Shrinking the entire contents of the Library of Congress in a device the size of a sugar cube through the expansion of mass storage electronics to multi-terabit memory capacity that will increase the memory storage per unit surface a thousand fold
Making materials and products from the bottom-up, that is, by building them up from atoms and molecules. Bottom-up manufacturing should require less material and pollute less
Developing materials that are 10 times stronger than steel, but a fraction of the weight for making all kinds of land, sea, air and space vehicles lighter and more fuel efficient
Improving the computer speed and efficiency of minuscule transistors and memory chips by factors of millions making today's Pentium IIIs seem slow
Using gene and drug delivery to detect cancerous cells by nanoengineered MRI contrast agents or target organs in the human body
Removing the finest contaminants from water and air to promote a cleaner environment and potable water
soft lithography & nanoscale printing Resolution 100 nm Liquid environment Multiple layer writing Wide areas & rapid production rates A stamp was molded off the master and used for printing alkanethiols onto a gold layer, followed by a selective etch to develop the pattern. IBM Zurich
creating chemical reactions in an arbitrary atmosphere
creating rapid large area nano-scale coatings
creating nano-scale particles
creating nano-materials in large quantities
electrodeposition the deposition of a substance on an electrode by the action of electricity
electrodeposition Primarily a coating process for materials that can withstand liquids and can be electrically charged temperature and vacuum Minimum rate or thickness is highly controllable Can deposit complex chemistries Used extensively in semiconductor fabrication
Labs - National Nanofabrication Users Network Cornell Nanofabrication Facility Prof. Sandip Tiwari, Director Cornell University, Knight Laboratory Ithaca, New York 14853-5403 Voice: (607) 255-2329 Fax: (607) 255-8601 URL: http://www.cnf.cornell.edu/ Materials Science Center for Excellence Prof. Gary Harris, Director Howard University School of Engineering 2300 Sixth St, NW Washington, D.C. 20059 Voice: (202) 806-6618 Fax: (202) 806-5367 URL: http://www.msrce.howard.edu/~nanonet/NNUN.HTM PSU Nanofabrication Facility Prof. Stephen Fonash, Director 189 Materials Research Institute The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Voice: (814) 865-4931 Fax: (814) 865-3018 URL: http://www.nanofab.psu.edu Stanford Nanofabrication Facility Dr. Yoshio Nishi, Director Stanford University CIS 103, Via Ortega St Stanford, CA 94305 Voice: (650) 723-9508 Fax: (650) 725-0991 URL: http://www-snf.stanford.edu/ UCSB Nanofabrication Facility Prof. Mark Rodwell, Director University of California at Santa Barbara Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering 5153 Engineering I Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Voice: (805) 893-3244 Fax: (805) 893-3262 URL: http://www.nanotech.ucsb.edu/ Provides users with access to some of the most sophisticated nanofabrication technologies in the world with facilities open to all users from academia, government, and industry.
Diffusion/Oxidation/Annealing Dry Etch Dry-Clean Systems(gas-phase,etc) Electropolishing Epitaxy Furnaces Heat Exchangers In Situ Cleaners In Situ Monitors Ion Beam Ion Implantation laser Lithography, DUV/g/i-line Megasonic/Ultrasonic Systems Minienvironment,Automated/Manual Monitoring/Analysis Tools Non-CFC Cleaning Systems Organic Solvents Pellicles/Mounting Equipment Photomask Equipment/Materials Photoresist Processing Photoresist Stripping Physical Vapor Deposition Piping/Tubing,Stainless Steel/Other Plasma Cleaning Systems Post-CMP Cleaning Systems Power Supplies,Accessories pressure gages Pumps Quartzware Rapid Thermal Processors Recycling,Reprocessing Systems reticle Rinsers/Dryers Software(Operating,Simulatings,etc) Spin Processors Spray-Clean Systems Sputterers Sputtering Targets Steppers transducers UV Ozone Cleaning Systems Vacuum Components/Gages/Seals(O-rings,metal,etc.) Valves/Controllers Wafer Identification Wafer-Transport Systems Wet Etch Wet Process Stations
THE INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP FOR SEMICONDUCTORS The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is an assessment of the semiconductor technology requirements. The objective of the ITRS s to ensure advancements in the performance of integrated circuits. This assessment, called roadmapping, is a cooperative effort of the global industry manufacturers and suppliers, government organizations, consortia, and universities. The ITRS identifies the technological challenges and needs facing the semiconductor industry over the next 15 years. It is sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), the European Electronic Component Association (EECA), the Japan Electronics & Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA), the Korean Semiconductor Industry Association (KSIA), and Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Association (TSIA) .
Semiconductor - Focus - Metrology YEAR OF PRODUCTION 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 DRAM ½ PITCH (nm) 115 100 90 80 70 65 Problems Inline, nondestructive microscopy resolution (nm) 0.53 0.45 0.37 0.32 0.3 0.25 Materials and Contamination Characterization Real particle detection limit (nm) 53 45 37 32 30 25 Minimum particle size for compositional analysis (dense lines on patterned wafers) 35 30 24 21 20 17 Solution in hand Solution known Solution unknown
Semiconductor - Focus - Metrology YEAR OF PRODUCTION 2010 2013 2016 DRAM ½ PITCH (nm) 45 32 22 Problems Inline, nondestructive microscopy resolution (nm) 0.18 0.13 0.09 Materials and Contamination Characterization Real particle detection limit (nm) 18 13 9 Minimum particle size for compositional analysis (dense lines on patterned wafers) 12 9 6 Solution in hand Solution known Solution unknown
CNT - Fabrication - how to A vacuum chamber is pumped down and back filled with some buffer gas, typically neon or Ar to 500 torr. A graphite cathode and anode are placed in close proximity to each other. The anode may be filled with metal catalyst particles if growth of single wall nanotubes is required. A voltage is placed across the electrodes, (20 – 40 V). The anode is vaporized while the cathode evaporates. Carbon nanotubes form on the cathode in the sheath region. Carbon Arc or Arc Discharge
CNT - Fabrication - how to Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Single-wall nanotubes are produced in a gas-phase process by catalytic disproportionation of CO on iron particles. Iron is in the form of iron pentacarbonyl. Adding 25% hydrogen increases the SWNT yield. The synthesis is performed at 1100 C at atmospheric pressure. Multi-wall nanotubes are grown in the same apparatus where the catalytic metal particles are supported on a substrate (Si wafers or the quartz furnace tube). Iron is deposited from iron pentacarbonyl or by electron beam sputtering while nanotube growth is achieved by catalytic CVD from hydrocarbon molecules (acetylene, methane) or fullerenes at temperatures between 750 and 1100 C.
CNT - Fabrication - how to High-pressure CO conversion(HiPCO)
Method is similar to CVD
Carbon source is carbon monoxide
Catalytic particles are generated in-situ
Thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in a reactor heated to 800 - 1200°C
High pressure to speed up the growth
Bulk production of SWNTs
CNT - Sample Companies Metrotube - Located at the Tokyo Metropolitan University, supplies single-walled carbon nanotubes for research and collaboration Applied Nanotechnologies - ANI fabricates carbon nanotubes(CNTs) and produces carbon nanotube based devices such as x-ray tubes, microwave amplifiers, gas discharge tubes and field emission cathodes. Nanostructured and Amorphous Materials - Manufacturer and supplier of nanoscale metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, diamond, Carbon nanotubes / Particles for research and industries Carbon Solutions Inc. - Research, development and commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, its chemistry and application to carbon based nanotechnology Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. - CNI intends to be a leader in carbon nanotechnology, beginning with its first product, Bucky(TM)tubes, which are single-wall carbon nanotubes made by the HiPco(TM) process. NanoLab Inc. - Produces carbon nanotubes using the CVD growth process. The process produces arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates. CarboLex, Inc. - Manufacturer of single-walled carbon nanotube fibers. Products are sold to composite manufacturers, display technology researchers, government researchers and universities. Hyperion Catalysis International - Producer of graphite nanotubes. Based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Skeleton Technologies Group - Provides research and development of advanced materials and their applications, including nanotubes, shaped diamond composites, supercapacitors, and metal-ceramic composites.
CNT - Market Fundamentals Global market for nanotubes in 2002 was ~ $12 million About 20 producers of carbon nanotubes, half of which are in the United States. Other producers in Japan, Korea, China and France Global CNT production capacity is over 2.5 tons per day
Piezo-assisted fine-displacement combined with control circuitry and conventional roller-bearing or flexure technology.
The piezoelectric effect is: 1. the production of a voltage when a crystal plate is subjected to mechanical pressure or when it is physically deformed by bending. 2. The physical deformation of the crystal plate (bending) when it is subjected to a voltage.
The resolution of an optical microscope is about a third of a wavelength in diameter, which is about 200 nm.
Acoustic, 30 micrometers at 50Mhz, 200 Mhz to maybe 20 nm The resolution of a SEM is about 10 nanometers (nm).
The resolution of a TEM is about 0.2 nanometers (nm). This is the typical separation between two atoms in a solid.
The optical resolution limit for SNOM is governed by the light intensity passing through the aperture. A practical limit is usually found with aperture diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm, but in ideal cases even down to < 20 nm.
Some of the best values for AFM imaging are 3.0 nm. Sub-nanometer is possible