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Weather: my report in earth science
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Weather: my report in earth science

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  • 1. Weather*Is a term that encompassesphenomena in the atmosphere ofa planet.*It is also normally taken to meanthe activity of these phenomenaover short periods of time usuallyno more than a few days.
  • 2. To produce a short-range forecast isindeed a big task involving the foursteps. Included in these are:ObservationCollection and Transmission ofWeather DataPlotting and Analysis of WeatherDataPrognosis or Forecast
  • 3. *From the weatherpatterns, a number ofmethods are used toknow the future state ofatmosphere, a job calledweather forecasting.
  • 4. WHAT IS A WEATHERFORECAST? (weather forecasting)
  • 5. A weather forecasting issimply a scientificestimate of futureweather condition.
  • 6. *Weather condition is the stateof the atmosphere at a giventime expressed in terms of themost significant weathervariables.*The significant weathervariables being forecast differfrom place to place.
  • 7. HOW IS AWEATHERFORECAST MADE?
  • 8. *In forecasting the weather, aMeteorologist must at least knowsomething about the existingweather condition over a large areabefore he can make a reliableforecast.*The accuracy of his forecastdepends largely upon his knowledgeof the prevailing weather conditionsover a very wide area.
  • 9. *The forecast decisionis based on variousforecasting tools.*The basic tool ofweather forecaster isthe WEATHER MAP.
  • 10. *The WEATHER MAP depicts thedistribution patterns ofatmospheric pressure, wind,temperature and humidity at thedifferent levels of theatmosphere.*There are two types of the basicweather map namely: the surfacemap and the upper – air maps.
  • 11. Five standardlevel/steps of theupper air maps thatare constructedtwice daily at twelve -hourly interval.
  • 12. *Observation*Collection and Transmission ofWeather Data*Plotting and Analysis of weatherData*Analysis of Weather Maps, Satelliteand Radar Imageries and OtherData /Prognosis or forecast*Formulation of Forecast
  • 13. Observation
  • 14. Plotting and Analysis OfWeather Data
  • 15. Analysis Of Weather Maps, SatelliteAnd Radar Imageries And OtherData/Prognosis or Forecast
  • 16. Formulation Of TheForecast
  • 17. *The surface maps aremade four times daily attwelve- hourly interval.The distribution patterns ofrain or other forms ofprecipitation andcloudiness can also bedelineated.
  • 18. Numerical Weather Prediction*Is the science ofpredicting the weatherusing “models” of theatmosphere andcomputational techniques.
  • 19. TECHNIQUES*Persistence*Use of a barometer*Looking at the sky*Now casting*Use of forecast models*Analog techniques
  • 20. Weather Elements:*Temperature*Atmospheric Humidity*Atmospheric Pressure*Wind
  • 21. Weather Instruments*Temperature thermometerMinimum thermometerThermographThermometer Shelter orScreen
  • 22. Atmospheric Pressure*BarometerMercurial barometerAneroid barometer
  • 23. Surface WindVelocity and Direction:
  • 24. Wind vane (weather vane)AnemometerAerovaneSling-psychrometerhygrothermograph
  • 25. *Hygrometer*Precipitation*Rain Gauge*clouds
  • 26. SpecialInstruments toMeasure Upper- Air Data:
  • 27. *Pibal/Theodolite (Pilot BalloonTheodolite)*Radiosonde*Wind-finding radar*Weather surveillance radar*Satellite imagery
  • 28. Weather SatelliteData: Modern Tool for Weather Analysis
  • 29. *Polar-ObtainingSatellites*GeostationaryMeteorological Satellite(GMS)
  • 30. What CausesRainfall?
  • 31. Thank you forlistening …