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Primary Sources 2007
 

Primary Sources 2007

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Primary Sources 2007 Primary Sources 2007 Presentation Transcript

  • Primary Sources in the Social Studies Classroom Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK [email_address]
  •  
  • Sticky ideas
  • Big ideas
    • Primary sources encourage high levels of learning
    • Lots of resources & activities exist for teachers to use
    • Using technology is important as part of instruction
  • Primary / secondary?
    • Old history textbooks
    • New history textbooks
    • The Wild Blue
    • Photos
    • Artifact
    • World Book
    • Copy of a forwarded email
    • Diary
    • Live blog on a computer
    • Digital photo on laptop
    • Wikipedia
  • What are the rules?
    • Create a list of criteria
  • Criteria?
    • Direct traces of the event
    • Accounts created at the time it occurred , by firsthand observers and participants
    • Accounts created after the event occurred , by firsthand observers and participants
    • Accounts created after the event occurred , by people who did not participate or witness the event, but who used interviews or evidence from the time of the event
    • Do you need to change any of your dots?
  • Definitions?
    • What are primary sources?
      • Contemporary accounts of an event, created by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question
      • “a first-hand account of an event, person, or place” (Kansas State Standards)
    • What are secondary sources?
      • Materials that interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources
      • “An account of an event, person, or place that is not first-hand” (Kansas State Standards)
    • Tertiary sources?
      • Materials that list, compile, digest, or index primary and / or secondary sources
  • Where should you start? socialstudiescentral.com slideshare.net/glennw98
    • Three stage media analysis
      • See
      • Sims & Differences
      • Why
    • Three stage media analysis
      • Boston Massacre
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    • Paul Revere
    • 1770
    • Alonzo Chappel
    • 1868
  • Training kids to analyze
    • “ What really happened in Boston on March 5, 1770?”
    • Who
      • 1st / 2nd / 3rd person?
    5 W’s and credibility
    • What
      • format?
    • Why
      • audience?
    • Where
      • on-site?
    • When
      • written / created?
    • Whatcha thinking?
  • Great place to start
    • National Archives & Records Administration
      • www.archives.gov/education
    • Library of Congress
      • www.loc.gov/teachers
    • Our Documents
      • www.ourdocuments.gov
    • Social Studies Central
      • www.socialstudiescentral.com
        • “ Links”  “Documents ”
    • Browse through lesson plan archives
    • Select a lesson you can adapt
      • How might it look different?
    • One side write
      • What you see
    • Other side
      • What you feel
    • Bottom
      • What do all pictures have in common?
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  • Masks off!
    • See
    • Feel
    • Have in common
    • Why don’t we hear much about it?
    • How would you slow down a pandemic in 2007?
  • Problems / Myths?
  • Problems?
    • Time in planning
    • Time in class
    • Validity of source
    • Training of teacher and students
    • Reading level of students
  • Myths?
    • Jigsaw: “Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths”
  • Myths?
    • Primary sources are reliable
    • Primary sources are naturally fun and engaging for students
    • Evidence can be neatly packaged as primary or secondary
    • The more primary sources the better
  • Why primary sources?
    • “ A morsel of genuine history is a thing so rare as to be always valuable.”
    • Thomas Jefferson, 1817
  • Why primary sources?
    • It’s in the state standards
      • www.ksde.org
    • Yeah, but . . .
    • Students develop critical thinking skills
      • Primary sources are 3rd story stuff
      • Kids must make own conclusions
  • “ I learned that to do history, you have to be objective and be able to look at a puzzle of historical events and put them together in order.” 10th grader
    • Students acquire empathy for the human condition
      • See history as events that happen to actual people
  • “ When my students read the Whitman letters, I saw a sheen of tears in their eyes and noted an avid interest in the soldiers as people, not just historical figures.” HS teacher
    • Students consider different points of view
      • Must move from making observations to making inferences
      • Realize that both creation & interpretation is biased
  • “ Discovering that two students view a document differently creates a kind of dissonance that opens up meaning and creates new understanding in learners.” MS teacher
    • Students understand the continuum of history
      • See cause and effect / time / place / people relationships over time
  • “ The Civil Rights Movement finally made sense to me when I looked at lynching postcards from the 1900s and some of the writings of Ida B. Wells.” HS student
  • Basic assumptions
    • History is incomplete & open to interpretation
    • Use raw evidence as much as possible
    • Activity should be “ill structured”
    • Don’t get too involved
    • Use provocative problems
    • Provide scaffolding
    • Incorporate collaboration
    • The process is the key / not the “correct” answer
    • Give One to Get One
    • Your best lesson / resource?
    • What do you already do?
      •  Check off those things that you have done or are already doing
    • What will you do?
      • Circle or highlight those things that you might want to try
    • What can be changed?
      • Underline those things that would need to be adapted
  • The basics
    • Provide some “velcro”
      • History Frame
      • Predict-o-Fact
      • List / Group / Label
        • Brown vs. Board of Education
    • Use analysis worksheets
    • Use NARA / LOC kits
    • NCSS lesson plans
    • Use analysis worksheets
  • Technology suggestions
    • Use Google Earth
      • Kids create tour of US import countries
      • Tours of explorer routes
      • List of natural resources
      • Provide placemarks / good area to settle?
      • City scavenger hunts
    • Resources:
      • <www.shambles.net/pages/learning/GeogP/ gearthplan>
      • <bbs.keyhole.com>
      • <gelessons.com>
      • <www.teachinghacks.com/wiki>
    • Compare Flickr.com
    • photos of a specific
    • event or place
    • Geocaching.com
    • Use spreadsheet program
      • slaves per colony
      • USSR vs. US casualties during WWII
    • Play video games
    • Making History
    www.making-history.com
    • Ancient Egypt
    www.knowledgematters.com
    • Discover
    • Babylon
    www.discoverbabylon.org
    • Use online archives
    • Create blogs to discuss / share documents
    • Let kids use software to create multimedia presentations
      • MovieMaker
      • iMovie
      • GarageBand
      • iTunes
    • Online activities
      • Who Killed William Robinson?
      • You are the Historian
      • Social Studies Central Lesson Plans
        • <www.socialstudiescentral.com>
    • Technology
      • What do you do?
    • Objects
      • Use old photos to trace the development of specific types of technology or inventions
      • Predict what the technology might look like 50 or 100 years from now
    • Objects
      • Use a spreadsheet program to document deaths and births based on tombstone data
      • Predict use of unknown object / research and present findings
  •  
    • Objects
      • Kiel Hileman
        • 2004 Kansas teacher of the year
        • Keil's room
        • See handout
    • Objects
      • What do you do?
    • Images
      • Select a historical photo / have kids predict what was happening one hour before or after it was taken
      • Have kids use fine art to reveal info about artist, time period, attitudes of the period
    • Images
      • Compare Hollywood movies with actual events
      • Use visual DEIs (Discrepant Event Inquiry) to engage kids
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  • New York City 1939
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  • New Jersey 1938
    • “ Backwards” DEI
      • Student stands facing class
      • Project picture on wall
      • Student must ask the questions
  •  
    • Images
      • What do you do?
    • Audio
      • Record oral interviews with family or community members
      • Study lyrics of popular music from WWI, WWII, the Vietnam War, and Iraq
        • Compare with interviews with vets
    • Audio
      • Compare transcripts or newspaper accounts of famous speeches to the actual speech www.newspaperarchive.org
    • Use music with images to create an emotional engagement
      • Civil War Photos
    • Audio
      • What do you do?
    • Statistics
      • Study historical maps of city or region / document evidence of change
      • Use census data to predict future problems facing community
    • Statistics
      • Contrast present sports to past
        • Who was better? Why?
        • Baseball cards / Madden 2007?
      • Research blueprints of public building
        • What changes have been made and why?
    • Statistics
      • What do you do?
    • Text
      • Use newspapers/magazines to analyze advertising of specific product over time
      • Select cookbooks from different periods
      • Read letters to analyze point of view
      • “ Famous” quotes
    • Text
      • What do you do?
  • Assessment?
    • Document Based Questions (DBQs)
      • A series of short answers or an essay based on prior knowledge and a select set of documents
      • Designed to enable students to work like historians
      • For all levels
      • Formative or summative
    • Was Christopher Columbus good or bad?
    • Assess whether or not imperialism helped or harmed colonial societies.
  • When? Where? What?
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  • Perhaps more important . . . So what?
  •  
  • What cost security?
    • Guiding question
      • “Is it ever okay for the government to violate the Bill of Rights?”
    • Documents & white gloves
      • &quot;Conference with General De Witt&quot; at Office of Commanding General, Headquarters Western Defense Command and Fourth Army; January 4, 1942
      • Executive Order 9066
      • Exclusion Order and exclusion area
      • Photographs of internment process / camps
    • Complete student response sheet
      • Use photo & document analysis sheets
    • Complete History Frame graphic organizer to summarize your work
    • Using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, defend or refute the following statement:
      • “Descendants of those interned during WWII should be entitled to financial compensation from the federal government.”
    • Or . . . using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, complete the following task:
      • “Make a scale drawing of an 8´ x 20´ room. Put furnishings drawn to scale for your own family (beds, closets, chests, etc.) in the drawing”
    • Or . . . using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, complete the following task:
      • “Pretend your best friend had to go to the internment camp. Write a letter to that friend”
  • What would you change?
  • Create your own
    • Using the Library of Congress framework, begin developing your own primary sources activity
    • Be sure to use the Three Story Intellect
      • Start with the end in mind
      • Develop an assessment
      • Create the activity
  • Where should you end? slideshare.net/glennw98
  • Sticky ideas?
    • Encourage high levels of learning
    Lots of resources & activities exist Using technology is important
  • Web resources
    • Social Studies Central
      • <www.socialstudiescentral.com>
      • Click “Links” then “Documents”
    • NARA Digital Classroom
      • <www.archives.gov/education>
    • Library of Congress American Memory
      • <memory.loc.gov/learn>
    • Our Documents
      • <www.ourdocuments.gov>
    • America’s Library
      • <www.americaslibrary.org>
    • Authentic History Center
      • <authentic history.com>
    • Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies
      • <www.readingquest.org>
    • National Council for the Social Studies
      • <www.socialstudies.org>
    • Marco Polo
      • <marcopolo-education.org>
    • Edsitement
      • <edsitement.neh.gov>
    • History Matters!
      • <historymatters.gmu.edu>
    • Kansas Educational Resource Center
      • <www.kerc-ks.org>
    • Language Strategies for Social Science
      • <www.stanford.edu/group/step/resources/ LanguageSite/History_Strategies.html>
    • Digital History
      • <www.digitalhistory.uh.edu>
    • Smithsonian Institute
      • <www.smithsonianeducation.org/ educators>
    • Internet History Sourcebook Project
      • <www.fordham.edu/halsall>
    • National Park Service / Links to the Past
      • <www.cr.nps.gov>
    • Using Primary Sources with Teachers
      • <www.whyy.org/generations/primary.html>
    • Center for History and the New Media
      • <chnm.gmu.edu>
    • Teaching History with Technology
      • <www.thwt.org>
    • Best of History Web Sites
      • <www.besthistorysites.net>
  • Print resources
    • Kobrin, David. (1996) Beyond the Textbook: Teaching History Using Documents & Primary Sources . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.
    • Lewin, Larry; Betty Jean Shoemaker. (1998) Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks . Alexandria, Virginia: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    • Lindquist, Tarry. (1997) Ways That Work: Putting Social Studies Standards into Practice . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.
    • Steffey, Stephanie; Wendy Hood. (1994) If This is Social Studies, Why isn’t it Boring? York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.
    • Zemelman, Steven, et al. (1998) Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.
    • Zull, James. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Publishing.
    • Fischer, Max W. (1993) American History Simulations . Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials.
    • Levstick, Linda, Barton, Keith. (2001) Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary & Middle Schools . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    • Irvin, Judith (2002) Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Classroom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Citation of resources
    • Citing Electronic Information in History Papers
      • <cas.memphis.edu/~mcrouse/elcite.html>
    • Columbia Guide to Online Style
      • <www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html>
    • Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources
      • <www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/index.html>
    • Research and Documentation Online
      • <www.dianahacker.com/resdoc>
    • Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgement
      • <www.dartmouth.edu/~sources>
    • Easy Bib
      • <easybib.com>
    • Notestar
      • <notestar.4teachers.org>