Flag of India
Designed as a symbol of “freedom.”
The Indian national flag is a horizontal tricolor
in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top,
white in the middle and dark green at the
The ratio of the width to the length of the flag
At the center of the white band, is a wheel in
navy blue color that indicates the Dharma
Chakra (the wheel of law).
The wheel has 24 spokes.
Area wide in the world
extends between latitudes 8o4'N and 37o6'N.
It is a country of the east with its landmass
lying between longitudes 68o7'E and 97o25'E.
3,214 Kilometers from north to south
2,933 Kilometers from east to west
West: Pakistan and Afghanistan.
East: Bangladesh and Myanmar.
Northern boundary: Sinkiang province of
China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan.
Separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel
of sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of
The mainland consists of four regions: The
great mountain zone, The Indo-Gangetic plain,
The desert region and The Southern Peninsula
Winter (January and February),
Summer (March to May),
Monsoon (rainy) season (June to September),
Post-monsoon period (October to December).
Indian food encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India.
Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate and occupations, these cuisines vary
significantly from each other and use locally available spices, herbs, vegetables and fruits.
Indian food is also heavily influenced by religious and cultural choices and traditions.
is the most widely grown type of millet.
It has been grown in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times.
In India, there are the largest producer.
Common Names in India:
Bajri in Rajasthani, Gujarati and Marathi)
Sajje in Kannada)
Kambu in Tamil)
Bajra in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi)
sajjalu in Telugu) and ("Kambam" in Malayalam)
ba:jra:" in Bengali).
India is one of the world's largest producers of white rice and brown rice, accounting for 20% of
all world rice production.
Rice is India's preeminent crop, and is the staple food of the people of the eastern and
southern parts of the country.
Rice is one of the chief grains of India.
Rice can be cultivated by different methods based on the type of region.
But in India, the traditional methods are still in use for harvesting rice.
There are many varieties of rice but the most popular is the Basmati Rice.
Lentils (Daals) and Beans are a huge part of the Indian diet. Most meals include them and
recipes for how to cook them abound. Daals also have high levels of important minerals like
manganese, phosphorous, pottasium, iron and copper. They are high in folates and the Bvitamins like Thiamin.
These are the kinds of lentils and beans.
Saabut Moong Daal (Whole Yellow Lentil)
Chana Daal (Split Bengal Gram/ Large Split Yellow Lentils)
Toor/ Tuvar or Arhar Daal (Split Yellow Pigeon Peas)
Saabut Masoor Daal (Whole Red Lentils)
India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world.
India produces a quarter of the world’s pulses, accounting for one third of the total acreage
under pulses. Indians consume 30 per cent of the world’s pulses, but domestic production of
pulses has not kept pace with population growth.
These are the kinds of pulses:
Kabuli Chana (White Chickpeas)
Cooking Methods (Part 1)
) - It is a combination of sautéing, stir frying and stewing.
) - literally means steam. It is a method of cooking food on very low flame, with the help of
steam entrapped in a sealed containers.
) - his is basically a process by which the aroma and flavour of spices and herbs is
imbided in the oil which, when mixed with the dish makes it delicious.
Balchao (Pickling) (
) - a Goan specialty, influenced by the Portuguese, where vegetables like
eggplant or seafood like prawns are "pickled" in sugar, vinegar and spices for a day or two before
Zammin doz (
) - this is a style of cooking in which a hole is dug in the ground and the
ingredients are placed and covered with mud. Then burning charcoal is placed over it.
Dhuanaar (Smoke Seasoning) (
) - This is a quick smoke procedure used to flavour a meat dish,
dals or even raita or salad.
Cooking Methods (Part 2)
Tawa Cooking (
) - It is used when very high temperatures are needed and is mostly used for
Indian unleavened breads called chappati or rotis. It is also used for cooking some unique dishes
which require fast cooking with the outer rim is used to keep the dish warm.
Handi cooking - Handi means an earthen pot in which cooking of curries takes place on slow fire.
Comes in different shapes and size but main feature remains the same to all that is a thick
bottom that ensures that food does not stick to the bottom. It is well known fact that the food
cooked on slow fire preserves the natural characteristics- aroma.
Talna (Frying) (
) - It is the process of cooking food by immersing it in the dip pan of hot oil.
It is also know as frying. It could be shallow fried also.
Ubalna (Boiling) (
) - This is to cook ingredients in liquid with the liquid kept at boiling
point 100 degree centigrade so that the surface of the water bubbles and turns over continually.
) - It refers to the use of softening agents like raw papaya paste (papain),
pineapple, kachari etc. to tenderize the meat.
Cooking Methods (Part 3)
Loab / Rogan (
) - It refers to the final stage of cooking when the oil used during cooking,
rises to the surface, giving the dish a finished appearance. This happens when slow cooking of
gravy dishes is involved.
Gunana/Guthna (Kneading) (
) - This is a process by which a flour or a mixture of flours
and other ingredients are combined to form a dough.
Fetna (Beating) (
) - This is a process by which the consistency, appearance or colour of a
mixture or a substance is modified by a sharp stroking movement.
Baste - To moisten meat at intervals with a liquid as melted butter, fat, or pan drippings
especially during cooking especially used in grilling and roasting and other meat preparations
where the meat is over heat for extended periods of time, basting can flavor the meat and keep
Bind - This is to press moistened flour or other ingredients into a sticky ball using the fingers
e.g. stuffing samosa etc.
There are two kinds of sauce:
Madras curry or Madras sauce is a fairly hot curry sauce, red in colour and with heavy use of
Thumbuli is a type of spicy gravy eaten in the Indian state of Karnataka. Thumbuli, being a curd
based cuisine, is consumed with hot rice along with hot sambar usually.
Other name: Rolling pin, Belni, LATANA
Description: Belan is a long cylindrical attachment used to roll chapattis and parathas.
Made of wood or plastic, it is referred to as the soul of 'chakla' – a dough-kneading plate, which
is a flat platform either made of wood or marble.
Other Names: Idli Thattu.
Description: It is a high quality stainless steel container which makes cooking idlis really easy.
These idli cookers are available in 2 sizes. It is a must for cooking any South Indian dish. The idli
cooker comes with a plain bottom or a copper bottom.
Other Names: Clay oven, Tandur, Taftoons.
Description: A tandoor is a cylindrical clay oven used in India and other parts of Southeast Asia
in which food is cooked over charcoal or wood.
The word tandoor comes from the Hindi words tandūr and tannūr. Traditionally used for baking
bread, it is also used for cooking tandoori chicken and bread varieties like tandoori roti and
Other Name: Griddle, Tawali, Dosa Kallu.
Description: Usually made of thick iron or aluminum, tawas are a slightly concave cooking
appliance. Today tawas are used for cooking everything from chapattis, parathas, dosas,
omlettes to pancakes.
Other Names: Plate, Thala, Thattu, Taat.
Description: thali is an individual serving plate with straight rims made of stainless steel,
aluminum or brass. Thalis have remarkably progressed from banana leaf to metal since the ages
of our ancestors. The vegetarian and non-vegetarian range of thalis served at Indian restaurants
is inspired by this unique kitchen appliance. It can also be used as a lid to cover a vessel.
Punjab is a northern state of India and is very
popular for its rich food . Punjabi recipe is
prepared in delicious gravy and punjabi parathas
melted in butter/ ghee.
Punjabi dishes is simple, healthy and yet has its
own fascination. The famous dishes like matar
paneer, dal makhani, parathas, bature, lassi are
popular all over India.
Bengali cooking is famous for sweets made from
cottage cheese. Sandesh, Rosogolla, chanar payesh
are few of the very popular recipes. Mishti Doi
(sweetened curd) and Patali gur confectionery
(date palm jaggery) are mouth watering.
Every district in Bengal has a special sweet recipe
of its own . Langcha and Mihidana Sitabhog of
Bardhaman, Sharbhaja of Krishnanagar, Chanabora
of Murshidabad and so on. Luchi, Bengali Fish
Curry, Cholar Dal and Aloo Posto to Gurer Payesh
and Chum Chum are any food lovers first choice.
The ancient princely state of Rajasthan gave rise to a royal
cuisine. The Rajas who went on hunting expeditions ate
the meat or the fowl that they brought back. Even today,
Rajasthani princely feasts flaunt meat cuisines that are
incomparable. In contrast are the vegetarian Rajasthanis.
Their food cooked in pure ghee is famous for it's mouthwatering aroma. Rajasthan's tastiest curries are based on
the use of pulses or gram flour. Dry fruits, spices and
yogurt are used in many delicacies. Rajasthan can also
boast of a vast array of savouries and sun-dried snacks. Be
it dal baati and churma or missi roti , one always ends up
licking his fingers.
Fish and rice are the staple Goan food and the main
occupation is tourism – over a million people visit the
beaches of Goa each year.
Goa combines old Portuguese architecture, and a
distinct Portuguese flavour to the lifestyle, with a history
that abounds with Indian mythology. Christmas, New
Year, the Mardi Gras-like carnival, the Holi (Shimgo)
parades, all add to the year round festivities.
Gujarati cuisine has special place all over India.
Gujarati cooking consists of dal, bhaat( rice),
vegetables, chapatis, kachumbar( mixed
vegetables salad), papad and curd.
Gujarati food is nourishing and balanced.
Snacks like dhokla, khandvi, sweets like
basundi are famous for its taste.
Maharashtrian or Marathi food consist large
variety of vegetables, fish and coconuts.
Maharashatrian food is rich in ginger, garlic and
lots of spices. Tomatoes, brinjals and other
vegetables stuffed with masala fillings and cooked
in oil till soft are very popular in Maharashtra.
Cooking is mainly done in groundnut oil but it is
made sure that the oil is minimum. Bharwan
Baingan, Kohlapuri Rassa, Puran Poli, Aamti,
Bombay Chiwda are some of the popular recipes.
Andhra Pradesh Cuisine
Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is a blend of
Telugu cuisine along with Hyderabadi cuisine
(also known as Nizami cuisine. The food is
rich in spices, for which it is popular among
south Indian cuisine. Rice is the staple food
of Andhra people. Starch is consumed with a
variety of curries and lentil soups or broths.
Vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods are
both popular. Seafood is common in the
coastal region of the state.
Varieties in the cuisine of Karnataka reflect
influences from the three neighbouring South
Indian states, as well as the states of
Maharashtra and Goa to its North.
Typical dishes include bisi bele bath, jolada
rotti, chapati, ragi rotti, akki rotti, saaru, huli,
vangibath, khara bath, kesari bath, benne dose,
ragi mudde, and uppittu. The Kodagu district is
famous for spicy pork curries (pig curry) while
coastal Karnataka specialises in seafood.
Kerala cuisine blends indigenous dishes with
foreign ones adapted to local tastes. Coconuts
grow in abundance in Kerala, so grated coconut
and coconut milk are commonly used for
thickening and flavouring.
Kerala's long coastline and numerous rivers have
led to a strong fishing industry in the region,
making seafood a common part of the meal. Rice
is grown in abundance; along with tapioca. It is
the main starch ingredient used in Kerala's food.
Tamil Nadu Cuisine
Tamil food is characterised by its use of rice, legumes,
and lentils, along with distinct aromas and flavours
achieved by the blending of spices such as curry leaves,
tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili pepper,
cinnamon, clove, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut
and rose water. A meal (called Saapadu)consists of rice
with other typical Tamilian dishes on a banana leaf.
A typical Tamilian would eat in banana leaf as it gives
different flavour and taste to the food. But it can also
be served on a stainless steel tray - plate with a
selection of different dishes in small bowls. Tamil food
is characterised by tiffins, which is a light food taken for
breakfast or dinner and meals which are usually taken
The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil kari,
meaning something similar to "sauce".