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English 2

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CONTACT ME ON MY ym glenjienandu@yahoo.com

CONTACT ME ON MY ym glenjienandu@yahoo.com


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  • 1.   What are the forms of the What are the forms of the verb?verb?  In English there are several In English there are several different kinds of verbs.  All different kinds of verbs.  All verbs except modal auxiliary verbs except modal auxiliary ("helping") verbs have at least ("helping") verbs have at least three distinct forms:three distinct forms:
  • 2. The simple formThe simple form (or uninflected or base)  (or uninflected or base) form:form:  ex.ex.dance, play, type, hurry,dance, play, type, hurry,concentrate, communicate, pull,concentrate, communicate, pull,lives, cut, put, bring, run, sing,lives, cut, put, bring, run, sing,drink, speak, writedrink, speak, write
  • 3. The 3rd person singular The 3rd person singular present tense form (or present tense form (or -s-s) ) form:form:ex.ex.  dances, plays, types, hurries,dances, plays, types, hurries,concentrates, communicates,concentrates, communicates,pulls, lives, cuts, puts, brings,pulls, lives, cuts, puts, brings,runs, sings, drinks, speaks,writesruns, sings, drinks, speaks,writes
  • 4. The present (or The present (or -ing-ing) participle ) participle and gerund form:and gerund form:ex. ex.   dancing, playing, typing, hurrying,dancing, playing, typing, hurrying,concentrating, communicating, pulling,concentrating, communicating, pulling,living, cutting, putting, running,living, cutting, putting, running,bringing, singing, drinking, speaking,bringing, singing, drinking, speaking,writingwriting
  • 5. the past tense and past participle the past tense and past participle form: form: ex.ex.danced, played, typed, hurried,danced, played, typed, hurried,concentrated, communicated, pulled,concentrated, communicated, pulled,lived, broughtlived, brought
  • 6. The past tense form: The past tense form: IRREGULAR VERBSIRREGULAR VERBSex.ex.  Ran, ate, woke, ran, won,Ran, ate, woke, ran, won,sang, drank, spoke, wrotesang, drank, spoke, wrote
  • 7. The past participle form:The past participle form:ex.ex.  sung, drunk, spoken,sung, drunk, spoken,writtenwritten
  • 8. Simple Form-s FormPast Tense Form-ing FormPast Participle FormRegular help helps helped helping helpedcarry carries carried carrying carriedclutch clutches clutched clutching clutchedIrregular cut cuts cut cutting cutbring  brings brought bringing broughtrun runs ran running runfall falls fell falling fallen
  • 9. The verbThe verb be be  the simple form: the simple form: bebethe -the -inging participle form:  participle form: beingbeingthe past participle: the past participle: beenbeenthe first person singular present the first person singular present tense form:tense form:  amamthe third person present tense (-the third person present tense (-ss) ) form: form: isisthe plural present tense form: the plural present tense form: arearethe singular past tense form: the singular past tense form: waswasthe plural past tense form: the plural past tense form: werewere
  • 10. EXERCISESEXERCISES
  • 11. 1) There (goes, go) the parade of 1) There (goes, go) the parade of beauties.beauties.2) Where (is, are) the books that 2) Where (is, are) the books that you borrowed?you borrowed?3) My mother and I (am, are) 3) My mother and I (am, are) hesitant to go.hesitant to go.4) Each boy and girl (participate, 4) Each boy and girl (participate, participates) in the decision participates) in the decision making.making.5) Salmon (survive, survives) in 5) Salmon (survive, survives) in deep seas. deep seas. 
  • 12. 6) Mumps (has, have) caused 6) Mumps (has, have) caused many absences in the class.many absences in the class.7) Grandmother’s spectacles 7) Grandmother’s spectacles (lies, lie) on the table.(lies, lie) on the table.8) The president and chairman 8) The president and chairman of the board (leave, leaves) of the board (leave, leaves) for abraod every month.for abraod every month.
  • 13. 9) Above the tall9) Above the talltrees (appear,trees (appear,appears) the goldenappears) the goldenmoon.moon.
  • 14. 10) Antique10) Antiquepieces of furniturepieces of furniture(is, are) sold in(is, are) sold inthe shop.the shop.
  • 15. SUBJECTSUBJECTVERBVERBAGREEMENTAGREEMENT
  • 16. Basic RuleBasic RuleThe basic rule states thatThe basic rule states thata singular subject takes aa singular subject takes asingular verb, while asingular verb, while aplural subject takes aplural subject takes aplural verb.plural verb.
  • 17. HintHint::Verbs do not form their plurals byVerbs do not form their plurals byadding an s as nouns do. In orderadding an s as nouns do. In orderto determine which verb isto determine which verb issingular and which one is plural,singular and which one is plural,think of which verb you would usethink of which verb you would usewithwith hehe oror sheshe and which verb youand which verb youwould use withwould use with theythey..
  • 18. Example:Example:talks, talktalks, talkWhich one is the singular form?Which one is the singular form?Which word would you useWhich word would you usewithwith hehe??We say, "He talks."We say, "He talks."Therefore,Therefore, talkstalks is singular.is singular.We say, "They talk."We say, "They talk."Therefore,Therefore, talktalk is plural.is plural.
  • 19. Rule 1Rule 1Two singular subjectsTwo singular subjectsconnected byconnected by oror oror nornor requirerequirea singular verb.a singular verb.Example:Example:My aunt or my uncle isMy aunt or my uncle isarriving by train today.arriving by train today.
  • 20. Rule 2Rule 2Two singular subjects connectedTwo singular subjects connectedbyby either/oreither/or oror neither/norneither/nor require arequire asingular verb as in Rule 1.singular verb as in Rule 1.Examples:Examples:Neither Juan nor Carmen is available.Neither Juan nor Carmen is available.Either Kiana or Casey is helping todayEither Kiana or Casey is helping todaywith stage decorations.with stage decorations.
  • 21. Rule 3Rule 3WhenWhen II is one of the two subjectsis one of the two subjectsconnected byconnected by either/oreither/or oror neither/norneither/nor,,put it second and follow it with theput it second and follow it with thesingular verbsingular verb amam..Example:Example:Neither she nor I am going to theNeither she nor I am going to thefestival.festival.
  • 22. Rule 4Rule 4When a singular subject is connectedWhen a singular subject is connectedbyby oror oror nornor to a plural subject, putto a plural subject, putthe plural subject last and use a pluralthe plural subject last and use a pluralverb.verb.Example:Example:The serving bowl or the plates go onThe serving bowl or the plates go onthat shelf.that shelf.
  • 23. Rule 5Rule 5When a singular and plural subject areWhen a singular and plural subject areconnected byconnected by either/oreither/or oror neither/norneither/nor,,put the plural subject last and use aput the plural subject last and use aplural verb.plural verb.Example:Example:Neither Jenny norNeither Jenny northe others are available.the others are available.
  • 24. Rule 6Rule 6As a general rule, use a plural verbAs a general rule, use a plural verbwith two or more subjects when theywith two or more subjects when theyare connected byare connected by andand..Example:Example:A car and a bike are my means ofA car and a bike are my means oftransportation.transportation.
  • 25. Rule 7Rule 7Sometimes the subject is separatedSometimes the subject is separatedfrom the verb by words such asfrom the verb by words such as alongalongwith, as well as, besideswith, as well as, besides, or, or notnot..Ignore these expressions whenIgnore these expressions whendetermining whether to use a singulardetermining whether to use a singularor plural verb.or plural verb.
  • 26. Examples:Examples:The politician, along with theThe politician, along with thenewsmen, is expected shortly.newsmen, is expected shortly.Excitement, as well asExcitement, as well asnervousness, is the cause of hernervousness, is the cause of hershaking.shaking.
  • 27. Rule 8Rule 8The pronounsThe pronouns each, everyone,each, everyone,every one, everybody, anyone,every one, everybody, anyone,anybody, someone,anybody, someone, andandsomebodysomebody arearesingular and require singular verbs. Dosingular and require singular verbs. Donot be misled by what followsnot be misled by what follows ofof..
  • 28. Examples:Examples:Each of the girls sings well.Each of the girls sings well.Every one of the cakes is gone.Every one of the cakes is gone.NOTE:NOTE: EveryoneEveryone is one word when itis one word when itmeansmeans everybodyeverybody.. Every oneEvery one is twois twowords when the meaning iswords when the meaning is each oneeach one..
  • 29. Rule 9Rule 9With words that indicate portions—With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority,percent, fraction, part, majority,some, all, none, remaindersome, all, none, remainder, and so, and soforth —look at the noun inforth —look at the noun inyouryour ofof phrase (object of thephrase (object of thepreposition) to determine whether topreposition) to determine whether touse a singular or plural verb. If theuse a singular or plural verb. If theobject of the preposition is singular,object of the preposition is singular,use a singular verb. If the object ofuse a singular verb. If the object ofthe preposition is plural, use a pluralthe preposition is plural, use a pluralverb.verb.
  • 30. Examples:Examples:Fifty percent of theFifty percent of thepie has disappeared.pie has disappeared.PiePie is the object of the prepositionis the object of the preposition ofof..Fifty percent of theFifty percent of thepies have disappeared.pies have disappeared.PiesPies is the object of the preposition.is the object of the preposition.One-third of the city is unemployed.One-third of the city is unemployed.One-third of theOne-third of thepeople are unemployed.people are unemployed.NOTE:NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-outHyphenate all spelled-outfractions.fractions.
  • 31. All of the pie is gone.All of the pie is gone.All of the pies are gone.All of the pies are gone.Some of the pie is missing.Some of the pie is missing.Some of the pies are missing.Some of the pies are missing.None of the garbage wasNone of the garbage waspicked up.picked up.None of the sentences wereNone of the sentences werepunctuated correctly.punctuated correctly.Of all her books, none haveOf all her books, none havesold as well as the first one.sold as well as the first one.
  • 32. Rule 10Rule 10The expressionThe expression the numberthe number is followedis followedby a singular verb while theby a singular verb while theexpressionexpression a numbera number is followed by ais followed by aplural verb.plural verb.Examples:Examples:The number of people we need toThe number of people we need tohire is thirteen.hire is thirteen.A number of people have written inA number of people have written inabout this subject.about this subject.
  • 33. Rule 11Rule 11WhenWhen eithereither andand neitherneither are subjects,are subjects,they always take singular verbs.they always take singular verbs.Examples:Examples:Neither of them is available to speakNeither of them is available to speakright now.right now.Either of us is capable of doing theEither of us is capable of doing thejob.job.
  • 34. Rule 12Rule 12The wordsThe words herehere andand therethere havehavegenerally been labeled as adverbsgenerally been labeled as adverbseven though they indicate place. Ineven though they indicate place. Insentences beginningsentences beginningwithwith herehere oror therethere, the subject follows, the subject followsthe verb.the verb.Examples:Examples:There are four hurdles to jump.There are four hurdles to jump.There is a high hurdle to jump.There is a high hurdle to jump.
  • 35. Rule 13Rule 13Use a singular verb with sums ofUse a singular verb with sums ofmoney or periods of time.money or periods of time.Examples:Examples:Ten dollars is a high price to pay.Ten dollars is a high price to pay.Five years is the maximum sentenceFive years is the maximum sentencefor that offense.for that offense.
  • 36. Rule 14Rule 14Sometimes the pronounSometimes the pronoun who, thatwho, that,,oror whichwhich is the subject of a verb in theis the subject of a verb in themiddle of the sentence. Themiddle of the sentence. Thepronounspronouns who, thatwho, that,,andand whichwhich become singular or pluralbecome singular or pluralaccording to the noun directly in frontaccording to the noun directly in frontof them. So, if that noun is singular,of them. So, if that noun is singular,use a singular verb. If it is plural, useuse a singular verb. If it is plural, usea plural verb.a plural verb.
  • 37. Examples:Examples:Salma is the scientist who writes/writeSalma is the scientist who writes/writethe reports.the reports.The word in front ofThe word in front of whowho isis scientistscientist,,which is singular. Therefore, use thewhich is singular. Therefore, use thesingular verbsingular verb writeswrites..He is one of the men who does/do theHe is one of the men who does/do thework.work.The word in front ofThe word in front of whowho isis menmen,,which is plural. Therefore, use thewhich is plural. Therefore, use theplural verbplural verb do.do.
  • 38. Rule 15Rule 15Collective nouns suchCollective nouns suchasas teamteam andand staffstaff may be eithermay be eithersingular or plural depending on theirsingular or plural depending on theiruse in the sentence.use in the sentence.
  • 39. Examples:Examples:The staff is in a meeting.The staff is in a meeting.StaffStaff is acting as a unit here.is acting as a unit here.The staff are in disagreement aboutThe staff are in disagreement aboutthe findings.the findings.The staffThe staff are acting as separateare acting as separateindividuals in this example.individuals in this example.The sentence would read even betterThe sentence would read even betteras:as:The staff members are inThe staff members are indisagreement about the findings.disagreement about the findings.
  • 40. Exercises:Exercises:1. The world (change, changes) so1. The world (change, changes) sorapidly that we can hardly keep up.rapidly that we can hardly keep up.2. People (is, are) often2. People (is, are) oftenten or twenty years behind the timesten or twenty years behind the timesin their knowledge of the world.in their knowledge of the world.3. People who (live, lives) in poverty3. People who (live, lives) in povertyoften do not even have television oroften do not even have television ornewspapers.newspapers.
  • 41. 4. He (doesn’t, don’t) want to be4. He (doesn’t, don’t) want to bekilled.killed.5. Life (is, are) very complicated5. Life (is, are) very complicated
  • 42. 6. Traditionally, college students (has,6. Traditionally, college students (has,have) been very active in politics.have) been very active in politics.7. There (is, are) both men and7. There (is, are) both men andwomen at the meeting.women at the meeting.8. The students in my class (has,8. The students in my class (has,have) very poor work habits.have) very poor work habits.
  • 43. 9. Each of you (has, have) an equal9. Each of you (has, have) an equalchance to make good grades.chance to make good grades.10. All of the children (was, were)10. All of the children (was, were)hunting Easter eggs in the garden.hunting Easter eggs in the garden.11. A notebook and a pen (is, are)11. A notebook and a pen (is, are)lying on the desk in the library.lying on the desk in the library.
  • 44. 12. My son, along with two friends,12. My son, along with two friends,(is, are) coming for the weekend.(is, are) coming for the weekend.13. Sitting on the sofa (was, were)13. Sitting on the sofa (was, were)two students from Thailand.two students from Thailand.14. Either the workers or the manager14. Either the workers or the manager(is, are) coming to the conference.(is, are) coming to the conference.
  • 45. 15. Not only the students, but also the15. Not only the students, but also theteacher (has, have) been unhappy.teacher (has, have) been unhappy.16. Everybody (hate, hates) to take16. Everybody (hate, hates) to taketests.tests.17. Knowledge gained after long study17. Knowledge gained after long study(disappear, disappears) rapidly from(disappear, disappears) rapidly fromour minds.our minds.
  • 46. 18. One of my greatest worries in18. One of my greatest worries incollege (was, were) that I would studycollege (was, were) that I would studyhard and still flunk important tests.hard and still flunk important tests.19.Georgia Southern University19.Georgia Southern University(provide, provides) some scholarships(provide, provides) some scholarshipsfor the students.for the students.20. The news about Afghanistan (is,20. The news about Afghanistan (is,are) shocking, isn’t it?are) shocking, isn’t it?