Introduction to Nanotechnology: Part 2

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  • 1. Basic Nanotechnology What’s the Technology Landscape?
  • 2. State of basic research
  • 3. Highlights - Metrology
    • Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20 years
    • Metrology : Measurements & images & motion can be controlled to 10 pico-meters
    • We can see what we’re doing
  • 4. Highlights - Modeling
    • Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20 years
    • Modeling : Software can now successfully model the dynamics of most molecular interactions under numerous static and dynamic conditions.
    • We can simulate what we want to build
  • 5. Highlights - Manufacturing
    • Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20 years
    • Manufacturing : Certain processes exist to actually fabricate nanostructures.
    • We can build some of what what we want to build
  • 6. Highlights - MEMS
    • Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20 years
    • MEMS : Fabrication of micro-meter scale devices is routine.
    • We can build much of what we want at larger scales.
  • 7. Highlights - Policy
    • Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20 years
    • Policy : There is a growing consensus of what nanotechnology is.
    • We almost know what we’re talking about.
  • 8. Tools & Techniques
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Microscopy
    • Metrology
    • Simulation
    • Crystallography
    • Interferometry
    • Chemical Synthesis
    • Plasma & other regimens
    • Lithography
  • 9. Microscopy
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Microscopy
      • Acoustic / Ultrasonic
      • Fluorescent / UV
      • Laser / Confocal
      • Polarizing
      • Portable Field
      • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
      • Scanning Probe / Atomic Force (SPM / AFM)
      • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
      • Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (SNOM)
  • 10. Metrology
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Metrology
      • Critical Dimension Measurement
      • Film Thickness Testers
      • Resistivity/Electromagnetic Testers 
      • Stress Measurement 
      • Wafer Inspection Tools
      • Quantum measurements 
  • 11. Simulation
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Simulation
      • molecular modeling
      • kinetic modeling
      • quantum effect modeling
      • semiconductor effects
  • 12. Crystallography
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Crystallography
      • x-ray
  • 13. Interferometry
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Interferometry
      • optical
      • x-ray
      • quantum (Stern Gerlach)
  • 14. Chemical Synthesis
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Chemical Synthesis
      • organic
      • biological
      • genomic
  • 15. Plasma, et al
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Plasma & other regimens
      • coatings
      • materials fabrication
      • surface treatments
  • 16. Lithography
    • Current foundation of research tools and techniques
    • Lithography
      • manufacturing
      • prototyping/testing
  • 17. Recent Progress - AFMS
        • Sample of recent progress - tools - AFM Array
  • 18. Recent Progress - Software
    • AbM Oxford Molecular
    • ADF Scientific Computing and Modeling NV (SCM)
    • AMBER Peter Kollman, UCSF
    • AMPAC A. Holder, Semichem, Inc., 7204 Mullen, Shawnee, KS 66216
    • AMSOL Chris Cramer, D. Truhlar, Univ. of Minnesota
    • APEX-3D http://www.dcl.co.il/DCL Systems International, Ltd.
    • AutoDock Garrett M. Morris, David S. Goodsell, Ruth Huey, William E. Hart, Scott
    • Halliday, Arthur J. Olson
    • Babel Pat Walters, Univ. of Arizona
    • CAChe CAChe Scientific, Inc. (Oxford Molecular)
    • Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre
    • CAVEAT Paul Bartlett, UC Berkley
    • CHARMm Molecular Simulations, Inc.
    • CHARMM Documentation: Rick Venable, FDA/CBER; WWW site: M. Karplus, Harvard
    • Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138;
    • Chem-X Chemical Design, Inc., 200 Route 17 South, Ste. 120, Mahwah, NJ 07430
    • ChemDBS-3D Chemical Design, Inc., 200 Route 17 South, Ste. 120, Mahwah, NJ 07430
    • CHIME MDL Information Systems, Inc.
    • ClogP Biobyte
    • CMR Biobyte
    • CLIP Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Univ. of Lausanne
    • Composer Tripos, Inc.
    • CONCORD Tripos, Inc.
    • CS ChemOffice Pro CambridgeSoft Corp.
    • DGEOM 95 QCPE, Indiana Univ.
    • DGII http://www.chem.indiana.edu/qcpe.htm, Indiana Univ.
    • DISCO Tripos, Inc.
    • Discover Molecular Simulations, Inc.
    • DMol Molecular Simulations, Inc.
    • DOCK Irwin Kuntz, UCSF
    • DSSP C. Sander, EMBL
    • EGO H. Heller, Ludwig Maximilians Univ., Munich
    • GALAXY AM Technologies, inc
    • GAMESS M. Gordon, Iowa State Univ.
    • GASP Tripos, Inc.
    • Gaussian Gaussian, Inc., 4415 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213
    • GEMM B.K. Lee, National Cancer Institute, NIH
    • GERM D.E. Walters, Chicago Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry
    • 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064
    • gOpenMol Center for Scientific Computing
    • GRAMM Ilya A. Vakser, Rockefeller Univ.
    • GRASP A. Nicholls, Columbia Univ.
    • GROMOS Biomos B.V., The Netherlands
    • GROMACS H.J.C. Berendsen, Univ. of Groningen, The Netherlands
    • HASL eduSoft, P.O. Box 1811, Ashland, VA 23005
    • HBPLUS I.K. McDonald, University College, London
    • HINT eduSoft, P.O. Box 1811, Ashland, VA 23005
    • Homology Molecular Simulations, Inc.
    • HONDO IBM, Neighborhood Road MLMA/428, Kingston, NY 12401
    • HyperChem HyperCube, Inc.
    • ICM MolSoft, LLC
    • Iditis Oxford Molecular
    • Insight II Molecular Simulations, Inc.
    • ISIS MDL Information Systems, Inc.
    • Jaguar S chrödinger, Inc.
    • Leapfrog Tripos, Inc.
    Sample of recent progress - software techniques - molecular modeling
  • 19. Recent Progress - Materials
    • Sample of recent progress - materials
    • Films
      • Plastic semiconductors
    • Polycrystalline
      • Low cost photovoltaics
    • Nanocomposites
      • Anti-bacteria soap
    • Patterned structures
      • Nanoscale magnetic dots and wires
    • Bulk structures
      • Cutting tools
  • 20. Recent Progress - Electronics
    • Sample of recent progress - electronics
    • December 4, 2002: Toshiba and Sony Announce 65-Nanometer CMOS Process Technology
    • January 6, 2003: researchers at the University of Toronto have invented a tiny circuit that a single electron can activate
  • 21. Recent Progress Energy/Power
    • ATP motion system
      • cellular motion power system
    • Fuel Cells
      • 10 X capacity of a Lithium Battery
  • 22. Recent Progress – Life Sciences
    • Biochip
  • 23. Grand Challenges
    • NNI
    • Nanostructured materials "by design"
    • Nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and magnetics
    • Advanced healthcare, therapeutics, diagnostics
    • Environmental improvement
    • Efficient energy conversion and storage
    • Microcraft space exploration and industrialization
    • CBRE Protection and Detection (revised in 2002)
    • Instrumentation and metrology
    • Manufacturing processes
  • 24. Grand Challenges
    • NNI
    • Shrinking the entire contents of the Library of Congress in a device the size of a sugar cube through the expansion of mass storage electronics to multi-terabit memory capacity that will increase the memory storage per unit surface a thousand fold
    • Making materials and products from the bottom-up, that is, by building them up from atoms and molecules. Bottom-up manufacturing should require less material and pollute less
    • Developing materials that are 10 times stronger than steel, but a fraction of the weight for making all kinds of land, sea, air and space vehicles lighter and more fuel efficient
    • Improving the computer speed and efficiency of minuscule transistors and memory chips by factors of millions making today's Pentium IIIs seem slow
    • Using gene and drug delivery to detect cancerous cells by nanoengineered MRI contrast agents or target organs in the human body
    • Removing the finest contaminants from water and air to promote a cleaner environment and potable water
    • Doubling the energy efficiency of solar cells
  • 25. Pace of Progress
    • In many new technologies, it is common to overestimate what can be done in five years' time, and to underestimate what can be done in 50 years' time.
  • 26. Break
  • 27. Basic Nanotechnology Primer on manufacturing processes
  • 28. Primer on manufacturing processes
    • —   Bottom-up self assembly (wet chemistry)
      • intrinsic, autonomous
      • biomimetic, controlled
    • —   Top-down assembly (lithography and derivatives)
      • dip-pen lithography
      • soft lithography and nanoscale printing
      • e-beam and deep UV lithography
    • —   Other production processes
      • vapor deposition
      • evaporation
      • combustion
      • thermal plasma
      • milling
      • cavitation
      • coating (spin or dip)
      • thermal spray
      • electrodeposition
  • 29. Bottom-up self assembly
    • Understand and control the intramolecular quantum behavior of specifically designed and synthesized molecules
    • Using a surface to localize and stabilize them
    • To interconnect, assemble and test nano-devices and nano-machines starting from atomic or molecular parts
  • 30. Self Assembly
    • Von Neumann's universal constructor ~500,000
    • Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988) ~500,000
    • Mycoplasma genitalium 1,160,140
    • E. Coli 9,278,442
    • Drexler's assembler ~100,000,000
    • Human ~6,400,000,000
    • NASA Lunar Manufacturing Facility over 100,000,000,000
    • -Ralph C. Merkle
    main(){char *c="main(){char *c=%c%s%c;printf(c,34,c,34);}";printf(c,34,c,34);}
  • 31. intrinsic, autonomous
    • Self assembly mechanisms are inherent within the structures
    • Self assembly occurs without any external forces or controls
    • i.e. crystals
  • 32. biomimetic, controlled
    • Using organic like processes, or organisms, to create new structures as a controlled manufacturing process
    • “ biomimetic carpentry”
  • 33. Top-down assembly
    • Imposes a structure on the system through the definition of patterns and their creation from larger parts
  • 34. Lithography
  • 35. Lithography
  • 36. Lithography Resolution to 65 nm (10 nm with x-rays) Vacuum environment Multiple layer writing Current standard for semiconductor industry
  • 37. Lithography
  • 38. dip-pen lithography
  • 39. dip-pen lithography
    • Resolution 10-15 nm
    • Liquid environment
    • Multiple layer writing
    • Multiple pen writing
  • 40. soft lithography & nanoscale printing
  • 41. soft lithography & nanoscale printing Resolution 100 nm Liquid environment Multiple layer writing Wide areas & rapid production rates A stamp was molded off the master and used for printing alkanethiols onto a gold layer, followed by a selective etch to develop the pattern. IBM Zurich
  • 42. e-beam and deep UV lithography
  • 43. e-beam and deep UV lithography Resolution 20 nm Vacuum environment Slow writing speed Multiple beam technologies in development Direct write & direct exposure
  • 44. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 45. Other production processes
  • 46. vapor deposition
    • Deposition of material transferred from its source to the substrate without changing its chemical composition
  • 47. vapor deposition
    • Primarily a coating process
    • As low as 3 nm/minute
    • Can be used for surface chemistry
    • Can coat almost anything
    • Used extensively in semi-
    • conductor fabrication
  • 48. evaporation
    • Heating a material in a vacuum until it melts and evaporates condensing on a cooler surface
  • 49. evaporation
    • Primarily a coating process for materials that can withstand high temperature and vacuum
    • Minimum rate or thickness is atomic
    • Can coat almost anything
    • Used extensively in semi-
    • conductor fabrication
    'The Sounds of Earth' copper with gold plating placed on Voyager.  Two hours of sound and movie plus some digital data: pictures and a message from Jimmy Carter.
  • 50. combustion Combustion wire process Combustion powder process Burning a material such that the products of its combustion condense on a cooler surface.
  • 51. combustion
    • Primarily a coating process for materials that can have unique properties after burning, or to coat materials that cannot be coated in other ways
    • Also used to create nano-scale materials in bulk
    • Relatively limited use. High promise for production of bulk nanomaterials
  • 52. thermal plasma
    • Plasma is frequently referred to as the 4th state of matter-
    • solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
    • A plasma is an ionized gas comprised of molecules, atoms, ions (in their ground or in various excited states), electrons, and photons.
    • Overall, a plasma is electrically neutral.
    • A thermal plasma is a plasma in
    • Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium:
    • (T e = T h ), > 10 4 Kelvins
    • where T e : electron temperature
    • T h : heavy particle temperature)
    • Typically operated in high pressure or
    • atmospheric pressure
  • 53. thermal plasma
    • creating chemical reactions in a high-purity atmosphere
    • creating rapid large area nano-scale coatings
    • creating nano-scale particles
    • creating nano-materials in large quantities
  • 54. milling
    • Atomic Sand Blaster
    • submicrometer particles are accelerated to bombard the surface of a substrate. 
    • They remove any material not protected by a resist material
  • 55. milling
    • Primarily an etching process, but can be used to create new materials
    • Feature resolution around 50 nm
    • Can be used for surface chemistry
    • Can operate faster than e-beam in some processes, especially high atomic # substrates
    • Has little backscatter, unlike e-beam
      • (increases contrast)
  • 56. cavitation
    • the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of vapor bubbles in a liquid created by fluctuations in fluid pressure
  • 57. cavitation
    • A highly controllable tool for the synthesis of nanostructured catalysts, ceramics, and piezoelectrics in high phase purities
    • Resolution of ~ 130 nanometers
    • Can be used to initiate production of specialized nanomaterials
    • May operate faster than e-beam or ion-beam
  • 58. coating (spin or dip)
    • A means of inexpensively applying a thin film to a surface with high precision.
    • Material must be liquid.
    • Does not require vacuum, heat or other processes that can destroy material chemistry
  • 59. coating (spin or dip)
    • Routinely used to disperse photo-resist for semiconductor manufacturing.
    • Can produce well dispersed mix of nanostructures within coatings
    • Nanostructures can be uniformly grown during the spin process
  • 60. thermal spray
    • Takes the source of energy such as inflammable and ionized gas, explosive gas, electric energy
    • Heats the powder of the thermal spray coating material (metal, nonmetal, ceramics, cer amic met al , plastic)
    • Melts it or strongly blows the particles
    • Types:
      • Plasma
      • HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel)
      • Wire Flame
      • Powder Flame
      • Electric Arc Spray
  • 61. thermal spray
    • creating chemical reactions in an arbitrary atmosphere
    • creating rapid large area nano-scale coatings
    • creating nano-scale particles
    • creating nano-materials in large quantities
  • 62. electrodeposition the deposition of a substance on an electrode by the action of electricity
  • 63. electrodeposition Primarily a coating process for materials that can withstand liquids and can be electrically charged temperature and vacuum Minimum rate or thickness is highly controllable Can deposit complex chemistries Used extensively in semiconductor fabrication
  • 64. Break
  • 65. Basic Nanotechnology Commercial Activity
  • 66. Small Dreams?
    • Get your facts first,
    • and then you can distort them as much as you please.
            • -Mark Twain
  • 67.  
  • 68. Labs - NNI funded
  • 69. Labs - National Nanofabrication Users Network Cornell Nanofabrication Facility Prof. Sandip Tiwari, Director Cornell University, Knight Laboratory Ithaca, New York 14853-5403 Voice: (607) 255-2329 Fax: (607) 255-8601 URL: http://www.cnf.cornell.edu/ Materials Science Center for Excellence Prof. Gary Harris, Director Howard University School of Engineering 2300 Sixth St, NW Washington, D.C. 20059 Voice: (202) 806-6618 Fax: (202) 806-5367 URL: http://www.msrce.howard.edu/~nanonet/NNUN.HTM PSU Nanofabrication Facility Prof. Stephen Fonash, Director 189 Materials Research Institute The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Voice: (814) 865-4931 Fax: (814) 865-3018 URL: http://www.nanofab.psu.edu Stanford Nanofabrication Facility Dr. Yoshio Nishi, Director Stanford University CIS 103, Via Ortega St Stanford, CA 94305 Voice: (650) 723-9508 Fax: (650) 725-0991 URL: http://www-snf.stanford.edu/ UCSB Nanofabrication Facility Prof. Mark Rodwell, Director University of California at Santa Barbara Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering 5153 Engineering I Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Voice: (805) 893-3244 Fax: (805) 893-3262 URL: http://www.nanotech.ucsb.edu/ Provides users with access to some of the most sophisticated nanofabrication technologies in the world with facilities open to all users from academia, government, and industry.
  • 70. Lab Equipment
    • Fabrication examples
      • semiconductor
      • CNT
    • Microscopy examples
    • nanopositioning examples
    • software examples
  • 71. Semiconductor - Industry Elements
    • $42 Billion/year (equipment & materials)
    • over 1,000 U.S. companies
  • 72. Semiconductor - Equipment Types
    • 300-mm Components
    • Asher
    • Automation/Robbotics
    • bearings
    • Blow-Off Guns
    • Brushes,Pads,Rollers
    • Carbon Dioxide Cleaning Systems
    • Ceramic Accessories
    • Chemical Vapor Deposition
    • Chemical-Mechanical Polishing
    • Chiller
    • Cleaning Accessories
    • Cleaning Systems,Batch/Single
    • Cleanroom Ovens
    • Cluster Tools
    • CMP Consumables
    • Deposition
    • DI Water Heaters
    Diffusion/Oxidation/Annealing Dry Etch Dry-Clean Systems(gas-phase,etc) Electropolishing Epitaxy Furnaces Heat Exchangers In Situ Cleaners In Situ Monitors Ion Beam Ion Implantation laser Lithography, DUV/g/i-line Megasonic/Ultrasonic Systems Minienvironment,Automated/Manual Monitoring/Analysis Tools Non-CFC Cleaning Systems Organic Solvents Pellicles/Mounting Equipment Photomask Equipment/Materials Photoresist Processing Photoresist Stripping Physical Vapor Deposition Piping/Tubing,Stainless Steel/Other Plasma Cleaning Systems Post-CMP Cleaning Systems Power Supplies,Accessories pressure gages Pumps Quartzware Rapid Thermal Processors Recycling,Reprocessing Systems reticle Rinsers/Dryers Software(Operating,Simulatings,etc) Spin Processors Spray-Clean Systems Sputterers Sputtering Targets Steppers transducers UV Ozone Cleaning Systems Vacuum Components/Gages/Seals(O-rings,metal,etc.) Valves/Controllers Wafer Identification Wafer-Transport Systems Wet Etch Wet Process Stations
  • 73. THE INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP FOR SEMICONDUCTORS The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is an assessment of the semiconductor technology requirements. The objective of the ITRS s to ensure advancements in the performance of integrated circuits. This assessment, called roadmapping, is a cooperative effort of the global industry manufacturers and suppliers, government organizations, consortia, and universities. The ITRS identifies the technological challenges and needs facing the semiconductor industry over the next 15 years. It is sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), the European Electronic Component Association (EECA), the Japan Electronics & Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA), the Korean Semiconductor Industry Association (KSIA), and Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association (TSIA) .
  • 74. Semiconductor - Focus - Metrology YEAR OF PRODUCTION 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 DRAM ½ PITCH (nm) 115 100 90 80 70 65 Problems Inline, nondestructive microscopy resolution (nm) 0.53 0.45 0.37 0.32 0.3 0.25 Materials and Contamination Characterization Real particle detection limit (nm) 53 45 37 32 30 25 Minimum particle size for compositional analysis (dense lines on patterned wafers) 35 30 24 21 20 17 Solution in hand Solution known Solution unknown
  • 75. Semiconductor - Focus - Metrology YEAR OF PRODUCTION 2010 2013 2016 DRAM ½ PITCH (nm) 45 32 22 Problems Inline, nondestructive microscopy resolution (nm) 0.18 0.13 0.09 Materials and Contamination Characterization Real particle detection limit (nm) 18 13 9 Minimum particle size for compositional analysis (dense lines on patterned wafers) 12 9 6 Solution in hand Solution known Solution unknown
  • 76. Semiconductor - Focus - Other
    • Lithography
    • Interconnect
    • Assembly & Packaging
    • Modeling & Simulation
    • et al
  • 77. Semiconductor - Leading Firms Rank Company 2001 Semiconductor Sales 1 Intel $23,850 2 Toshiba $6,781 3 STMicroelectronics $6,359 4 Texas Instruments $6,100 5 Samsung $5,814 6 NEC $5,309 7 Hitachi $5,037 8 Motorola $4,828 9 Infineon $4,558 10 Philips $4,235 11 IBM $3,898 12 AMD $3,891 13 Mitsubishi $3,473 14 Matsushita $3,176 15 Fujitsu $3,084 16 Agere Systems [Lucent] $3,051 17 Sanyo $2,675 18 Hynix $2,450 19 Micron $2,411 20 Sony $2,100 21 Analog Devices $1,897 22 Sharp $1,858 23 Agilent Technologies $1,671 24 National Semiconductor $1,626 25 LSI Logic $1,597
  • 78. CNT - Fabrication CNT - Carbon NanoTube
  • 79. CNT - Fabrication SWCNT - Single Wall Carbon NanoTube
  • 80. CNT - Fabrication MWCNT - Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube
  • 81. CNT - Fabrication - how to A vacuum chamber is pumped down and back filled with some buffer gas, typically neon or Ar to 500 torr.   A graphite cathode and anode are placed in close proximity to each other.  The anode may be filled with metal catalyst particles if growth of single wall nanotubes is required.   A voltage is placed across the electrodes, (20 – 40 V).   The anode is vaporized while the cathode evaporates.   Carbon nanotubes form on the cathode in the sheath region. Carbon Arc or Arc Discharge
  • 82. CNT - Fabrication - how to Laser Ablation or Pulsed Laser Vaporization (PLV) © American Scientist 1997 A laser is aimed at a block of graphite, vaporizing the graphite. Contact with a cooled cooper collector causes the carbon atoms to be deposited in the form of nanotubes. The nanotube "felt" can then be harvested
  • 83. CNT - Fabrication - how to Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Single-wall nanotubes are produced in a gas-phase process by catalytic disproportionation of CO on iron particles. Iron is in the form of iron pentacarbonyl. Adding 25% hydrogen increases the SWNT yield. The synthesis is performed at 1100 C at atmospheric pressure. Multi-wall nanotubes are grown in the same apparatus where the catalytic metal particles are supported on a substrate (Si wafers or the quartz furnace tube). Iron is deposited from iron pentacarbonyl or by electron beam sputtering while nanotube growth is achieved by catalytic CVD from hydrocarbon molecules (acetylene, methane) or fullerenes at temperatures between 750 and 1100 C.
  • 84. CNT - Fabrication - how to High-pressure CO conversion(HiPCO)
    • Method is similar to CVD
    • Carbon source is carbon monoxide
    • Catalytic particles are generated in-situ
      • Thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in a reactor heated to 800 - 1200°C
    • High pressure to speed up the growth
      • (~10 atm)
    • Bulk production of SWNTs
  • 85. CNT - Sample Companies Metrotube  - Located at the Tokyo Metropolitan University, supplies single-walled carbon nanotubes for research and collaboration Applied Nanotechnologies  - ANI fabricates carbon nanotubes(CNTs) and produces carbon nanotube based devices such as x-ray tubes, microwave amplifiers, gas discharge tubes and field emission cathodes. Nanostructured and Amorphous Materials  - Manufacturer and supplier of nanoscale metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, diamond, Carbon nanotubes / Particles for research and industries Carbon Solutions Inc.  - Research, development and commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, its chemistry and application to carbon based nanotechnology Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc.  - CNI intends to be a leader in carbon nanotechnology, beginning with its first product, Bucky(TM)tubes, which are single-wall carbon nanotubes made by the HiPco(TM) process. NanoLab Inc.  - Produces carbon nanotubes using the CVD growth process. The process produces arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates. CarboLex, Inc. - Manufacturer of single-walled carbon nanotube fibers. Products are sold to composite manufacturers, display technology researchers, government researchers and universities. Hyperion Catalysis International - Producer of graphite nanotubes. Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Skeleton Technologies Group - Provides research and development of advanced materials and their applications, including nanotubes, shaped diamond composites, supercapacitors, and metal-ceramic composites.
  • 86. CNT - Market Fundamentals Global market for nanotubes in 2002 was ~ $12 million About 20 producers of carbon nanotubes, half of which are in the United States. Other producers in Japan, Korea, China and France Global CNT production capacity is over 2.5 tons per day
  • 87. Lab Equipment
    • nanopositioning examples
    • $5-$50 million/year - depending on definition
  • 88. Nano-positioning
    • nanopositioning is the ability to precisely position a device with a precision measured in nanometers
  • 89. Nano-positioning
    • Flexure stage
    • A translation stage that uses flexures (stiff flat springs) to constrain the motion of the stage.
  • 90. Nano-positioning
    • Roller-bearing
    • High precision roller-bearing stages, with glass scale count encoders used in a closed-loop system to create the necessary stability for maintaining the position.
  • 91. Nano-positioning
    • Piezo-assisted
    • Piezo-assisted fine-displacement combined with control circuitry and conventional roller-bearing or flexure technology.
    The piezoelectric effect is: 1. the production of a voltage when a crystal plate is subjected to mechanical pressure or when it is physically deformed by bending. 2. The physical deformation of the crystal plate (bending) when it is subjected to a voltage.
  • 92. Nano-positioning
    • Combinations
    • Any combination of technologies using ultraprecise methods for moving very small increments, such as linear motors.
  • 93. Nano-positioning
    • Sample companies
        • Burleigh Instruments, Inc.
        • Danaher Precision Systems
        • ETEL, Inc.
        • Hysitron Inc.
        • LUMINOS Industries
        • Mad City Labs, Inc.
        • Melles Griot Optics
        • Physik Instrumente GmbH & Co.
        • Piezomax Technologies, Inc.
        • Piezosystem Jena, Inc.
        • Polytec PI, Inc.
        • Primatics
        • SDL Queensgate Ltd
  • 94. Nano-positioning
    • manufacturers frequently confuse
      • encoder resolution
      • controller resolution
      • amplifier noise
      • D/A resolution and
      • stability
    • with the overall precision of the motion system
  • 95. Lab Equipment – Microscopy
    • microscopy examples
      • acoustic
      • atomic force
      • electric force
      • lateral force
      • magnetic force
      • scanning electron
      • scanning near field optical
      • scanning probe
      • scanning tunneling
      • transmission electron
  • 96. Microscope
    • The resolution of an optical microscope is about a third of a wavelength in diameter, which is about 200 nm.
    • Acoustic, 30 micrometers at 50Mhz, 200 Mhz to maybe 20 nm The resolution of a SEM is about 10 nanometers (nm).
    • The resolution of a TEM is about 0.2 nanometers (nm). This is the typical separation between two atoms in a solid.
    • The optical resolution limit for SNOM is governed by the light intensity passing through the aperture. A practical limit is usually found with aperture diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm, but in ideal cases even down to < 20 nm.
    • Some of the best values for AFM imaging are 3.0 nm. Sub-nanometer is possible
  • 97. Microscopy Market
    • MME President Barbara Foster cited microscopy as the worst reported of all analytical instrumentation markets
    • $25 Million or more/year…
    • Maybe
    • > 1,000 microscopy companies
  • 98. Lab Equipment
    • Software Examples
      • Considering the cost of prototype fabrication
      • If you build it,
      • will they come?
  • 99. Software – Molecular Modeling
    • Molecular modeling is techniques used to build, display, manipulate, simulate and analyze molecular structures, and to calculate properties
    • Molecular mechanics methods take a classical approach to calculating the energy of a structure.
    • Molecular dynamics can be used to simulate the thermal motion of a structure as a function of time, using the forces acting on the atoms to drive the motion
    • Quantum mechanics takes account of conjugation (quantum electron orbital effects)
  • 100. Software - Atoms
  • 101. Software - Atoms
  • 102. Software - Atoms
  • 103. Software - Molecules
  • 104. Software - Market
    • Global Market in excess of $800 million including informatics
    • Leading Company - Accelrys (subsidiary of Pharmacopeia which includes Molecular Simulations, Synopsys, Scientific Systems, Oxford Molecular, Genetics Computer Group, and Synomics)
      • Revenue > $120 Million
      • > 100 companies, large body of open source software
  • 105. End of Part 2