vs. 27 meanings) • Become aware of alternate spellings (e.g. organization, centre) • Conform to basic grammar rules more strictly • Avoid terms borrowed form sports (“can’t get to first base”) or  literature (“catch-22”) • When addressing someone you do not know well, keep the  tone formal while expressing personal interest or concern Page 9
  • 10. Build Intercultural Relations (1 of 9)Consider This ■ Sense of Respect ■ Observation ■ Patience ■ Openness ■ Listening   ■ Divergence ■ Silence ■ Minimize Antagonism  Page 10
  • 11. “Culture Shock”♦ This term was first introduced by Kalervo Oberg in 1954.♦ Culture shock includes anxiety & feelings caused by surprise, uncertainty, confusion, & disorientation.♦ Anxiety caused when people have to operate within a different & unknown cultural or social environment. Page 11
  • 12. Trust Building    The belief or confidence in a person or  organizations integrity, fairness and  reliability (Lipnack & Stamps)• Identify the level of trust required based on  the  project  complexity,  project  schedule,  number  of  different  locations,  number  of  different  cultures,  number  of  different  organizations and number of new relations Page 12
  • 13. Diversity Activities and Ice-Breakers•       Who I Am This activity allows the learners to share their  culture roots and to learn about each other. • I Want You To Know     Share the experiences of various cultural  groups and listen to one another. • Getting To Know You     To learn about each other. • The Herman Grid           To discover that first impressions of people  are not always true. Page 13
  • 14. Diversity Activities and Ice-Breakers Page 14
  • 15. Long-term trust      Depending  on  the  level  of  PM  maturity, either • Organize  a  lessons-learned  session  to  identify  aspects  that  contributed  to  increasing  the  level  of  trust,  or  reduced it.• Organize  an  informal  event  and  identify  the  comments  that  relate  to  trust.  Page 15
  • 16. Conflict• The  unitary  perspective  sees  consensus  as  the  ideal  state,  and  conflict  as  a  malfunction  with  harmful  effects  on  projects.  Resolution  consists  of  identifying  and  eliminating  the root causes of conflict• People  from  individualist  societies  are  educated  under  the  pluralist perspective and see conflict as positive . Resolution  consists of reconciliation of different parties interests, using  plan, objectives and strategies• The  interactionist  perspective  sees  group  cohesion  as  bad,  and  encourages  both  conflict  stimulation  and  management  of conflict (Buchanan and Huczynski) Page 16
  • 17. Definition: Culture ‘Culture is what is left if you ‘Culture is what is left if youforgot all else’ forgot all else’Eduard HerriotEduard Herriot Page 17
  • 18. Definition: Culture Collective programming of the mind Collective programming of the mindwhich distinguishes the members of which distinguishes the members ofone group or category of people from one group or category of people fromanother(…)The mind stands for the another(…)The mind stands for thehead, heart and hands -- that is, for head, heart and hands that is, forthinking, feeling, and acting, with thinking, feeling, and acting, withconsequences for beliefs, attitudes and consequences for beliefs, attitudes andskills(…) Culture in this sense skills(…) Culture in this senseincludes values (Hofstede, 2001) includes values (Hofstede, 2001) Page 18
  • 19. Definition: Culture Our own culture is like water toOur own culture is like water toa fish. It sustains us. We live anda fish. It sustains us. We live andbreathe through it (Trompenaars,breathe through it (Trompenaars,2005)2005) Page 19
  • 20. Cultural aspects basic model• Sense of self• Communicational language• Dress and appearance• Food and eating habits• Time and time-consciousness• Relationships• Values and norms• Beliefs and attitude• Mental process and learning• Work habits and practices Page 20
  • 21. Culture and project management• Symbols• Heroes• Rituals• Values: Tendencies and preferences  over different aspects of social or  professional life.  Page 21
  • 22. Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede)• Power distance – How individuals from different cultures  handle the fact that people are unequal.• Individualism and collectivism  – Classifies countries according to their  relationship between individuals and  societies. • Masculinity and femininity – Degree of gender differentiation. Ideals are  economic growth, progress, material  success and performance.  Page 22
  • 23. Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede)• Uncertainty Avoidance – Reflects the resistance to change and  the attitude to taking risks• Long-term Orientation – People from short-term oriented  cultures tend to give high importance to  values such as quick results and give  more attention to personal stability.  Page 23
  • 24. Cultural dimensions matrix Page 24
  • 25. Page 25
  • 26. Dilemmas "Imagine youre in a car driven by a close  friend of yours. Hes speeding - going  50mph where youre allowed to go  30mph - and he hits a pedestrian. It  comes to court and the lawyer of your  friend says, Dont worry, youre the only  witness. Two questions: first of all, what  is the right of your friend to expect you  to testify to the lower figure? And,  secondly, should you lie?" Page 26
  • 27. Cultural Dimensions (Trompenaars)• Universalism vs. Particularism  – Defines how people judge the behavior of  their colleagues. • Individualism and Communitarianism• Achievement vs. Ascription• Neutral vs. Affective• Specific vs. Diffuse• Human-Nature relationship (internal vs.  external control) • Human-Time relationship Page 27
  • 28. Page 28
  • 29. Cultural framework Page 29
  • 30. Cultural framework• Low Context: Be quick & to the point, Be prepared for rational  arguments • High Context: There are many ways to get things done, respect a  person’s title, age, background connections• Predictability-oriented: Be specific and precise• Uncertainty-tolerant: Be prepared for vagueness, recognize that it  may take longer to make decisions• Monochronic: One activity at a time, schedule in advance, be  prompt, relationships are subordinate to schedules, follow initial  plans• Polychronic: Do more than one activity at a time, appointments are  approximate, schedules are subordinate to relationships Page 30
  • 31. Cultural framework• Group focused: Show patience for time taken to consent,  negotiators agree tentatively & then consult with superiors,  Importance is on lasting relationships• Individual focused: Prepare for quick decisions, negotiators  can commit, importance is on meeting the objective• Equalitarian culture: Respect knowledge and information of  the counterparts even if they are short of influence, use the  title that reflects your competency • Hierarchical culture: Respect the status and influence of the  counterpart, even if they are shirt of knowledge, use the title  that reflects your degree of influence in the organization.  Page 31
  • 32. Corporate cultures• The incubator is both person oriented and egalitarian. It is  highly creative, incubating new ideas.  Sharing excitement with fellow innovators• The guided Missile : equalitarian, task oriented culture =>  there is a multidisciplinary project, and the team work aims  at bringing it to a successful end.  Meeting team objectives and group goals• The family : the oldest form. It is hierarchical: the gap  between “parents” = owners and “children” = employees is  wide.   Fulfilling your obligations to colleagues• The Eiffel Tower : It does precise, detailed and routine tasks  without errors.  Fulfilling your job description as specified in advance Page 32
  • 33. Cultural frameworkMiyamoto Musashi & Nitoryu  Page 33
  • 34. How to integrate• Always use culture in the context of business• Start with the business issue and then look into its cultural  aspect• Frame issues into dilemmas.  – Chart the dilemma so that the line can be cracked – Make the dilemma as specific as possible  – Stretch the dilemma (positives & negatives) – Reconcile the dilemma (How can value X give more of  value Y)• Look into all levels and not only national• Create the process for constructive dialog• Celebrate the similarities while working on the differences• Work on key-issues and not all issues Page 34
  • 35. How to integrate• Be sensitive to other ways of : – thinking – feeling – acting • To be able to deal effectively with: – customers – suppliers – clients – bosses – employees Page 35
  • 36. Stakeholders•   Persons and organizations whose interests  may be positively or negatively affected by  execution  or  completion  of  the  project  (PMI)•     People  or  groups  who  are  interested  on  the  performance  and/or  success  of  the  project,  or  who  are  constrained  by  the  project (ICB) Page 36
  • 37. Stakeholders commitment framework• From ignorance to awareness• Understanding• Support• Involvement• Commitment Page 37
  • 38. Project Knowledge base Page 38
  • 39. Communication templates• Colors• Drop-down menus• Automated filtering• Include legends and explanations• Allow identification of location Page 39
  • 40. Communication requirements matrixStakeholder Sponsor Steering PM Project Members Customers PartnersInformation committee CoordinatorsProject StatusWP statusOrgLogisticsStandardsTemplatesPlan Page 40
  • 41. Stakeholders communication channels Page 41
  • 42. Communication techniques• Project virtual room divided to levels  with hyperlinks• Status meetings – Stakeholders (changes on the register and their impact) – Communication plan – Validity of assumptions – Schedule – Issues & Corrective actions – Risks – Changes – Quality – Procurement – Minutes Page 42
  • 43. Global Project structure• Centralised • Distributed with local  Coordinators• Distributed with functional  Coordinators• Round-the-clock project  management Page 43
  • 44. Global team member’s skills• Global communication• Global experience• Global thinking• Culture awareness• Technical capabilities in the communication tools• Self-discipline• Personal Confidence• Tolerance for ambiguity• Self-motivation• Self-efficacy• Organization• Concentration• Reduced social interaction• Openness and flexibility  Page 44
  • 45. Global Collaborative networks• Interests• Corporate cultures• Maturity levels on project  management• Maturity levels on processes and  procedures• Collaborative tools and  communication techniques Page 45
  • 46. Global Collaborative networks• Establish the purpose of the program/project• Prepare team charter• Define roles and responsibilities• Agree on common systems, structures,  policies,t ools and  methods• Define a shared goal• Understand the different values and styles• Identify training an coaching needs• Organize social activities that allow relationship building and  the creation of informal networks• Monitor the effectiveness of the above  Page 46
  • 47. Focus in communication infrastructure• Ease of use and quality of  telephones , email, audio and  video conferencing, instant  messaging, web conferencing.  • Documentation and procedures  of technologies used.  Page 47
  • 48. Communication recommendations• Consider constant travelling, local holidays and vacations as  possible reasons for delays• Try to reply the important messages on the same day or provide an  estimate on the reply date• Remember to enable the ‘out of office’ message• Avoid acronyms, sarcasm, slang• Always state the time zone, date format you are referring to• Wait overnight to send emotional responses • Be careful when replying to messages sent to a large group of  people• Always include a short signature with contact details• Always keep the original text intact when forwarding a message• “Be conservative in what you send and liberal in what you receive”  (Hambridge) Page 48
  • 49. Communication recommendationsAvoid• E-mail for urgent information or requests• Adopting e-mails as the main communication tools, instead of  meetings, knowledge sharing tools and collaborative project  management systems• E-mail as a file transfer tool• Call after the e-mail• Create as many informal events as possible, especially in difusse,  low context cultures  Page 49
  • 50. Communication recommendationsAudio conferencing• Issue the meeting request in advance along with the telephone number  details• Limit the duration to two hours by dividing the meeting into logical sections  (3h for video)• Commence the conference facilities prior to the starting time• Confirm that every invitee has joined• Speak slowly and clearly• Use mute when not talking• Proactively engage participants, note who is not participating , and invite  them by name to confirm their agreement, or voice their opinion• Capture all action points, confirm their ownership, and expected completion  date• When the time allocated is not enough, ask all if all participants are able to  continue.• Take special care for video conferencing (Conference room telephone  number, participants mobile numbers, allow time for technical issues) Page 50
  • 51. Project management software• Network diagramming• Detailed schedule with colored indications• Milestone schedule• Risk log with automted warnings to owners• Issues log• Change control system• Progress report• Resources allocation• Integration with timesheet• Integration with financial systems• Schedule network analysis Page 51
  • 52.  Seven sins in a multicultural world• Unawareness• Ethnocentrism• Amnesia• Professional myopia• Conceptual mix-up• Academic polemics• Level confusion Page 52
  • 53. Project management fundamentals Be clear on the Business strategy including corporate  objectives, business unit objectives, mission statements and  vision  Have a concise elevator speech ready at all times Don’t waste time. It is the most precious resource Treat key projects as a portfolio of investments Clearly communicate key project deliverables and dates Clearly communicate and challenge key project assumptions.  They might be risks Page 53
  • 54. Project management fundamentals Understand the project constraints  Begin detailed project planning with clear formulation of  what has to be accomplished (product scope) and what has  to be done (project scope) Remember the triple constraint of scope, schedule and  budget Spend some extra time to turn unknown unknowns into  known unknowns Ask the tough EV analysis questions to determine if we are  within budget and on schedule Page 54
  • 55. References• Buchanan D. and Huczynski, A. (1997) Organizational Behavior : An  introductory Text – third edition (Prentice Hall Europe, UK)• Hambridge, S. (1995) Netiquette Guidelines (IETF)• Hofstede G. (2001) Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors,  institutions and Organizations across nations (Sage Publications, UK)• Lipnack J. and Stamps J, (1997) Virtual teams: reaching across space, time,  and organizations with technology (John Wiley and sons, USA)• Somers M. (2007) Coaching at work: Powering your team with awareness ,  responsibility and trust (John Wiley and sons, UK).• Trompenaars F. and Hampden-Turner C. (2005) Riding the waves of culture:  understanding cultural diversity in Business (Nicholas Brealey, UK)• Trompenaars F and Wooliams P. (2003) Business across cultures (Capstone,  UK)• Kerzner H (2004) Advanced project management: Best practices on  implementation (John Wiley & sons, USA)• Morrell M, and Capparell, Shackleton’s way (Penguin Books, 2001)• The world is flat, Friedman, T. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006• Managing cultural differences, Moran R. Harris P. and moran S. 2006 Page 55