Primary Sources
in the Social Studies
Classroom



                               Glenn Wiebe
                            ...
sticky ideas
primary sources encourage
 high levels of
 learning
there’s lots of stuff you
  can use
“A morsel of genuine history is a
  thing so rare as to be always
  valuable.”

 Thomas Jefferson
 1817
With your partner, make some
decisions & place your dots
Primary or secondary?
 Old history        Copy of email
 textbook
                    Journal
 New history        Blog
 te...
characteristics?
• direct traces of the event

accounts created at the time it
 occurred, by firsthand observers
 and participants
accounts...
• direct traces of the event
• accounts created at the time it
 occurred, by firsthand observers
 and participants
account...
• direct traces of the event
• accounts created at the time it
 occurred, by firsthand observers
 and participants
• accou...
Definitions?
Definitions?

Primary sources
 • Contemporary accounts of an event,
   created by someone who experienced or
   witnessed ...
Secondary sources
 • Materials that interpret, assign value to,
   conjecture upon, and draw conclusions
   about the even...
Secondary sources?
 • Materials that interpret, assign value
   to, conjecture upon, and draw
   conclusions about the eve...
Do you need to change any of
 your dots?
Examines multiple primary
sources to understand point of
view of an historical figure
Examines a variety of primary
sources in World history and
analyzes them in terms of credibility,
purpose, and point of vi...
Uses at least three primary sources
to interpret the impact of a person or
event from Kansas history to develop
an histori...
Compares contrasting
descriptions of the same event in
United States history to understand
how people differ in their
inte...
Three stage media analysis
See?
Similarities & Differences?
So what?
Three stage media analysis
Boston Massacre
Paul Revere
 1770
Alonzo Chappel
 1868
Training kids to analyze

“What really happened in Boston
 on March 5, 1770?”
Historical Scene Investigation
 web.wm.edu/hsi
5 W’s and
credibility
Who
1st, 2nd or 3rd person?
What
format?
Why
audience?
Where
present?
When
date?
take advantage of analysis
worksheets
Whatcha thinking?
Social Studies Central
 www.socialstudiescentral.com
National Archives & Records
 Administration
 www.archives.gov/education
Library of Congress
  www.loc.gov/teachers
American Memory
 memory.loc.gov
Our Documents
 www.ourdocuments.gov
Making Sense of History
 www.primarysourcelearning.org
Historical Scene Investigation
 web.wm.edu/hsi
Browse through lesson plan
 archives

Select a lesson you can adapt
 How might it look different?

Share what you find!
how might chapter nine in
 Medina tie into primary
 sources?
what are these
 things?
What are some problems with
using primary sources?
Time in planning
Time in planning

Time in class
Time in planning

Time in class

Validity of source
Time in planning

Time in class

Validity of source

Training of teacher and students
Time in planning

Time in class

Validity of source

Training of teacher and students

Reading level of students
Jigsaw:
 “Primary Sources in History:
 Breaking Through the Myths”
Code the text
 already know = star
 question = ?
 aha = !
Myths?
Primary sources are reliable
Primary sources are reliable

Primary sources are naturally
  engaging for students
Primary sources are reliable

Primary sources are naturally
  engaging for students

Evidence can be neatly packaged
Primary sources are reliable

Primary sources are naturally
  engaging for students

Evidence can be neatly packaged

The ...
Primary sources are on the state
 assessment but . . . other
 than that?
Students develop critical
 thinking skills
“I learned that to do history, you have to be
objective and be able to look at a puzzle of
historical events and put them ...
Students acquire empathy for
 the human condition
“When my students read the Whitman letters, I saw a
sheen of tears in their eyes and noted an avid interest
in the soldier...
Students consider different
 points of view
“Discovering that two students view a document
differently creates a kind of dissonance that opens up
meaning and creates ...
Students understand
 relationships over time
“The Civil Rights
Movement finally made
sense to me when I
looked at lynching
postcards from the
1900s and some of the
wri...
Some assumptions?
History is incomplete & open to
 interpretation
History is incomplete & open to
 interpretation

Use raw evidence as much as
 possible
History is incomplete & open to
 interpretation

Use raw evidence as much as
 possible

Activity should be “ill structured”
History is incomplete & open to
 interpretation

Use raw evidence as much as
 possible

Activity should be “ill structured...
Use provocative problems
Use provocative problems

Provide scaffolding
Use provocative problems

Provide scaffolding

Incorporate collaboration
Use provocative problems

Provide scaffolding

Incorporate collaboration

Focus on the process, not the
 “correct” answer
Some other ideas
• Footnote

• Digital Vaults
Provide some
 “velcro”
Use analysis worksheets
Use analysis worksheets

Use NARA / LOC kits
Use analysis worksheets

Use NARA / LOC kits

NCSS lesson plans
Images
Images

 • Select a historical photo,
   have kids predict events one
   hour before or after
Images

 • Select a historical photo,
   have kids predict events one
   hour before or after

 •   I am poem
Images

 • Select a historical photo,
   have kids predict events one
   hour before or after

 •   I am poem

 • Create a...
Images
Images

 • Use maps to guide questions
Kids create tour of US import countries

Tours of explorer routes

List of natural resources

Provide placemarks / good ar...
Andersonville prison
Images

 • Use visual DEIs
“Backwards” DEI

 • Student stands facing class

 • Project picture on wall

 • Student must ask the
   questions
Compare Flickr.com
 photos of a specific event
 or place
Let’s go find some
Objects
   • Keil Hileman
Objects
Objects

  • Trace the development of
    specific types of
    technology or inventions
Objects

  • Trace the development of
    specific types of
    technology or inventions

  • Predict what the technology
...
Objects
Objects

  • Use a spreadsheet program to
    document deaths and births
    based on tombstone data
Objects

  • Use a spreadsheet program to
    document deaths and births
    based on tombstone data

  • Predict use of u...
Audio
Audio

 • Record oral interviews with
   family or community members
Audio

 • Record oral interviews with
   family or community members

 • Study lyrics of popular music
   from WWI, WWII, ...
Audio
Audio

 • Compare transcripts or newspaper
   accounts of famous speeches to
   the actual speech
Text
Text

  • Analyze advertising of specific
    products over time
Text

  • Analyze advertising of specific
    products over time

  • Select cookbooks from different
    periods
Famous quotes -
Age, location, time,
 purpose, who?
Text
Text

  • History in a Box
Text

  • History in a Box

  • Read letters to analyze point of
    view
Document Based Questions
 (DBQs)

 • Series of short answers or
   an essay based on prior
   knowledge and a select set o...
Was Christopher Columbus good or
bad?
Did imperialism help or harm colonial
societies?
Is it ever okay for the government to
violate the Bill of Rights?
Technology?
Using the Library of Congress
 framework, begin developing
 your own primary sources activity

  • Start with the end in m...
high levels of
         learning


        lots of resources &
          activities exist


technology is important
have more questions?
   contact:

   Glenn Wiebe
   glennw@essdack.org
   socialstudiescentral.com
   historytech.wordpres...
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom
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Integrating Primary Sources into the Social Studies Classroom

  1. 1. Primary Sources in the Social Studies Classroom Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK glennw@essdack.org
  2. 2. sticky ideas
  3. 3. primary sources encourage high levels of learning
  4. 4. there’s lots of stuff you can use
  5. 5. “A morsel of genuine history is a thing so rare as to be always valuable.” Thomas Jefferson 1817
  6. 6. With your partner, make some decisions & place your dots
  7. 7. Primary or secondary? Old history Copy of email textbook Journal New history Blog textbook Digital photo Band of Brothers Wikipedia Photo article Artifact World Book
  8. 8. characteristics?
  9. 9. • direct traces of the event accounts created at the time it occurred, by firsthand observers and participants accounts created after the event occurred, by firsthand observers and participants
  10. 10. • direct traces of the event • accounts created at the time it occurred, by firsthand observers and participants accounts created after the event occurred, by firsthand observers and participants
  11. 11. • direct traces of the event • accounts created at the time it occurred, by firsthand observers and participants • accounts created after the event occurred, by firsthand observers and participants
  12. 12. Definitions?
  13. 13. Definitions? Primary sources • Contemporary accounts of an event, created by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question • “a first-hand account of an event, person, or place”
  14. 14. Secondary sources • Materials that interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources • “An account of an event, person, or place that is not first-hand”
  15. 15. Secondary sources? • Materials that interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources • “An account of an event, person, or place that is not first-hand”
  16. 16. Do you need to change any of your dots?
  17. 17. Examines multiple primary sources to understand point of view of an historical figure
  18. 18. Examines a variety of primary sources in World history and analyzes them in terms of credibility, purpose, and point of view
  19. 19. Uses at least three primary sources to interpret the impact of a person or event from Kansas history to develop an historical narrative
  20. 20. Compares contrasting descriptions of the same event in United States history to understand how people differ in their interpretations of historical events
  21. 21. Three stage media analysis See? Similarities & Differences? So what?
  22. 22. Three stage media analysis Boston Massacre
  23. 23. Paul Revere 1770 Alonzo Chappel 1868
  24. 24. Training kids to analyze “What really happened in Boston on March 5, 1770?”
  25. 25. Historical Scene Investigation web.wm.edu/hsi
  26. 26. 5 W’s and credibility
  27. 27. Who 1st, 2nd or 3rd person?
  28. 28. What format?
  29. 29. Why audience?
  30. 30. Where present?
  31. 31. When date?
  32. 32. take advantage of analysis worksheets
  33. 33. Whatcha thinking?
  34. 34. Social Studies Central www.socialstudiescentral.com
  35. 35. National Archives & Records Administration www.archives.gov/education
  36. 36. Library of Congress www.loc.gov/teachers
  37. 37. American Memory memory.loc.gov
  38. 38. Our Documents www.ourdocuments.gov
  39. 39. Making Sense of History www.primarysourcelearning.org
  40. 40. Historical Scene Investigation web.wm.edu/hsi
  41. 41. Browse through lesson plan archives Select a lesson you can adapt How might it look different? Share what you find!
  42. 42. how might chapter nine in Medina tie into primary sources?
  43. 43. what are these things?
  44. 44. What are some problems with using primary sources?
  45. 45. Time in planning
  46. 46. Time in planning Time in class
  47. 47. Time in planning Time in class Validity of source
  48. 48. Time in planning Time in class Validity of source Training of teacher and students
  49. 49. Time in planning Time in class Validity of source Training of teacher and students Reading level of students
  50. 50. Jigsaw: “Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths”
  51. 51. Code the text already know = star question = ? aha = !
  52. 52. Myths?
  53. 53. Primary sources are reliable
  54. 54. Primary sources are reliable Primary sources are naturally engaging for students
  55. 55. Primary sources are reliable Primary sources are naturally engaging for students Evidence can be neatly packaged
  56. 56. Primary sources are reliable Primary sources are naturally engaging for students Evidence can be neatly packaged The more primary sources the better
  57. 57. Primary sources are on the state assessment but . . . other than that?
  58. 58. Students develop critical thinking skills
  59. 59. “I learned that to do history, you have to be objective and be able to look at a puzzle of historical events and put them together in order.” 10th grader
  60. 60. Students acquire empathy for the human condition
  61. 61. “When my students read the Whitman letters, I saw a sheen of tears in their eyes and noted an avid interest in the soldiers as people, not just historical figures.” HS teacher
  62. 62. Students consider different points of view
  63. 63. “Discovering that two students view a document differently creates a kind of dissonance that opens up meaning and creates new understanding in learners.” MS teacher
  64. 64. Students understand relationships over time
  65. 65. “The Civil Rights Movement finally made sense to me when I looked at lynching postcards from the 1900s and some of the writings of Ida B. Wells.” HS student
  66. 66. Some assumptions?
  67. 67. History is incomplete & open to interpretation
  68. 68. History is incomplete & open to interpretation Use raw evidence as much as possible
  69. 69. History is incomplete & open to interpretation Use raw evidence as much as possible Activity should be “ill structured”
  70. 70. History is incomplete & open to interpretation Use raw evidence as much as possible Activity should be “ill structured” Don’t get too involved
  71. 71. Use provocative problems
  72. 72. Use provocative problems Provide scaffolding
  73. 73. Use provocative problems Provide scaffolding Incorporate collaboration
  74. 74. Use provocative problems Provide scaffolding Incorporate collaboration Focus on the process, not the “correct” answer
  75. 75. Some other ideas
  76. 76. • Footnote • Digital Vaults
  77. 77. Provide some “velcro”
  78. 78. Use analysis worksheets
  79. 79. Use analysis worksheets Use NARA / LOC kits
  80. 80. Use analysis worksheets Use NARA / LOC kits NCSS lesson plans
  81. 81. Images
  82. 82. Images • Select a historical photo, have kids predict events one hour before or after
  83. 83. Images • Select a historical photo, have kids predict events one hour before or after • I am poem
  84. 84. Images • Select a historical photo, have kids predict events one hour before or after • I am poem • Create a “5 senses” description of an image
  85. 85. Images
  86. 86. Images • Use maps to guide questions
  87. 87. Kids create tour of US import countries Tours of explorer routes List of natural resources Provide placemarks / good area to settle? City scavenger hunts
  88. 88. Andersonville prison
  89. 89. Images • Use visual DEIs
  90. 90. “Backwards” DEI • Student stands facing class • Project picture on wall • Student must ask the questions
  91. 91. Compare Flickr.com photos of a specific event or place
  92. 92. Let’s go find some
  93. 93. Objects • Keil Hileman
  94. 94. Objects
  95. 95. Objects • Trace the development of specific types of technology or inventions
  96. 96. Objects • Trace the development of specific types of technology or inventions • Predict what the technology might look like 50 or 100 years from now
  97. 97. Objects
  98. 98. Objects • Use a spreadsheet program to document deaths and births based on tombstone data
  99. 99. Objects • Use a spreadsheet program to document deaths and births based on tombstone data • Predict use of unknown object / research and present findings
  100. 100. Audio
  101. 101. Audio • Record oral interviews with family or community members
  102. 102. Audio • Record oral interviews with family or community members • Study lyrics of popular music from WWI, WWII, the Vietnam War, and Iraq
  103. 103. Audio
  104. 104. Audio • Compare transcripts or newspaper accounts of famous speeches to the actual speech
  105. 105. Text
  106. 106. Text • Analyze advertising of specific products over time
  107. 107. Text • Analyze advertising of specific products over time • Select cookbooks from different periods
  108. 108. Famous quotes - Age, location, time, purpose, who?
  109. 109. Text
  110. 110. Text • History in a Box
  111. 111. Text • History in a Box • Read letters to analyze point of view
  112. 112. Document Based Questions (DBQs) • Series of short answers or an essay based on prior knowledge and a select set of documents • Encourages students to think historically
  113. 113. Was Christopher Columbus good or bad?
  114. 114. Did imperialism help or harm colonial societies?
  115. 115. Is it ever okay for the government to violate the Bill of Rights?
  116. 116. Technology?
  117. 117. Using the Library of Congress framework, begin developing your own primary sources activity • Start with the end in mind • Develop an assessment • Create the activity
  118. 118. high levels of learning lots of resources & activities exist technology is important
  119. 119. have more questions? contact: Glenn Wiebe glennw@essdack.org socialstudiescentral.com historytech.wordpress.com View presentations at: slideshare.net/glennw98

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