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Reading & Writing in Social Studies Reading & Writing in Social Studies Presentation Transcript

  • Reading & Writing in the Social Studies Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK [email_address] © 2007 Tamara Konrade ESSDACK [email_address]
    • “ I haven’t been able to do anything all morning!” Scribe
  • Sticky ideas?
    • Strong reading & writing skills are essential for deep Social Studies learning
    • There are lots of strategies we can use
    • In other words, it’s possible to . . .
  • get to the bigs!
    • Ready, Set, Go, Whoa!
  • Stone Pen Pencil Whoa What questions do I still have about the topic? Go What new information do I have? Set What do I think I will learn? Ready What do I know?
  • Science of teaching
    • Boiler repair
  •  
  •  
  • Art of teaching
    • Make connection between our content and students’ human needs
    • The opposite?
      • “ You can have any color you want . . . ”
  • . . . as long as it’s black.” Henry Ford
    • Santa Fe Trail (p. 2)
      • “ Tomorrow we’re going to start a unit on Santa Fe Trail. Read chapters 3 & 4 and fill in the blanks”
      • Does this work?
  • Turn to your learning partner and complete the following reading activity
    • One side write
      • What you see
    • The other
      • What you feel
    • What do all pictures have in common?
  • www.sussex.ac.uk/USIS www.corbis.com www.sussex.ac.uk/USIS
  •  
  • Whadda ya got?
    • See
  • Whadda ya got?
    • Feel
  • Whadda ya got?
    • Have in common
  • Purpose? The Ruby Bridges Story
    • How and why did racism start?
    • Can you prove that it has ended?
  • Vocabulary
    • Racism
    • Ruby Bridges
    • US marshalls
    • KKK
    • Concerned Citizens
    • LBJ
  • So . . . ?
    • “ Change doesn't occur at the federal, state, or local board level. It happens one classroom at a time ”
    • “ We need to care about the research and the evidence of what works. Not knowing this constitutes educational malpractice ” James Stronge - 2004 What Works in Schools Conference / “Qualities of Effective Teachers”
  • Why?
    • Large amounts of content & little time
      • Much of that content is in textual formats
    • New & different resources are available
      • Newspapers, visuals, handouts, atlases, lab reports, magazines, primary / secondary sources, games, box scores, internet
    • Reading strategies are research based
    • And most important . . .
  • It’s good for kids
  • What we know / research
    • Students construct new meaning by connecting prior knowledge with what they read
      • Prior knowledge is “the single most important variable in learning”
    • Students store prior knowledge in “schemata”
      • Predict, organize, compare/contrast and understand
    • What do you see?
      • viscog . beckman . uiuc . edu/djs_lab/demos .html
    • Analyze the following image
    • Be ready to reproduce it
  •  
  • You have 30 seconds to draw!
  • How’d ya do?
    • Write the number from memory
  • 17766024365911
  • Let’s try again but think . . . American Revolution / Declaration of Independence Minutes / hours / days Emergencies
  • 1776 60-24-365 911
  • What we know / research
    • The better a student understands the text structure , the better the reading comprehension
    • Reading & writing are integrally related
      • Writing cements knowledge
    • Comprehension and learning increase in collaborative settings
  • What!?
    • Response journals
  • Problems / barriers
    • Inadequate prior knowledge
    • Content-specific vocabulary
    • Text features and structure of “complex” textbooks
    • Limited reading levels
  • Myths / misconceptions
    • “ Learning From What Doesn’t Work”
    • (p. 3)
    • Coding the Text
      • Teach three symbols
        • I knew this (  )
        • Important (!)
        • Confused (?)
  • Answers / solutions
    • Plan instruction & learning around the triad of reading strategies
    Before Reading During Reading After Reading
  • Before reading / strategies Preview text Background knowledge Predict
  • Prediction activity
    • Discrepant Event Inquiry
      • Riddle / problem / question
      • Yes or no questions only
      • Large group / then small group / back to large group
      • Timed
  • Discrepant Event Inquiry (DEI)
    • A cork placed in a glass that is completely filled with water will always move to the center of the glass. Why?
    • Jumping Ping Pong Ball / How?
    • “ We never would have found this person if the person hadn’t been so hard to find.”
    • In 1837, a boy named John and his six brothers and sisters lived on a farm in a beautiful, wooded area in Tennessee. His family planted corn & raised animals for food and milk. His father was a lawmaker and his mother taught English in a local school. They were happy & prosperous.
    • In 1839, the family moved to a dry, treeless, flat prairie where it was difficult to raise enough food to survive. Three of John’s siblings died. Unable to make a living farming, his father went back to being a legislator and his mother wrote for a newspaper. They missed their home in the mountains.
  • When? Where? What?
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
    • “ Backwards” DEI
      • Student stands facing class
      • Project picture on wall
      • Student must ask the questions
  •  
    • Paul Harvey
      • “ The Rest of the Story”
    • William Bruce
      • “ Mindtronics”
      • “ Inquiry Alive”
      • “ Discrepant Event Inquiry”
    • Dizzy Aunt?
      • Verti Gogh
    • Cousin from Illinois?
      • Chica Gogh
    • Nephew psychoanalyst?
      • E Gogh
    • Niece who owned a RV?
      • Winnie Bay Gogh
    • Mexican cousin?
      • Amee Gogh
    • Bird lover uncle
      • Flaming Gogh
    Vincent Van Gogh
  • Building background knowledge
    • Emotional Envisioning
      • Civil War images
    • United Streaming
    • List / Group / Label (p. 10)
  • Building background knowledge
    • Realia / Artifacts (p. 11)
      • KSHS
        • <www.kshs.org>
        • Traveling trunks
      • Kiel Hileman
        • 2004 Kansas teacher of the year
        • Keil's room
  • Building background knowledge
    • Class Discussion
    • Activating Prior Knowledge
      • Empty Your Head (p. 27)
      • Quick Write
  • Building background knowledge
    • Understanding vocabulary
      • Students must encounter words in context more than once to learn them
        • 7-14 meaningful exposures needed!
      • Great way to learn?
        • Associate an image with word
  • Democracy
    • Which vocabulary words?
      • Those that are conceptually difficult
      • Those that relate to a single topic
      • Those that are important
        • Understanding the assigned reading
        • General utility in the language
    • Taboo
      • Student faces class / teacher flashes word on screen along with “taboo” words
    • “ Democracy” vote people United States 1776 election Constitution
    • Vocabulary cheat sheet
      • “ Pre-load” selected vocab from text into chart
      • Repeat words with students
      • Give quick definition
      • Type words in alpha order on half of hot dog fold with definition
      • Students use while reading as a bookmark
  • confederate regiment corps tactic strategy diplomacy secede rendezvous commission
    • Word Sorts (p. 28)
      • Geography terms
    • Verbal and Visual Word Association (p. 31)
      • Discrimination
  • Frayer Model (p. 35)
  • Preview text activities
    • Text Feature Hunt (p. 38-39)
    • THIEVES (p. 40)
  • What!?
    • Response journals
  • Text structures Rereading for clarification Questioning During reading / strategies
  • Text structure (p. 41)
    • Description (p. 42)
    • Sequence (p. 44)
    • Cause & effect (p. 47)
    • Problem / solution (p. 49)
    • Compare & contrast (p. 52)
      • Equals Similarities & Differences
  • What’s wrong with this?
  • Is this better?
  • Text structure
    • Use the picture and your assigned text structure to write a paragraph
  •  
  • Clarifying
    • 5 Ws and H (p. 55)
    • History / Story Frame (p. 57)
    • Coding the Text
      • Teach three symbols
        • I knew this (  )
        • Important (!)
        • Confused (?)
  • Questioning activity
    • Children of the Dust Bowl vs. Out of the Dust
      • What is historical fiction?
      • Out of the Dust
        • “ Fact / Fiction / Not Sure” graphic organizer
    • Children of the Dust Bowl vs. Out of the Dust
      • What is historical fiction?
      • Out of the Dust
        • Fact / Fiction / Not Sure graphic organizer
      • Children of the Dust Bowl
        • Create questions from Not Sure list
        • Research using non-fiction to find answers
        • Create a page of larger class book
    • My Brother Sam is Dead vs. Give Me Liberty Others?
  • What!?
    • Response journals
  •  
  •  
  • Summarize Synthesize After reading / strategies Evaluate
  • Summarizing
    • 2 x 2 Thinking (p. 62)
      • Textbooks / articles
    • Writing in Social Studies (p. 66)
    • Podcasts (iTunes)
    • Video newscast (YouTube)
    • Letters to others / before, during, after event
  • Synthesizing / Evaluating
    • Use primary sources as much as possible
      • “ What really happened at Lexington Green on April 19, 1775?” / “How do you know?”
      • Fence Sitter activity
      • NCSS Suggested Activities (p. 81)
      • Use NARA document analysis sheets (p. 83)
        • <www.archives.gov/education>
    • NARA Digital Classroom
      • <www.archives.gov/education>
    • Library of Congress American Memory
      • <memory.loc.gov>
    • Our Documents
      • <www.ourdocuments.gov>
    • Social Studies Central
      • <www.socialstudiescentral.com>
    • America’s Library
      • <www.americaslibrary.org>
    • University of Kansas links
      • <history.cc.ukans.edu/carrie/docs>
  • Synthesizing / Evaluating
    • RAFT ( p. 85)
    • Script writing
  • “ Bleeding edge!”
    • Google Docs
      • <docs.google.com>
    • Blogs / Wikis
      • <www.socialstudiescentral.com>
  • What!?
    • Response journals
  • “ Our task is not to provide an education for the kind of kids we used to have, or want to have, or the kind that exists in our dreams.
  • Our task is to provide an education for the kind of kids we do have.” Mary Kay Utecht
  • Resources
    • Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies <www.readingquest.org>
    • National Council for the Social Studies <www.socialstudies.org>
    • Marco Polo <marcopolo-education.org>
    • Literacy Connections <www.literacyconnections.com>
    • Reading Rockets <www.readingrockets.org>
    • Colorin Colorado <www.colorincolorado.org>
    • Learning Disabilities Resources <www.ldresources.com>
    • Internet Picture Dictionary < www.eslnotes.com/index.html>
    • Empowered Desktop <kportal.learningstation.com>
    • Edsitement <edsitement.neh.gov>
    • Kansas Educational Resource Center <www.kerc-ks.org>
    • Literacy Matters <www.literacymatters.org>
    • Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Class < www.world-affairs.org/globalclassroom/ curriculum/ReadingToLearn2.pdf>
    • What’s New in Children’s Literature <www.peggysharp.com>
    • CyberGuides <www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/SCORE/>
    • Helping Your Child Learn (History/Science/Math) <www.edpubs.org/webstore/Content/ search.asp>
    • PBS TeacherSource: Recommended Books <www.pbs.org/teachersource/recommended>
    • Carol Hurst’s Children’s Literature Site <www.carolhurst.com/subjects/ curriculum.htm>
    • Recommended Literature: K12 Literary Genres <www.cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/ll/litrlgenres.asp>
    • Suggested Children’s Literature for PreK-8 Activities <65.109.144.97/curriculum/Literature_ (annotated)_list_by_PLT_Activity.doc>
    • English Baby <www.englishbaby.com>
    • ESL Notes < www.eslnotes.com/index.html>
    • Six Key Strategies for Teachers of English Language Learners <www.all4ed.org/publications/ SixKeyStrategies.pdf>
    • Allen, Janet (2004) Tools for Teaching Content Literacy. Stenhouse Publishers.
    • Armstrong, Thomas. (2003) The Multiple Intelligences of Reading & Writing: Making the Words Come Alive. Alexandria, VA: ASCD
    • Beers, Kylene. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. A Guide for Teachers 6-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Billmeyer, Rachel. (1998) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who? McREL.
    • Bruce, Bertram. (2003) Literacy in the Information Age: Inquiries into Meaning Making with New Technologies. International Reading Association.
    • Caine, Geoffery. (2001) The Brain, Education, and the Competitive Edge . Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Education.
    • Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. (1999) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School . Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    • Fay, Kathleen and Suzanne Whaley. (2004) Becoming One Community Reading and Writing with English Language Learners. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers.
    • Harvey, Stephanie. (1998) Nonfiction Matters: Reading, Writing, and Research in Grades 3-8. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers.
    • Irvin, Judith (2002) Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Classroom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    • Jensen, Eric. (1998) Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD.
    • Kirschenbaum, Valerie. (2005) Goodbye Gutenberg: Hello to a New Generation of Readers and Writers. Global Renaissance Society.
    • Levstick, Linda, Barton, Keith. (2001) Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary & Middle Schools . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    • Lewin, Larry; Betty Jean Shoemaker. (1998) Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks . Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD.
    • Nickelsen, LeAnn (2003) Comprehension Activities for Reading in Social Studies and Science. Scholastic.
    • Robb, Laura (2003) Teaching Reading Social Studies, Science, and Math: Practical Ways to Weave Comprehension into Your Teaching. Scholastic.
    • Reeves, Anne. (2004) Adolescents Talk About Reading: Exploring Resistance to & Engagement with Text. International Reading Association.
    • Tovani, Cris. (2000) I Read it, But I Don’t Get It: Comprehension Strategies for Adolescent Readers. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers.
    • Zemelman, Steven, et al. (1998) Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.
    • Zull, James. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Publishing.
    • Lessow-Hurley, Judith. (2003) Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners: An Educator’s Guide. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    • Peregoy, Suzanne and Owen Boyle. (2005) Reading, Writing & Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers. Boston: Pearson Publishers.