Spatial Data, KML, and the University Web

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Slides from a September 17, 2008, workshop introducing geographic data, Keyhole Markup Language, best practices and other policy considerations.

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Spatial Data, KML, and the University Web

  1. 1. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup SPATIAL DATA, KML, and the UNIVERSITY WEB Alan Glennon spatial.ucsb.edu Image Source: NAIP, 2005
  2. 2. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup SPATIAL DATA, KML, and the UNIVERSITY WEB • Geographic Data Basics • Keyhole Markup Language (KML) • Authoring KML • Dynamic KML • Distributing Geographic Data • Querying Geographic Data • Policy and Best Practices Topics Image Source: NAIP, 2005
  3. 3. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Mission: To facilitate the integration of spatial thinking into processes for learning and discovery in the natural, social, and behavioral sciences, to promote excellence in engineering and applied sciences, and to enhance creativity in the arts and humanities. Engagement: Hosting events (brownbags, workshops, lectures) Developing spatial analytic tools Offering a help desk Assisting with research proposal development Image Source: NAIP, 2005
  4. 4. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Geographic Data Two practical perspectives: Data that include or can be harvested for spatial references Combinations of spatially-referenced points, polylines, polygons, and images with their associated attributes and relationships
  5. 5. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Geographic Data
  6. 6. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Geographic Data Significance: visually compelling provide context and content; close things are usually more related; spatial order; pattern and trend recognition popular; widespread use, particularly on the Internet professional expectation: Google Maps as a baseline
  7. 7. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup “…it would behove spatial scientists to articulate to the broader research community the potential of recording and making accessible spatial data in the appropriate formats — and the painlessness of the process.” A place for everything: More researchers must record the latitude and longitude of their data. Editorial: Nature 453, 2 (1 May 2008)
  8. 8. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Spatial Data at the University Research data analysis and results dissemination Classroom office locations, events, classrooms, miscellaneous directions, instructional projects Infrastructure maps, blueprints, streets, buildings, images, crisis management, physical resources, natural resources, office and classrooms, fleet management, planning, operational support, registrar and personnel databases Student data on personal websites, often integrated with third party applications and data
  9. 9. NASA World Wind (client and server) OpenLayers (client) MapServer (server) Geoserver (server) GDAL/OGR (server-based geo-database toolkit) GRASS (full desktop GIS client) Google Earth (client) Google Maps (client) Microsoft Virtual Earth (client) ArcGIS Explorer (client) MapQuest (client) Google Earth Enterprise (server) ArcGIS (full desktop GIS client) ArcGIS Server (server) deCarta (server) AutoDesk AutoCad (client) AutoDesk ProductStream (server) Oracle Spatial (server) 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Sample Software FreeOpenSourceProprietary
  10. 10. • ESRI shapefile (.shp) • KeyHole Markup Language (.kml) • GeoRSS (.rss, .xml) • AutoCad DXF (.dxf) • Census TIGER • ESRI Coverage • ESRI Personal Geodatabase • GeoTIFF • Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) • Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) • Image formats like jpg, tiff, gif, and png (often served via a WMS operation) Considerations when choosing a file type for spatial data: What software support it? What does your consumer want? Is it fast? What type of data, complexity, and dynamics can it support? How easy is it to autogenerate and update (from your database to the new file format)? How well will it age? 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Example Geographic File Types
  11. 11. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Keyhole Markup Language (KML) Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an open source XML-based specification for expressing geographic data. Developed as a Google Earth file format to represent georeferenced points, polylines, polygons, and images KML has become widely supported by many other software applications and online mapping services. Core data within a KML document include longitude, latitude, elevation, and name descriptions A sizable number of advanced specifications also exist, including tags for cartographic customization, viewer position, time, and iterative data refresh calls.
  12. 12. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <kml xmlns="http://earth.google.com/kml/2.2"> <Document> <name>HelloWorld1.kml</name> <Placemark> <name>Transformers</name> <description>There are some transformers here.</description> <Point> <coordinates> -119.8512453552352,34.41944355498201,0 </coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> </Document> </kml> Something to notice If the first letter of a tag is upper case, it can hold child elements. If the first letter is lower case, it denotes a simple element—one that has no possible children.
  13. 13. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml
  14. 14. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml ... <Placemark> <name>Transformers</name> <description>There are some transformers here.</description> <Point> <coordinates> -119.8512453552352,34.41944355498201,0 </coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> <Placemark> <name>homebase</name> <description>Line from baseball field home base to transformers.</description> <LineString> <tessellate>1</tessellate> <coordinates>-119.8512439751936,34.41944165152853,0 -119.8524251973235,34.41862172899327,0 </coordinates> </LineString> </Placemark> </Document> </kml>
  15. 15. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml
  16. 16. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml ... </LineString> </Placemark> <Placemark> <name>Transformer Area</name> <description>An area with electrical equipment in it.</description> <Polygon> <tessellate>1</tessellate> <outerBoundaryIs> <LinearRing> <coordinates> -119.8511894139676,34.41968857861303,0 -119.8514849728913,34.41956527198274,0 -119.8512914112404,34.4192276886303,0 -119.851011240657,34.41934137112972,0 -119.8511894139676,34.41968857861303,0 </coordinates> </LinearRing> </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> </Placemark> </Document> </kml>
  17. 17. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml
  18. 18. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml ... </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> </Placemark> <GroundOverlay> <name>aerialphoto</name> <description>A photograph of the transformers. Pictometry photograph taken from Microsoft Virtual Earth.</description> <Icon> <href>transformers.jpg</href> <viewBoundScale>0.75</viewBoundScale> </Icon> <LatLonBox> <north>34.41971426141618</north> <south>34.41890159916832</south> <east>-119.8508244826322</east> <west>-119.851976467865</west> <rotation>-84.34325349425195</rotation> </LatLonBox> </GroundOverlay> </Document> </kml>
  19. 19. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup HelloWorld.kml
  20. 20. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup KeyholeMarkupLanguage(KML)Schema From: http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kmlreference.html
  21. 21. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Keyhole Markup Language (KML) Specification Resources: http://code.google.com/apis/kml http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/kml/ http://code.google.com/apis/kml/schema/kml22beta.xsd KML Examples: http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/ http://bbs.keyhole.com http://www.google.com/search?q=filetype%3Akml Schema Tools: XML editor Validating parser (like Xerces-C++) http://feedvalidator.org
  22. 22. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Authoring KML Graphical User Interface Google Earth Export from ArcGIS Specialty website and applications (particularly plentiful for GPS data importing) Text Editor Komodo Edit NotePad++ Parsers, Automation, and Online OGR from PostgreSQL and MySQL Coded parsers EditGrid Google Docs
  23. 23. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Position the viewer to contain the spot you want to mark, and zoom to an appropriate viewing scale. To mark the spot, either: Select Placemark from the Add Menu; or, Click the Placemark icon on the toolbar menu at the top of the screen. AuthoringKMLinGoogleEarth
  24. 24. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Authoring KML in a text editor
  25. 25. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Authoring KML with an online spreadsheet Google Spreadsheets Tutorial: http://earth.google.com/outreach/tutorial_mapper.html source: Google, Inc.
  26. 26. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup StylingandCartography Using the CDATA Element If you want to write standard HTML inside a <description> tag, you can put it inside a CDATA tag. If you don't, the angle brackets need to be written as entity references to prevent Google Earth from parsing the HTML incorrectly (for example, the symbol > is written as &gt; and the symbol < is written as &lt;). This is a standard feature of XML and is not unique to Google Earth. Source: http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kml_tut.html <description> <![CDATA[ <h1>CDATA Tags are useful!</h1> <p><font color="red"> Text is <i>more readable</i> and <b>easier to write</b> when you can avoid using entity references.</font></p> ]]> </description> <description> &lt;h1&gt;Entity references are hard to type!&lt;/h1&gt; &lt;p&gt;&lt;font color="green"&gt;Text is &lt;i&gt;more readable&lt;/i&gt; and &lt;b&gt;easier to write&lt;/b&gt; when you can avoid using entity references.&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/p&gt; </description>
  27. 27. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup StylingandCartography <description> <![CDATA[ <center> <a href="http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~glennon/geysermap/images2/t25.jpg"> <img src="http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~glennon/geysermap/images2/t25tb.jpg"></a> </center> <p> Category: geyser <br>Height: 5 m<br>Duration: 15 min <br>Interval: 2 hours + <br>Description: <a href="http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~glennon/geysermap/info/t25.htm">read more </a> / <a href= "http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~glennon/geysermap/tatiometadata.htm">metadata </a> <p>Source: Glennon and Pfaff (2003)<br> <center> <img src="http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~glennon/geysermap/ucsbgeog.jpg" alt="UCSB Geography"> ]]> </description> Source: J. A. Glennon and R.M. Pfaff (2003), El Tatio Geysers, http://turnhole.com/chile.kmz
  28. 28. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup StylingandCartography Source: J. A. Glennon and R.M. Pfaff (2003), El Tatio Geysers, http://turnhole.com/chile.kmz
  29. 29. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup StylingandCartography <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <kml xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2"> <Document> <Style id="transBluePoly"> <LineStyle> <width>1.5</width> </LineStyle> <PolyStyle> <color>7dff0000</color> </PolyStyle> </Style> <Placemark> <name>Transformers</name> <styleUrl>#transBluePoly</styleUrl> <Polygon> <extrude>1</extrude> <altitudeMode>relativeToGround</altitudeMode> <outerBoundaryIs> <LinearRing> <coordinates> -119.851205,34.419680,42 -119.851008,34.419342,45 -119.851317,34.419221,46 -119.851486,34.419563,43 -119.851205,34.419680,42 </coordinates> </LinearRing> </outerBoundaryIs> </Polygon> </Placemark> </Document> </kml>
  30. 30. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup StylingandCartography Styling and Cartography
  31. 31. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Network Link Using the <Link> element with the tag <href>, KML can reference local and remote files. The <href> tag can refer to: An image file used by icons in icon styles, ground overlays, and screen overlays A COLLADA file used in the <Model> element A KML or KMZ file loaded by a Network Link
  32. 32. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Network Link Example <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <kml xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2"> <Folder> <name>Network Links</name> <visibility>0</visibility> <open>0</open> <description>Network link example 1</description> <NetworkLink> <name>Random Placemark</name> <visibility>0</visibility> <open>0</open> <description>A simple server-side script that generates a new random placemark on each call </description> <refreshVisibility>0</refreshVisibility> <flyToView>0</flyToView> <Link> <href>http://nanocarta.com/tools/randomsphere.php?sample=100</href> <refreshMode>onInterval</refreshMode> <refreshInterval>5</refreshInterval> </Link> </NetworkLink> </Folder> </kml>
  33. 33. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Network Link Example One hundred random locations refreshing every five seconds.
  34. 34. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Network Link http://radar.weather.gov/ridge/kmzgenerator.php http://www.srh.noaa.gov/gis/kml/ Via a Network Link, a server-side script could call external databases or other online sources. You could also create a webpage interface that assembles and returns a KML based on user preferences. For example: Source: NOAA
  35. 35. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Time In KML, features can be associated with time with these tags: <TimeStamp> associates a feature to an instant in time <TimeSpan> associates a feature to a length of time. The tag requires a begin time and/or end time. With respect to rendering, these tags typically serve as a visibility filter against a timeline.
  36. 36. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Time When Google Earth reads a temporal tag within KML, a time browser appears. Clicking on the clock icon brings up additional time navigation options. Source: Google Earth and Declan Butler; http://www.nature.com/news/author/Declan+Butler
  37. 37. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Temporal Tags Example … <Placemark> <name>Transformers</name> <description>There are some transformers here.</description> <Point> <coordinates>0,0,0<!simplified></coordinates> </Point> <TimeSpan> <begin>1990</begin> <end>2009</end> </TimeSpan> </Placemark> <Placemark> <name>homebase</name> <description>Line from home base to transformers.</description> <LineString> <tessellate>1</tessellate> <coordinates>0,0,0 1,1,0<! simplified></coordinates> </LineString> <TimeStamp> <when>2008-09-24T10:30:15-08:00</when> </TimeStamp> </Placemark> …
  38. 38. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Source: Google Earth
  39. 39. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Source: Google Earth
  40. 40. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup DynamicKML Temporal Tags Example Source: Google Earth
  41. 41. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Distribution and Sharing A) Delivery of raw or auto-assembled KML KML file is shared via a website, email, or disk User loads KML into the Google Earth application B) Delivery of KML from Google Maps KML is hosted Google Maps renders KML C) Delivery of KML with the Google Earth browser plug-in Webpage created using Google Earth API Hosted KML is rendered within Google Earth frame D) Delivery with desktop applications like ArcGIS Explorer, Virtual Earth, NASA World Wind, etc. Generally similar to standalone KML (option A) E) Mediator web service Website service allows user collaboration, provides hosting, and file index or discovery mechanism. Examples: Google MyMaps, Flickr, Platial , Facebook, Yahoo! FireEagle (Note: some of these overlap and/or could be combined)
  42. 42. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Distribution and Sharing F) Server-based delivery Application and data are hosted. Interface may be public or, in some cases, secured. Examples: Google Earth Enterprise, OpenLayers, ArcGIS Server G) Enterprise relational database manager Typically for intranet-type usage. Manages multiple user collaboration, conflicts, and versioning Oracle Spatial, ArcSDE H) Search engine discovery of spatial data (an emerging case); programmatic structured query using various sites’ APIs. Application launches as defined by user or OS (assisted by properly configured MIME type). Examples: Google Search, Yahoo! Pipes, Microsoft Popfly (Note: some of these overlap and/or could be combined)
  43. 43. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Query Select Geographic Database Analysis Tasks Relational-spatial attribute query Proximity analysis (buffer and distance calculation) Spatial joins (intersection and union comparisons; inside/out) Network analysis (routing and optimization; left/right; topology) Raster comparison (Map Algebra)
  44. 44. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Query Geocoding The process of assigning geographic coordinates to a map feature, description, or address. Input: Address or location description Examples: Goleta, CA; 90210; New Zealand World Trade Center, downtown Los Angeles Output: Geographic Coordinates 45.2342W, 15.2346N, 1000m asl, WGS84 There are many complicating factors to geocoding. For example: the grammar of the input, positional accuracy / vagueness / scale, places with the same name, foreign languages, deprecated names, new names, misspellings, etc.
  45. 45. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Query Geocoding Despite the problems, geocoding is at the core of many web-based mapping applications. KML offers the <address> element as an alternative to coordinates. Google Earth and Google Maps will attempt to geocode the address and render the position. Usability will largely depend on the input address and the intended application. For example, the following KML uses the street address of a UCSB electrical transformer station (shown in the middle left of the screen; geocoded address is on the bottom right). Note: In Google Earth and Maps, if a <Point> tag is provided in the KML also, it will take precedence over an <address>.
  46. 46. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <kml xmlns="http://earth.google.com/kml/2.2"> <Document> <name>addressexample.kml</name> <Placemark> <name>Transformers</name> <description>Better than nothing.</description> <address>552 University Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93106</address> </Placemark> </Document> </kml>
  47. 47. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Query Geocoding Resources Google Maps API Yahoo! Maps and FireEagle API MetaCarta Labs Geocoder.us Batchgeocode.com NGA Geographic Names Search Mapping Hacks by Erle, Walsh, and Gibson (available from O’Reilly). How to build your own geocoder.
  48. 48. Routing and Service Area Routing implementations remain largely proprietary, though some open source options are beginning to emerge. The Google Maps API offers access to driving directions. Proprietary web services are plentiful. ArcGIS Server offers routing functionality. Image source: ArcGIS Network Analyst, esri.com 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup
  49. 49. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Query:AnalysisResources Google Earth Developers Interact with other developers and explore their work. (http://groups.google.com/group/kml-support) ArcGIS Explorer Proprietary virtual globe with analysis functionality, particularly when coupled with other ESRI products. Note: UCSB has an ArcGIS site license. (esri.com) Yahoo! Pipes Graphical multistep web query that includes spatial data. (pipes.yahoo.com) Microsoft Popfly Graphical multistep web query that includes spatial data. (popfly.com) OpenLayers Javascript slippy map library with a gallery of numerous web applications. (openlayers.org) GIS.com A “paleo” introduction to geographic information and analysis
  50. 50. Query:Example Source: Yahoo! Pipes; Photos near Wineries, Author: Ido 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup
  51. 51. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Source: ArcGIS Explorer, esri.com http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/explorer/graphics/showcase/longbeach-plume-lg.jpg
  52. 52. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup PolicyandBestPractices The Policy Landscape No homogenous body of geographic data web standards or regulations exist. So far, emerging precedents are largely arising from privacy and intellectual property law. Private enterprise is also gauging consumer reaction and trying to maximize utility, create monetization potential, and not alienate users. Accessibility Suggested Design Practices Locational Privacy
  53. 53. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup PolicyandBestPractices -Wired.com, September 11, 2008
  54. 54. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Accessibility Provide a text description of the map’s or data’s purpose. Provide descriptions of any included, integrated multimedia. Use clear, descriptive names and labels. Consider appropriate colors and contrast for people with color discernment difficulties or other visual impairment Cite data sources; allowing users to investigate other mechanisms for its visualization In technology selection, consider open 3D rendering formats. For instance, OpenGL calls to a graphics card can be captured and manipulated. Haptic feedback devices can more readily interpret the data. Ensure links are simple, visible, and exposed (no hidden image links) Be very cautious about rapid blinking and dynamic data refreshes. Provide warnings as necessary to assist epileptic population. PolicyandBestPractices
  55. 55. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Best Practices Validate your KML Use spaces and indentions even when the KML is automatically generated (when text editing, be careful for hidden characters) Comment within the KML when something is not obvious (like with network links) Generally, do not use KML as the database (usually better as a result of a database). Use KML to describe the geographic elements of a database. Also, consider that most software limits renderable geometry When hosting, use .htaccess to create MIME associations for KML and KMZ to Google Earth. PolicyandBestPractices
  56. 56. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Best Practices Use GeoRSS to syndicate geographic data (refer to KML). HTML:RSS::KML:GeoRSS Maximize link confidence (hide awkward script calls; links to external resources should be reliable; make sure the external resource acts like you think it should). Provide usage information and instructions for complex data Use object identifiers in KML. It will maximize users’ ability to search and access subunits of the data. Provide data authorship credit (also affords author responsibility). PolicyandBestPractices
  57. 57. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Best Practices Consider window viewing sizes (large images and long descriptions can take over an entire viewscreen). Allow users control and navigation of layers. Consider file size, number of points, complexity (warn as necessary). For instance, use Regionator to manage large image overlays Minimize the distraction of legends or screen overlays. Do not use the awful (thankfully sparsely documented) blink style in KML. Cache geocodes PolicyandBestPractices
  58. 58. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup PolicyandBestPractices Right to privacy varies greatly by jurisdiction. The California Constitution, Article 1, Section 1, describes privacy as an inalienable right. Spatial and temporal data resolution is a key component with respect to invasion of privacy. For example, spatially aggregated U.S. Census data are available soon after compilation. Individual Census responses are prohibited from release for 72 years. Aggregating multiple individuals’ personal information is considered less invasive than individually identifiable information. Geographic Privacy
  59. 59. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup PolicyandBestPractices Geographic Privacy Graphic source: David H. Williams/E911-LBS, October 25, 2006, The associated article argues for privacy considerations to be an fundamental part of Location-Base Service design http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=2323&trv=1 Internet users are comprised of all age groups, including those that may have no understanding of personal privacy or its consequences.
  60. 60. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup PolicyandBestPractices Always tell users what you want to do with their location Let users know when you are collecting their location information Give users control of their own data Make sure users' data are secure Only allow users to manage their location, but not others Don't be creepy Yahoo! Fire Eagle Developer Code of Conduct Source: Fire Eagle Developer Code of Conduct, http://fireeagle.yahoo.net/developer/documentation/code_of_conduct Note: These points are paraphrased.
  61. 61. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup PolicyandBestPractices Notice - Individuals must be informed that their data is being collected and about how it will be used. Choice - Individuals must have the ability to opt out of the collection and forward transfer of the data to third parties. Onward Transfer - Transfers of data to third parties may only occur to other organizations that follow adequate data protection principles. Security - Reasonable efforts must be made to prevent loss of collected information. Data Integrity - Data must be relevant and reliable for the purpose it was collected for. Access - Individuals must be able to access information held about them, and correct or delete it if it is inaccurate. Enforcement - There must be effective means of enforcing these rules. International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles Source: United State International Trade Administration
  62. 62. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup The near Future of Spatial Data more. everywhere. Image Source: NAIP, 2005
  63. 63. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup The Future of Spatial Data An evolving platform: extending the geographic model to Eames’ and Morrisons’ Powers of Ten The Progression of Internet Maps Interaction: 1. view (see my house) 2. add (tag locations important to me) 3. query (get directions, see patterns) 4a. communicate (sharing and social interaction) 4b. mirror world (more realism/physics) 5. inhabit Image Source: NAIP, 2005
  64. 64. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup The Future of Spatial Data Semantic Spatial Web (spatially literate, natural language Internet) 3D Internet (spatially visualized and inhabitable Internet. Virtual Reality) Augmented and Mixed Reality (combination of real world and computer generated data) Digital Earth (spatiotemporal database of everything) Image Source: NAIP, 2005
  65. 65. • Geographic Data Basics • Keyhole Markup Language (KML) • Authoring KML • Dynamic KML • Distributing Geographic Data • Querying Geographic Data • Policy and Best Practices Topics Image Source: NAIP, 2005 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup SPATIAL DATA, KML, and the UNIVERSITY WEB
  66. 66. 17September2008 UniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara-WebStandardsGroup Acknowledgments Thanks to Guylene Gadal, the UCSB Web Standards Group, Rhonda Glennon, Mike Goodchild, Indy Hurt, Josh Bader, Karl Grossner, and the spatial@ucsb team! SPATIAL DATA, KML, and the UNIVERSITY WEB Image Source: NAIP, 2005 Alan Glennon spatial.ucsb.edu alan[at]spatial.ucsb.edu CONTACT

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