Reading & Writing in Social Studies


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  • Our task is to provide an education for the kind of kids we do have. Mary Kay Utecht
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  • Our task is not to provide an education for the kind of kids we used to have, or want to have, or the kind that exist in our dreams. I love this quote.
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  • Reading & Writing in Social Studies

    1. 1. Reading & Writing in the Social Studies Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK [email_address] © 2007 Tamara Konrade ESSDACK [email_address]
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ I haven’t been able to do anything all morning!” Scribe </li></ul>
    3. 3. Sticky ideas?
    4. 4. <ul><li>Strong reading & writing skills are essential for deep Social Studies learning </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>There are lots of strategies we can use </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>In other words, it’s possible to . . . </li></ul>
    7. 7. get to the bigs!
    8. 8. <ul><li>Ready, Set, Go, Whoa! </li></ul>
    9. 9. Stone Pen Pencil Whoa What questions do I still have about the topic? Go What new information do I have? Set What do I think I will learn? Ready What do I know?
    10. 10. Science of teaching
    11. 11. <ul><li>Boiler repair </li></ul>
    12. 14. Art of teaching <ul><li>Make connection between our content and students’ human needs </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>The opposite? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You can have any color you want . . . ” </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. . . . as long as it’s black.” Henry Ford
    15. 17. <ul><li>Santa Fe Trail (p. 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tomorrow we’re going to start a unit on Santa Fe Trail. Read chapters 3 & 4 and fill in the blanks” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this work? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. Turn to your learning partner and complete the following reading activity
    17. 19. <ul><li>One side write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you see </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you feel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do all pictures have in common? </li></ul>
    18. 20.
    19. 22. Whadda ya got? <ul><li>See </li></ul>
    20. 23. Whadda ya got? <ul><li>Feel </li></ul>
    21. 24. Whadda ya got? <ul><li>Have in common </li></ul>
    22. 25. Purpose? The Ruby Bridges Story
    23. 26. <ul><li>How and why did racism start? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you prove that it has ended? </li></ul>
    24. 27. Vocabulary <ul><li>Racism </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>US marshalls </li></ul><ul><li>KKK </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ </li></ul>
    25. 28. So . . . ? <ul><li>“ Change doesn't occur at the federal, state, or local board level. It happens one classroom at a time ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We need to care about the research and the evidence of what works. Not knowing this constitutes educational malpractice ” James Stronge - 2004 What Works in Schools Conference / “Qualities of Effective Teachers” </li></ul>
    26. 29. Why? <ul><li>Large amounts of content & little time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of that content is in textual formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New & different resources are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers, visuals, handouts, atlases, lab reports, magazines, primary / secondary sources, games, box scores, internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading strategies are research based </li></ul><ul><li>And most important . . . </li></ul>
    27. 30. It’s good for kids
    28. 31. What we know / research <ul><li>Students construct new meaning by connecting prior knowledge with what they read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge is “the single most important variable in learning” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students store prior knowledge in “schemata” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict, organize, compare/contrast and understand </li></ul></ul>
    29. 32. <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viscog . beckman . uiuc . edu/djs_lab/demos .html </li></ul></ul>
    30. 33. <ul><li>Analyze the following image </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to reproduce it </li></ul>
    31. 35. You have 30 seconds to draw!
    32. 36. How’d ya do?
    33. 37. <ul><li>Write the number from memory </li></ul>
    34. 38. 17766024365911
    35. 39. Let’s try again but think . . . American Revolution / Declaration of Independence Minutes / hours / days Emergencies
    36. 40. 1776 60-24-365 911
    37. 41. What we know / research <ul><li>The better a student understands the text structure , the better the reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Reading & writing are integrally related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing cements knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehension and learning increase in collaborative settings </li></ul>
    38. 42. What!? <ul><li>Response journals </li></ul>
    39. 43. Problems / barriers <ul><li>Inadequate prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Content-specific vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Text features and structure of “complex” textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Limited reading levels </li></ul>
    40. 44. Myths / misconceptions <ul><li>“ Learning From What Doesn’t Work” </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Coding the Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach three symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I knew this (  ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important (!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confused (?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 45. Answers / solutions <ul><li>Plan instruction & learning around the triad of reading strategies </li></ul>Before Reading During Reading After Reading
    42. 46. Before reading / strategies Preview text Background knowledge Predict
    43. 47. Prediction activity <ul><li>Discrepant Event Inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riddle / problem / question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes or no questions only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large group / then small group / back to large group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timed </li></ul></ul>
    44. 48. Discrepant Event Inquiry (DEI) <ul><li>A cork placed in a glass that is completely filled with water will always move to the center of the glass. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Jumping Ping Pong Ball / How? </li></ul><ul><li>“ We never would have found this person if the person hadn’t been so hard to find.” </li></ul>
    45. 49. <ul><li>In 1837, a boy named John and his six brothers and sisters lived on a farm in a beautiful, wooded area in Tennessee. His family planted corn & raised animals for food and milk. His father was a lawmaker and his mother taught English in a local school. They were happy & prosperous. </li></ul>
    46. 50. <ul><li>In 1839, the family moved to a dry, treeless, flat prairie where it was difficult to raise enough food to survive. Three of John’s siblings died. Unable to make a living farming, his father went back to being a legislator and his mother wrote for a newspaper. They missed their home in the mountains. </li></ul>
    47. 51. When? Where? What?
    48. 56. <ul><li>“ Backwards” DEI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student stands facing class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project picture on wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student must ask the questions </li></ul></ul>
    49. 58. <ul><li>Paul Harvey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Rest of the Story” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William Bruce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mindtronics” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Inquiry Alive” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Discrepant Event Inquiry” </li></ul></ul>
    50. 59. <ul><li>Dizzy Aunt? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verti Gogh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cousin from Illinois? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chica Gogh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nephew psychoanalyst? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E Gogh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Niece who owned a RV? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winnie Bay Gogh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexican cousin? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amee Gogh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bird lover uncle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaming Gogh </li></ul></ul>Vincent Van Gogh
    51. 60. Building background knowledge <ul><li>Emotional Envisioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United Streaming </li></ul><ul><li>List / Group / Label (p. 10) </li></ul>
    52. 61. Building background knowledge <ul><li>Realia / Artifacts (p. 11) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KSHS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling trunks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiel Hileman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004 Kansas teacher of the year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keil's room </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 62. Building background knowledge <ul><li>Class Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Activating Prior Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty Your Head (p. 27) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick Write </li></ul></ul>
    54. 63. Building background knowledge <ul><li>Understanding vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students must encounter words in context more than once to learn them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7-14 meaningful exposures needed! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great way to learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associate an image with word </li></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 64. Democracy
    56. 65. <ul><li>Which vocabulary words? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those that are conceptually difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those that relate to a single topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those that are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the assigned reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General utility in the language </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 66. <ul><li>Taboo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student faces class / teacher flashes word on screen along with “taboo” words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Democracy” vote people United States 1776 election Constitution </li></ul>
    58. 67. <ul><li>Vocabulary cheat sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pre-load” selected vocab from text into chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat words with students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give quick definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type words in alpha order on half of hot dog fold with definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students use while reading as a bookmark </li></ul></ul>
    59. 68. confederate regiment corps tactic strategy diplomacy secede rendezvous commission
    60. 69. <ul><li>Word Sorts (p. 28) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal and Visual Word Association (p. 31) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul></ul>
    61. 70. Frayer Model (p. 35)
    62. 71. Preview text activities <ul><li>Text Feature Hunt (p. 38-39) </li></ul><ul><li>THIEVES (p. 40) </li></ul>
    63. 72. What!? <ul><li>Response journals </li></ul>
    64. 73. Text structures Rereading for clarification Questioning During reading / strategies
    65. 74. Text structure (p. 41) <ul><li>Description (p. 42) </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence (p. 44) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & effect (p. 47) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem / solution (p. 49) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare & contrast (p. 52) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equals Similarities & Differences </li></ul></ul>
    66. 75. What’s wrong with this?
    67. 76. Is this better?
    68. 77. Text structure <ul><li>Use the picture and your assigned text structure to write a paragraph </li></ul>
    69. 79. Clarifying <ul><li>5 Ws and H (p. 55) </li></ul><ul><li>History / Story Frame (p. 57) </li></ul><ul><li>Coding the Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach three symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I knew this (  ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important (!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confused (?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    70. 80. Questioning activity <ul><li>Children of the Dust Bowl vs. Out of the Dust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is historical fiction? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fact / Fiction / Not Sure” graphic organizer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 81. <ul><li>Children of the Dust Bowl vs. Out of the Dust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is historical fiction? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact / Fiction / Not Sure graphic organizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children of the Dust Bowl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create questions from Not Sure list </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research using non-fiction to find answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a page of larger class book </li></ul></ul></ul>
    72. 82. <ul><li>My Brother Sam is Dead vs. Give Me Liberty Others? </li></ul>
    73. 83. What!? <ul><li>Response journals </li></ul>
    74. 86. Summarize Synthesize After reading / strategies Evaluate
    75. 87. Summarizing <ul><li>2 x 2 Thinking (p. 62) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbooks / articles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing in Social Studies (p. 66) </li></ul>
    76. 88. <ul><li>Podcasts (iTunes) </li></ul><ul><li>Video newscast (YouTube) </li></ul><ul><li>Letters to others / before, during, after event </li></ul>
    77. 89. Synthesizing / Evaluating <ul><li>Use primary sources as much as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What really happened at Lexington Green on April 19, 1775?” / “How do you know?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence Sitter activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCSS Suggested Activities (p. 81) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use NARA document analysis sheets (p. 83) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    78. 90. <ul><li>NARA Digital Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress American Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    79. 91. <ul><li>Social Studies Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America’s Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University of Kansas links </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    80. 92. Synthesizing / Evaluating <ul><li>RAFT ( p. 85) </li></ul><ul><li>Script writing </li></ul>
    81. 93. “ Bleeding edge!” <ul><li>Google Docs </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs / Wikis </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    82. 94. What!? <ul><li>Response journals </li></ul>
    83. 95. “ Our task is not to provide an education for the kind of kids we used to have, or want to have, or the kind that exists in our dreams.
    84. 96. Our task is to provide an education for the kind of kids we do have.” Mary Kay Utecht
    85. 97. Resources <ul><li>Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies <> </li></ul><ul><li>National Council for the Social Studies <> </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo <> </li></ul>
    86. 98. <ul><li>Literacy Connections <> </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Rockets <> </li></ul><ul><li>Colorin Colorado <> </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Disabilities Resources <> </li></ul>
    87. 99. <ul><li>Internet Picture Dictionary <> </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered Desktop <> </li></ul><ul><li>Edsitement <> </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas Educational Resource Center <> </li></ul>
    88. 100. <ul><li>Literacy Matters <> </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Class < curriculum/ReadingToLearn2.pdf> </li></ul><ul><li>What’s New in Children’s Literature <> </li></ul>
    89. 101. <ul><li>CyberGuides <> </li></ul><ul><li>Helping Your Child Learn (History/Science/Math) < search.asp> </li></ul><ul><li>PBS TeacherSource: Recommended Books <> </li></ul>
    90. 102. <ul><li>Carol Hurst’s Children’s Literature Site < curriculum.htm> </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Literature: K12 Literary Genres <> </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested Children’s Literature for PreK-8 Activities < (annotated)_list_by_PLT_Activity.doc> </li></ul>
    91. 103. <ul><li>English Baby <> </li></ul><ul><li>ESL Notes <> </li></ul><ul><li>Six Key Strategies for Teachers of English Language Learners < SixKeyStrategies.pdf> </li></ul>
    92. 104. <ul><li>Allen, Janet (2004) Tools for Teaching Content Literacy. Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Armstrong, Thomas. (2003) The Multiple Intelligences of Reading & Writing: Making the Words Come Alive. Alexandria, VA: ASCD </li></ul><ul><li>Beers, Kylene. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. A Guide for Teachers 6-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. </li></ul>
    93. 105. <ul><li>Billmeyer, Rachel. (1998) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who? McREL. </li></ul><ul><li>Bruce, Bertram. (2003) Literacy in the Information Age: Inquiries into Meaning Making with New Technologies. International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Caine, Geoffery. (2001) The Brain, Education, and the Competitive Edge . Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Education. </li></ul>
    94. 106. <ul><li>Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. (1999) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Fay, Kathleen and Suzanne Whaley. (2004) Becoming One Community Reading and Writing with English Language Learners. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvey, Stephanie. (1998) Nonfiction Matters: Reading, Writing, and Research in Grades 3-8. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul>
    95. 107. <ul><li>Irvin, Judith (2002) Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Classroom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. </li></ul><ul><li>Jensen, Eric. (1998) Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirschenbaum, Valerie. (2005) Goodbye Gutenberg: Hello to a New Generation of Readers and Writers. Global Renaissance Society. </li></ul>
    96. 108. <ul><li>Levstick, Linda, Barton, Keith. (2001) Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary & Middle Schools . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin, Larry; Betty Jean Shoemaker. (1998) Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks . Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD. </li></ul>
    97. 109. <ul><li>Nickelsen, LeAnn (2003) Comprehension Activities for Reading in Social Studies and Science. Scholastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Robb, Laura (2003) Teaching Reading Social Studies, Science, and Math: Practical Ways to Weave Comprehension into Your Teaching. Scholastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Reeves, Anne. (2004) Adolescents Talk About Reading: Exploring Resistance to & Engagement with Text. International Reading Association. </li></ul>
    98. 110. <ul><li>Tovani, Cris. (2000) I Read it, But I Don’t Get It: Comprehension Strategies for Adolescent Readers. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Zemelman, Steven, et al. (1998) Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Zull, James. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Publishing. </li></ul>
    99. 111. <ul><li>Lessow-Hurley, Judith. (2003) Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners: An Educator’s Guide. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Peregoy, Suzanne and Owen Boyle. (2005) Reading, Writing & Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers. Boston: Pearson Publishers. </li></ul>