American colonial policy• American colonial policy in the Philippines was unique in the world of colonialism because of the following reasons:1. The Americans said they would go as soon as the Filipinos could stand on their own as a fee nation. From the beginning, American officials did not want to hold on to the Philippines as a colony forever.
American colonial policy2. The Americans were kinder and more generous than other colonial powers of the same era (Germany, Netherlands, France or Britain). The American shared power with the Filipinos in government.3. The Filipinos adopted American ways very well. No other former colony like its other country as much as the Filipinos liked the United States
American colonial government• The Philippines was ruled by the Americans in the following ways:1. Military government (August 14, 1898 – July 4, 1901) This government was run by military generals appointed by the American president. There were three military governors: Gen. Wesley Merritt; Gen. Elwell Otis; and Gen. Arthur McArthur.
American colonial government2. Civil government (July 4, 1901-August 1902) This government was run by American civilian officials appointed by the American president. But later it was run by Filipino officials elected by Filipinos.
American colonial government• There were several kinds of civilian governments during the American era. These were: The Philippine Commission; the American Governor-General together with the Filipino people; and, the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
WAR OF PHILIPPINEINDEPENDENCE FROM THEUNITED STATES
• Manifest Destiny• Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation issued on Dec. 21, 1898 – the US shall exercise sovereignty over the entire archipelago• Aguinaldo issued a counter-proclamation on January 5, 1899
• January 20, 1899 – Pres. McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission to make recommendations in the administration of the country; this commission was headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman
• February 4, 1899 – Private Willie Grayson shot and killed a Filipino soldier. This event triggered the Philippine-American War (1899-1906)• Bates Treaty – signed by John Bates and Sultan Jamalul Kiram II of Sulu on August 20, 1899. The Muslims remained neutral in the war.
• February 5, 1899 – the American fleet bombarded the Filipinos fort north of San Juan del Monte killing Major. Jose Torres Bugallion.• February 22, 1899 – Antonio Luna burned American occupied houses in Tondo and Binondo• Gen. MacArthur and his troops arrived from the US; they aimed to capture Malolos
• March 31, 1898 – Malolos was captured• March 6 , 1898 - Apolinario Mabini met with the Schurman Commission to request for a cease-fire but he was refused. Mabini resigned in the Aguinaldo cabinet and was replaced by Pedro A. Paterno as the head of the new cabinet
• ―Peace Cabinet‖ headed by Felipe Buencamino negotiated peace with the Americans.• Antonio Luna met a tragic death• October 12, , 1898 – a full-scale offensive was launched to capture Pres. Aguinaldo• Gregorio del Pilar defended Tirad Pass
• Januario Galut guided the Americans in Tirad pass which lead to the death of del Pilar• The whereabouts of Aguinaldo was discovered; Gen. Funston employed the Macabebe scouts to capture Aguinaldo• April 9, 1898 – Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the United States
• Pacificados (Pacifists) led by Pedro Paterno and Felipe Buencamino which later became Partido Federal headed by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera wanted to make the Philippines a part of the US.• July , 1898 – Pres. Theodore Roosevelt declared that the Philippine-American War was over
Timeline: Philippine Philippine Bill Assembly (1902) (1907)Hare-Hawes- OSROX Jones LawCutting Law Mission (1916) (1932) (1931) Philippine Tydings- Constitution Commonwea McDuffie al lth Law (1934) Convention (1935)
• March 16, 1899 – Pres. McKinley appointed the Taft Commission and gave it legislative and executive power to put up a civilian government• July 4, 1901 – Judge William Howard Taft became the first civil governor• His policy ―Philippines for Filipinos‖ laid the foundation of a democratic government
Taft’s achievements• The sale of huge tracts of friar lands to Filipinos on installment terms• Cooper Act/Philippine Organic Act of 1902 – extends the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos• First official census was held on March 2, 1899.
Other political parties• These parties were organized to counteract the pro-American activities of the Partido Federal• Partido Nacionalista ,Partido Independencia, Partido Democrata• Partido Conservador
• Gen. Vicente Lukban ambushed American soldiers in Balangiga, Samar• Gen. Jacob Smith ordered the massacre of all men and children about ten years of age
• General Miguel Malvar continued to fight for Philippine independence• He surrendered to the Americans on April 16, 1902.
Anti-nationalist laws• Sedition Law – imposed death penalty or long prison term to those who advocated separation form the US even through peaceful means• Brigandage Act – punished with death or with a prison term of not less than 20 years for members of an armed band
• Reconcentration Act – this gave the governor general the power to authorize any provincial governor to reconcentrate in the towns all residents outlying barrios if outlaws operated in these areas.• Flag Law – prohibited the display of Philippine flag and other symbols used b the resistance against the US
How the Filipinos carried on their fight for freedom• Theater and literature• Peasant revolts and the Communist Party of the Philippines • Peaceful pressure by the Filipino politicians ending in the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935.
Arts and Literature Resistance• American authorities enacted “Sedition Law” in 1901. Any Filipino advocating independence or separation from the United States would be punished severely by death or imprisonment.• Plays and drama’s advocating independence were labeled “seditious plays”• Filipinos employed a variety of subterfuges: allegorical verses, talinhaga, double-meanings, etc..
Tanikalang Ginto• Juan Abad’s “Tanikalang Ginto” first produced on July 7, 1902 and banned on May 10, 1903 after performance in Batangas and was fined $2,000.• The supreme court later on reversed the decision.
Tanikalang GintoThe play revolves around Liwanag (“light,” “the newPilipinas after departure of Spain), who is promised to thehero Kulayaw (“loyal,” the Filipino freedom fighters, alsothe penname of Abad).Her adopted father Maimbot, (“avaricious” theU.S.), approves the proposed marriage. However, he laterwithdraws his consent and bans Kulayaw from his house.He entreats Liwanag to abandon Kulayaw and tries tobribe her with gifts. He uses Nagtapon (worthless Filipinocollaborators who see a life at ease under the Americans)to spy on his brother, Kulayaw.
Tanikalang GintoNagtapon disowns their mother Dalita (poor and sufferingMother Country and the masses). Dalita dies abandonedby her sons.Maimbot’s gifts fail to move Liwanag so he ties her to abalete and leaves her to Nagtapon. Kulayaw searches forLiwanag and once he finds her, Nagtapon kills her.Diwa (“spirit” persistence in struggle) takes Liwanag toheaven. Diwa promises to Kulayaw that Liwanag willreturn to him after she has circled the universe. The playends with a tableau: Nagtapon is possessed by demonswhile Kulayaw is crowned by spirits after delivering anemotional speech.
Other Dramatists• Aurelio Tolentino – master of subterfuge; was able to weave in the national anthem and the flag in his plays.• He wrote, directed and played the lead in “Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas.” He was arrested 9 times and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was later on reduced to 15 years.• He also wrote poems, short stories, sarswelas, essays, editorials in Talgalog, Spanish and Pampango• He fought in Bicol during the Fil-Am war• The play delved on intense love of country exposing foreign economic control, and a call for armed struggle.
• Hindi Aco Patay (I am not Dead) by Juan Matapang Cruz was closed on May 8, 1903 at Teatro Neuva Luna in Malabon• The red sun on the Katipunan flag that rose behind the stage caused the riot inside the theater• Cruz was arrested and later imprisoned, which he served in full.
Resistance groups• General Lucio San Miguel – Rizal and Bulacan; they were captured on March 28, 1903 after some Philippine Scouts discovered his headquarters in Caloocan and Marikina.• Macario Sakay, Julian Montalan, and Cornelio Felizardo established in Philippine Republic or the Tagalog Republic which was the continuation of the Bonifacio Katipunan
• General Simeon Olas was the last revolutionary general to surrender tot the Americans on September 25, 1903.• Ola took the oath of allegiance to the United States. They surrendered to the Americans to save the people from brutality and hunger.
The Colorums• They were the remnants of Hermano Pule’s Cofradia de San Jose• During the American occupation, the term colorum was used by the authorities to refer to rebel organizations with mystical characteristics.• In Tarlac, the colorums worshipped Joses Rizal and Apo Ipe Salvador
• Pedro Kabola – he founded a secret society called Kapisanan Makabola Makarinag (1923). They planned to assault the municipal building f San Jose, Nueva Ecija and execute all the town officials, equally divide the land among the masses, and expel the Americans from the country.
• Pedro Calosa – he organized a colorum group in 1929.• He and his group marched in Tayug, Pangasinan to spark a revolution. But he was captured.• He said that many of the colorum members were tenants who were ejected by hacenderos or small farmers deprived of their lands by land grabbers
The first labor groups• Isabelo de los Reyes organized the first labor union, the Union de Litografos e Impresores de Filipinas, in January 1902.• After its founding, the members decided to reorganize themselves into the Union Oberera Democratica, with its organ La Redencion del Obrero
• Lope K. Santos became the leader of U.O.D.• May 1, 1903 – Labor Day was first officially celebrated in the country• Congreso Obrero de Filipinas approved the resolutions demanding eight-hour labor day, child and women labor laws, and an employer’s liability law.
• Vicente Sotto established Asamblea Obrero which he used to support his candidacy• Joaquin Balmori founded the Federacion del Trabaho to support the Democratic party while Congreso Obrero del Filipinas backed the Nationalista Party candidates
• Union ng Magsasaka was formed in 1917 to fight the evils of tenancy and usury.• Partido Obrero de Filipinas was founded by Crisanto Evangelista, Domingo Ponce, and Cirilo Bognot in 1924. Its platform showed a strong Marxist influence.
The Communist Party of the Philippines• Evangelista established the Katipunan ng mga Anak-pawis ng Pilipinas or KAP.• KAP wanted unity among workers, peasants and the exploited masses. It advocated struggle against America imperialism in the Philippines, immediate and complete independence of the country, unity among revolutionary movements all over the world, and an establishment of a Soviet system in the Philippines
• Antonio Ora was arrested and died reportedly due to an accident while being taken to prison. The CCP members were skeptical about it and they staged a demonstration on January 25, 1931.• Evangelista and other CCP leaders were arrested and imprisoned.• The Supreme Court declared the CCP an illegal organization on October 26, 1932.
Sakdal Uprising• The Sakdalista (coming from the Tagalog word sakdal, meaning "to accuse") movement was founded in 1930 by a right wing leader, Benigno Ramos, a writer and discontented former government clerk. The name of the movement was based on Émile Zolas 1898 letter criticising the French government, Jaccuse.• Sakdal began as a fortnightly populist tabloid, with articles tackling issues which were of interest to the Philippine masses: corruption and mismanagement under the American-sponsored Nacionalista administration, immediate independence for the Philippines, and the land reform problem.
Sakdal Uprising• Investigators concluded that the motive behind the uprising was the worsening economic condition• The elite bitterly criticized the uprising; MLQ called its leader (Benigno Ramos) “and irresponsible and crafty demagogue.”• Colonial authorities and media described the Sakdalistas “astonighingly ignorant,” “economically helpless,” “victims of the local cacique,” and “the remorseless usurers.”
What they believe in (Sakdal)• They believe that the country’s God-given riches was controlled by the Catholic church, foreigners and a few rich Filipinos.• They see politicians’ lack of will to achieve independence• This task should not be left to those who had lost the ability to suffer and work hard for the sake of the country.• They are living examples of honor, being oppressed and poor, and possessing pure hearts capable of humility, compassion and sacrifice.
What they believe in (Sakdal)• They emulate the life of Jesus Christ and the heroes of 1896 revolution particularly Jose Rizal.• They considered their work as a mission with a heavy cross to be borne.• Upon occupying the municipal building, they destroyed the stars and stripes; there was no looting or burning.• They confiscated pistols and issued receipt; they fed the passengers of the buses they stopped.• They did this because of their belief that they must be honorable, true representatives of the people and heirs of the 1896 struggle for independence.
What they believe in (Sakdal)• They want to show the world they are not accepting passively the terms of American colonialism• Political and economic freedom cannot be fully realized if their souls remained subjects to alien rule.• Sakdal uprising may be a failure in the eyes of the outsiders, but to insiders, they were able to show the true meaning of being Sakdalistas: to be honorable though poor, to know how to sacrifice, and to live and die with dignity.
• On May 2, 1935, 15o peasants marched to the municipal hall of San Ildefonso, Bulacan and hauled down the American and Philippine flags and raised the red Sakdal flag.• The peasants were no match to the constabulary troops who suppressed the uprisings. Fifty seven peasants were killed, hundreds were wounded, and others were imprisoned.• Benigno Ramos who was in Japan denied his involvement on the May 2 incident. Many peasants withdrew their support for Ramos.
American economic policy• In the beginning, American policy was unselfish. The Philippine Bill of 1902 declared that all public lands and natural resources were for “the benefit of the inhabitants.”This pro- Filipino policy was repeated in the Jones Law of 1916 and Tydings- McDuffie Law of 1934.
• Some American officials gave better treatment to Americans doing business or working in the Philippines.• The economy then was developed largely by American and pro- American Filipinos.
New prosperity of the Philippinesas a colony of America• Population explosion• New land policy 1. Friar lands were resold to Filipino farmers 2. Homestead Act (1924) allowed Filipinos to own up to 24 hectares of public land 3. All lands had to be registered, and their owners got the Torrens title.
• Agricultural increase In 1903, the American Congress sent $3M emergency fund to import rice and carabao from other Asian country.
• Free trade with America – Philippine products (copra, sugar, cigars, hemp, etc.) were sold to the Americans while American products (cars, radios, appliances, cigarettes, etc.) were bought by Filipinos
– Under the free trade agreement, Filipino products entered the United States without paying custom tariffs. There was a limit or quota to the amount of tax-free Filipino products.– American products could also enter the Philippines without paying custom tariffs, but they were not limited by quotas.
• Business boom – retail trade inside the Philippines doubled from 1907-1935. Filipinos had more money to buy food, shoes, clothes, radios, toys, b icycles, and even cars. However, the Filipinos liked to buy more imported goods.
• New industries – The Philippines entered the Industrial Age (which favored the use of machines and the mass production of goods in big factories) – Mining and fishing became big industries – Household cottage industries boomed – The Americans developed the coconut and hemp industries and they took over the sugar and tobacco industries.
• Improvement in transportation and communication – The Filipinos enjoyed the automobile, electric street car (tranvia), roads and railroads, postal services, airplane, telephone, wireless telegraph, radio, and movies.
• Better budget – the Philippine budget was balanced even during the Great World Depression in the 1930’s. In the 1930’s, other governments including the U.S. itself had huge deficit and problems but the Philippine’s colonial budge had a surplus.
• New banks• International exhibitions and meetings
Economic problems• We sold our raw materials cheap and bought expensive manufactured goods from America. We did not develop our own industries enough because we were spoiled by the free trade with America.
• Colonial mentality became worse. We wrongly thought that imported/American products were high class. It was bad because we forgot to develop our native product.
• Labor and peasant unrest spread in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Many strikes in the cities and violent revolts in the provinces were caused by radical groups like the Communist Party of the Philippines.
• American capitalists and businessmen controlled the new companies. Some of these American businessmen came to the Philippines as soldiers or government officials. They used their connections in the colonial government to become millionaires in a short time. For example, by 1935 American companies controlled 335 of the sugar industry, 53% of hemp, and 60% of copra. They also controlled the utilities, railroads, shipping, radio and newspapers.
Our American heritage• The Bible and religious freedom• Training in democracy• Free education• Better health• English language• Free press
• Diet and dress• Democratic family life and social classes• Women’s rights• Recreation• Movies and vaudiville• Music and dance
Challenges of Third RepublicAfter the war, the Commonwealthwas restored pending completeindependence. Withindependence from the US camethe establishment of the ThirdRepublic of the Philippines. Thegovernment of the independentRepublic was riddled with graftand corruption and lost theconfidence of the people. Thecorruption within the governmentalso resulted in the rise of the Leftin the form of the HUKBALAHAPor the Huks. The Huks presentedeven more problems to theRepublic.
Manuel Acuna RoxasFifth PresidentFirst President of the IndependentThird Republic of the Philippines1946 - 1948“If war should come, I am certain ofone thing–probably the only thing ofwhich I can be certain–and it is this:That America and the Philippines willbe found on the same side, andAmerican and Filipino soldiers willagain fight side by side in the sametrenches or in the air or at sea in thedefense of justice, freedom and otherprinciples which we both loved andcherished.” (May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948)He was inaugurated on July4, 1946, the day the U.S. Nacionalista (1919–1945)government granted political Liberal Party (1945–1948)independence to its colony.
Biography Achievements• was born in Capiz (now Roxas City) • greatest achievements, namely: the ratification of the Bell Trade Act; the• studied law at UP and graduated with inclusion of the Parity Amendment in honors in 1913. the Constitution; and the signing of the• he topped the Bar examinations in 1947 Military Bases Agreement 1913, • Rehabilitation and reconstruction of• was employed as private secretary to war-ravanged Philippines Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano • Improvement of the ruined economy• taught law in 1915-1916. • Adopted the pro-American policy.• started in politics when appointed as a member of the Capiz municipal council. Problems• In 1919, he was elected as governor of •Graft and corruption in the government, as Capiz.• elected as congressman in 1922 and evidenced by the ―Surplus of War Property became House Speaker Scandal‖, ―Chinese Immigration Quota• 1935, he was chosen as a delegate to Scandal‖, ―School Supplies Scandal: the Constitutional Convention. •Failure to check the Communist HUK• Serve also as Secretary of Finance under Quezon’s Administration movement.• elected as a senator in 1941 and eventually became Senate President• he was also a reserve Major in the Philippine Army, a liaison officer and aide-to-camp to General Douglas MacArthur, then later promoted to Colonel and then Brigadier General.
Elpidio Rivera QuirinoSixth PresidentSecond President of the Third Republic1948 - 1953“While I recognise the United States as agreat builder in this country, I have neversurrendered the sovereignty, much less thedignity and future of our country.” — Elpidio Quirino[ Significant Event •Two Asian heads of state visited Philippines– President Chiang Kai-shek of Nationalist China (Formosa) in July 1949 and President Achmed Sukarno of Indonesia in January 1951. •On May 26-30, 1950, upon Quirinos invitation seven free Asian nations held the Baguio Conference of 1950 to discuss common problems (November 16, 1890 – February of Asian peace and security. 29, 1956) •Korean War and over 7,450 Filipino soldiers were sent to Korea under the designation of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK
Early life and career Early Political Career• born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur to Don •elected as member of the Philippine House Mariano Quirino of Caoayan and Dona of Representatives from 1919 to 1925, Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Aringay •Senator from 1925 to 1931• spent his early years in Aringay, La •Secretary of Finance and Secretary of the Union. Interior in the Commonwealth government.• spent his elementary education to his •In 1934, a member of the Philippine native, Caoayan, Ilocos Sur and were Independence mission to Washington he became a barrio teacher. D.C., headed by Manuel L. Quezon that• He received secondary education at secured the passage in the United States Vigan High School Congress of the Tydings-McDuffie Act.• worked as junior computer in the •After the war, Quirino continued public Bureau of Lands and as property clerk service, becoming president pro tempore of in the Manila police department. the Senate.• graduated from Manila High School in •In 1946, he was elected first vice president 1911 and also passed the civil service of the independent Republic of the examination, first-grade. Philippines, serving under Manuel Roxas.• attended the University of the He also served as secretary of state. Philippines. In 1915, he earned his law degree from the universitys College of Law, and was admitted to the bar later that year.• engaged in the private practice of law
ProblemsTwo main objectives of his •Lack of Fundsadministration: •HUK Problem: Terrorism and Disruption of Peace•the economic reconstruction of and order. •Graft and corruption in his government, asthe nation revealed in theTambobong-Buenavista scandal, the•the restoration of the faith and Import Control Anomalies, the Caledonia Pile Messconfidence of the people in the and the Textbook Racket; •Wasteful spending of the peoples money ingovernment. extravagant junkets abroad; •Creation of PACSA: •Failure of government to check the Huk menace President’s Action which made travel in the provinces unsafe, as Committee on Social evidenced by the killing of former First Lady Aurora Quezon and her companions on April 21, 1949 by Amelioration the Huks on the Bongabong-Baler •Creation of ACCFA: road, Baler, Tayabas (no part of Aurora province). Agricultural Credit •Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising unemployment rate, soaring prices of Cooperatives Financing commodities, and unfavorable balance of trade. Administration Quirinos vaunted "Total Economic Mobilization •Excellence in Foreign Policy" failed to give economic relief to the suffering Relations. nation. •Frauds and terrorism committed by the Liberal Party moguls in the 1947, 1949 and 1951 elections.
Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay Seventh President Third President of the Third Republic 1953 - 1957 ―The office of the President is the highest in the land. It can be the humblest also, if we regard it — as we must — in the light of basic democratic principles. The first of these principles is the declaration of the Constitution that "sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them." This simply means that all of us in public office are but servants of the people.‖He is known as president of the masses. (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957) He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. During his term, he made Malacañáng Palace literally a "house of the people", opening its He was killed in a plane crash before the end of his term. gates to the public.
Early life Achievements• born in Iba, Zambales on August •Agrarian Reform 31, 1907 to Exequiel established the National Resettlement and Magsaysay, a blacksmith, and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to Perfecta del Fierro, a resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It schoolteacher. was particularly aimed at rebel returnees• He entered the University of the Philippines in 1927. providing home lots and farmlands in• He worked as a chauffeur to Palawan and Mindanao. support himself as he studied •Savior of democracy in the Philippines engineering; later •Man of the Masses• transferred to the Institute of •Stopped the HUK communist rebellion Commerce at Jose Rizal College •Improved the conditions of the barrios (1928-1932), where he received a baccalaureate in commerce. •Constructed roads, bridges, irrigation canals• He then worked as automobile •Established the SEATO: Southeast Asia mechanic and shop superintendent. Treaty Organization• he joined the motor pool of the •Imposed high moral standard for public 31st Infantry Division of the officials Philippine army during WW2.• Congressman under Pres Roxas’ Administration and serve as Chairman of the House National Problems Defense Committee •Impending projects• Secretary of National Defense •Lack of enough funds during Pres Quirino’s Administration •Graft and corruption
Carlos Polistico Garcia Eight President Fourth President of the Third Republic 1957 - 1961 ―As a people, we prize highly the moral and spiritual values of life. But the realities of the moment have made us more preoccupied with economic problems chiefly concerning the material values of national life.‖known for his "Filipino First"policy, which put the interests of theFilipino people above those offoreigners and of the ruling party. (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, and guerrilla leader.
Early Life Significant events in their term:• born in Talibon, Bohol to Policronio García • He assumed the presidency the day after and Ambrosia Polestico Ramon Magsaysays death. After Garcia• his father serving as a municipal mayor for finished Magsaysays term, he was elected four terms. president in his own right.• primary education in Talibon, • President Garcia is most remembered most• secondary education in Cebu Provincial for his Austerity Program and Filipino First High School. Policy. His Austerity Program was aimed at curbing graft and corruption within the• took law courses at Silliman University in government. Dumaguete City. • Problems during his Presidency:• studied in Philippine Law School (now • Although it was not very successful, it did Philippine College of Criminology) and help to restore trust between the people and earned his degree in 1923. He was among the government. the top ten in the bar examination.• he worked as a teacher for two years at • He was among the founders of the Bohol Provincial High School. Association for Southeast Asia (1963)• became famous for his poetry in Bohol, • He was the precursor of the Association for where he earned the nickname "Prince of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".• 1925-1931 as Congressman of Third District of Bohol• 1931-1946 governor of Bohol. He served as provincial governor for two terms.• He became a member of the congress in 1946, and was elected three times to the senate for three consecutive terms from 1941 to 1953.• Garcia was the running mate of Ramon Magsaysay in the presidential election of 1953.• He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramon Magsaysay, for four years concurrently serving as vice- president.
Successes of each President after their term: Problems• The Filipino First Policy put the rights •Graft and corruption of Filipinos above those of foreigners •Lack of treasury funds (This favored the Filipino businessmen •Huge national debt in contrast to foreign investors. This •Impending projects meant, foreigners could invest capital up to 40% in a business or industry while the remaining 60% would be owned by Filipino citizens.)• Garcias policies aimed at boosting the Garcia ran for president again in the economy and obtaining greater 1961 elections but lost to Vice-President economic independence. Garcia also Diosdado Macapagal. On June aimed at reviving old Filipino cultural 1, 1971, Garcia was elected delegate of traditions which might have become the 1971 Constitutional Convention and extinct as the result of the adoption of Spanish and American cultures chosen as president. He died two weeks through colonization. later from a heart attack.
Diosdado Pangan MacapagalNinth PresidentFifth President of the Third Republic1961 - 1965 ―Our first mission is the solution of the problem of corruption. We assume leadership at a time when our nation is in the throes of a moral degeneration unprecedented in our national history.‖"Poor boy from Lubao" "The Incorruptible" Diosdado Macapagal is of royal blood due to (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) descent from their great-great-grandfather: Don Juan Macapagal (A prince of Tondo) who was a great-grandson of the last reigning Rajah of Selurong, Rajah Lakandula.
Early Life Political Career• born on September 28, 1910 in •legal assistant to President Manuel L. Quezon and Lubao, Pampanga President Jose P. Laurel in Malacañang Palace.• graduating valedictorian at Lubao Elementary School, and salutatorian •After the war, Macapagal worked as an assistant at Pampanga High School. attorney with the one of the largest law firms in the• He finished his pre-law course at the country, Ross, Lawrence, Selph and Carrascoso. University of the Philippines, then •President Manuel Roxas appointed him to the enrolled at Philippine Law School in Department of Foreign Affairs as the head of its legal 1932, studying on a scholarship and supporting himself with a part-time division. job as an accountant. •In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino appointed• topping the 1936 bar examination Macapagal as chief negotiator in the successful transfer with a score of 89.95% of the Turtle Islands in the Sulu Sea from the United• After passing the bar Kingdom to the Philippines. examination, Macapagal was invited •That same year, he was assigned as second secretary to join an American law firm as a practicing attourney, a particular to the Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C. In honor for a Filipino at the time.[ 1949, he was elevated to the position of Counselor on• Master of Laws degree in 1941, a Legal Affairs and Treaties, at the time the fourth highest Doctor of Civil Law degree in post in the Philippine Foreign Office. 1947, and a Ph.D. in Economics in •He first won election in 1949 to the House of 1957. Representatives,representing a district in his home province of Pampanga. •In 1957 he became vice president in the administration of President Carlos P. Garcia
Presidency Problems•During his term, Macapagal fought to suppress graft •Acute problem in unemploymentand corruption within the government and also taxevasion. •Widespread mass poverty•He also aimed to stimulate the economy and placed •Graft and corruption problemthe peso in the free currency-exchange •Lack of treasury fundsmarket, encouraging the wealthiest families to invest. a number his reforms were blocked•Macapagal also passed the Land Reform Bill whichfreed many farmers from slavery as tenant farmers. by the Nacionalista dominated Senate•Another of his achievements was the forming of and House of Representatives.Maphilindo (Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia)through a foreign policy. This paved the way for thecreation of the Association of Southeast AsianNations (ASEAN).•It was Macapagal who changed the IndependenceDay to June 12 from July 4.The first celebrationscommemorating independence from Spain were heldin 1962.•Among the most significant achievements ofMacapagal as president were the abolition of tenancyand accompanying land reform program in theAgricultural Land Reform Code of 1963.•In 1971, he was elected president of theconstitutional convention that drafted what becamethe 1973 constitution.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Tenth President Sixth President of the Third Republic 1965-1986―This nation can be great again. This I havesaid over and over. It is my articles offaith, and Divine Providence has willed thatyou and I can now translate this faith intodeeds.‖ in 1949, he said: ―Elect me your congressman now and I’ll give you an Ilokano President in 20 years.‖ •(September 11, 1917 – September 28,1989) It is generally known that Marcos had the most infrastructure and constitutional accomplishments, which were equivalent to those of all former presidents of the Philippines.
Early life and career Plans for economic development• born on September 11, 1917, in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte and good government/• named after Ferdinand VII of Achievements Spain and baptized into the Philippine Independent Church. First term (1965-1969)• a champion debater at the UP;also •immediate construction of roads, bridges and participated in boxing, swimming public works, which included 16,000 kilometers of and wrestling. feeder roads, some 30,000 lineal meters of• 1939-cum laude with a law degree permanent bridges, from the U.P. College of Law; was •a generator with an electric power capacity of elected to the Pi Gamma Mu international honor society. one million kilowatts (1,000,000 kW),• passed the bar examination with •water services to eight regions and 38 localities. one of the highest scores in • revitalization of the judiciary, the national history, while also writing an 800- defense posture and the fight against page defense. smuggling, criminality, and graft and corruption in• 1941-serve as part of military the government. against Japanese and became one of the victim of Bataan Death •mobilized the manpower and resources of the March Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for action to complement civilian agencies •hired technocrats and highly educated persons Early political career to form part of the cabinet and •Congressman for 3 terms •It was during his first term that the North •Senator; served as minority floor leader Diversion Road (now, North Luzon Expressway) before gaining the Senate presidency. was constructed with the help of the AFP •established a record for having engineering construction battalion. introduced a number of significant •Vietnam War; over 10,450 Filipino soldiers were bills, many of which found their way into sent to South Vietnam under the designation of the republics statute books PHLCAAG or Philippines Civil Affairs Assistance Group.
Second Term 1969-1972• reelected because of his impressive performance• In 1969, the Philippines experienced higher inflation rate and devaluation of the Philippine peso.• the oil-producing Arab countries decided to cut back oil production, in response to Western military aid to Israel in the Arab-Israeli conflict, resulting in higher fuel prices worldwide.• The communal violence in Mindanao resulted in 100,000 refugees, burning of hundred of homes, and the death of hundreds of Christians and Muslims in Cotabato and Lanao.• an economic crisis brought by external and internal forces, a restive and radicalized studentry demanding reforms in the educational system, a rising tide of criminality, subversion by the re- organized Communist movement, and secession in the south.• On August 21, 1971, following the bombing of the Liberal Party proclamation rally in Plaza Miranda, President Marcos issued Proclamation No.889 suspending the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. Martial law and the New Society “It is easier perhaps and more comfortable to look back to the solace of a familiar and mediocre past. But the times are too grave and the stakes too high for us to permit the customary concessions to traditional democratic processes.” — Ferdinand Marcos, January 1973 •Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972, by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists •constitutional convention in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution.The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973.
Third Term (1981-1986) Downfall “Fourth Republic” • rampant corruption“We love your adherence to democratic principles and to • political mismanagement by his relatives the democratic process, and we will not leave you in and cronies isolation.” —U.S. VP George H. W. Bush • having looted billions of dollars from the during Ferdinand Marcos Filipino treasury inauguration, July 1981 • notorious nepotist, appointing family members and close friends to high positions• June 16, 1981, six months after the lifting of martial in his cabine law, the first presidential election in twelve years • The Philippine government today is still was held. As to be expected, President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other paying interests on more than US$28 billion candidates public debts incurred during his• In 1983, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at administration. the Manila International Airport upon his return to • Marcoss health deteriorated rapidly due to the Philippines after a long period of exile. This kidney ailments coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure • Marcos called a snap presidential election from the United States. for 1986, with more than a year left in his• The Philippine economy suffered a great decline term. after the Aquino assassination in August 1983. • the final tally of the National Movement for• The political troubles also hindered the entry of Free Elections, an accredited poll foreign investments, and foreign banks stopped watcher, showed Aquino winning by almost granting loans to the Philippine government.• the economy experienced negative economic 800,000 votes. However, the government growth beginning in 1984 and continued to decline tally showed Marcos winning by almost 1.6 despite the governments recovery efforts. million votes.• rampant graft and corruption within the government • Popular sentiment in Metro Manila sided and by Marcos lack of credibility. with Aquino, leading to a• Marcos himself diverted large sums of government massive, multisectoral congregation of money to his partys campaign funds. protesters, and the gradual defection of the• The unemployment rate ballooned from 6.30% in military to Aquino led by Marcos 1972 to 12.55% in 1985. cronies, Enrile and Ramos. • The "People Power movement" drove Marcos into exile, and installed Corazon Aquino as the new president.
VI. Energy Self-Reliance Indigenous energy sources were developed likeLegacy hydro, geothermal, dendrothermal, coal, biogas and biomass.I. Food sufficiency A. Green Revolution VII. Export Development Production of rice was increased through promoting the cultivation of IR-8 hybrid rice. During 1985 textile and textile products were exported B. Blue Revolution Marine species like prawn, mullet, milkfish, and VIII. Labor Reform golden tilapia were being produced and distributed The Labor code was promulgated which expanded the to farmers at a minimum cost. concerns of the Magna Carta of Labor to extend greater• C. Liberalized Credit More than one thousand rural banks spread all over protection to labor, promote employment, and human resource the country resulting to the accessibility of credit to development. finance purchase of agricultural inputs, hired labor, and harvesting expenses at very low interest IX. Unprecedented Infrastructure Growth rate. The country’s road network had improved from 55,778• D. Decontrol Program Price control polices were implemented on rice and kilometers in 1965 to 77,950 in five years (1970), and eventually corn to provide greater incentive to farmers to reached 161,000 kilometers in 1985. produce more.II. Education Reform X. Political Reform The literacy rate climbed from 72% in 1965 to 93% The structure of government established by President Marcos in 1985 and almost 100% in Metro Manila on the same year. remains substantially the same except the change of name, inclusive of superficial features in laws, to give a semblance of change from that of President Marcos regime.III. Agrarian Reform Tenant’s Emancipation Act of 1972 or PD 27 was XI. Fiscal Reform the first Land Reform Code of our country. Government finances were stabilized by higher revenue collections and loans from treasury bonds, foreign lendingIV. Primary Health Care The Primary Health Care (PHC) Program made institutions and foreign governments. medical care accessible to millions of Filipinos in the remotest barrios of the country. XII. Peace and OrderV. Housing for the masses In 1966, more than 100 important smugglers were arrested; in Bagong Lipunan Improvement of Sites and Services three years 1966-68 they arrested a total of 5,000. Military men (BLISS) Housing project had expanded the involved in smuggling were forced to retire. Peace and order government’s housing program for the low-income significantly improved in most provinces however situations in group. Manila and some provinces continued to deteriorate until the imposition of martial law in 1972.
Maria Corazon "Cory" SumulongCojuangco AquinoEleventh President of the PhilippinesFirst Female PresidentFirst President of Fifth Republic1986-1992First elected female head of state in Asia Best remembered for leading the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, which toppled the authoritarian regime of the late strongman Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines “Icon of Democracy” (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009)
EDUCATIONElementary and Secondary • St. Scholasticas College •born on January 25, 1933 to Jose Cojuangco of • Ravenhill Academy in Tarlac, a wealthy Chinese Filipino and Demetria Philadelphia, United States Sumulong of Antipolo, Rizal, an ethnic Filipina who • Notre Dame Convent School in belongs to a politically influential clan New YorkCollege •Married to late Sen. Benigno ―Ninoy‖ Aquino • Bachelor of Arts, College of •The couple produced five offsprings, four girls and Mount Saint Vincent in New York one boy, namely: Maria Elena (Ballsy), Aurora (1953) Corazon(Pinky), Benigno Simeon III • Doctor of Humanities, honoris causa, College of Mount Saint (NoyNoy), Victoria Eliza (Viel) and Kristina Vincent, New York, Ateneo de Bernadette (Kris) Manila University, Xavier •Declared herself as a plain housewife University (Philippines) • Doctor of Humanities, honoris •Led the 1986 People Power Revolution causa, University of Boston, Fordham •Established Presidential Commission on Good University, Waseda University Government (PCGG) during her presidency (Tokyo), Far Eastern •issued Proclamation No. 3, which established a University, and University of Sto. revolutionary government Tomas • Honoris Causa, Stonehill College •Family Code of 1987, Administrative Code of 1987 (Massachusetts) (reorganized the structure of the executive branch of government ), 1991 Local Government Code •Economic Management and Agrarian Reform as her top agenda as president
• IMPORTANT NOTES IN HISTORY -Agreed to run for president against Marcos in the February 7, 1986 Snap Election after her supporters gathered a million signatures. -Installed as the President of the Republic of the Philippines on February 25, 1986 because of the historic Peoples Power which stripped Marcos of power. -Took oath under Supreme Court Justice Claudio Teehankee as President of the Philippines at Club Filipino. -Implemented a program of reconciliation and freed political prisoners like Bernabe Buscayno of the New Peoples Army and Jose Maria Sison of the Communist Party of the Philippines. -Retained the presidential form of government. -Under her reign,a national plebiscite was held to ratify the amendments to the 1935 Constitution on February 2, 1987, Named Woman of the Year by Time Magazine. -Awarded the Gawad Eleanor Roosevelt for Human Rights -Her popularity waned because of the people around her who wanted to exact vengeance on Marcos. -Six coup d etat aimed at overthrowing her government took place during her reign, the two bloodiest of which took place in 1987 and 1989. -The country went through great problems and calamities during her reign like the earthquake of, July 16, 1990; Typhoon Rufing and increase in the price of oil due to the Middle East War and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991.
• Awards and achievements Problems as President • 1986 Time Magazine Woman of the Year • 1986 Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Award•Natural disasters and calamities • 1986 United Nations Silver Medal • 1986 Canadian International Prize for Freedom•nine coup attempts against her • 1986 Nobel Peace Prize nomineeadministration • 1986 International Democracy Award from the International Association of Political Consultants • 1987 Prize For Freedom Award from Liberal•graft and corruption International • 1993 Special Peace Award from the Aurora Aragon•failure of the land reform Quezon Peace Awards Foundation and Concerned Women of the Philippines•rising prices • 1994 One of 100 Women Who Shaped World History (by G.M. Rolka, Bluewood Books, San Francisco, CA)•inadequate essential public service • 1995 Path to Peace Award • 1996 J. William Fulbright Prize for International•economic decline Understanding from the U.S. Department of State • 1998 Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding • 1998 Pearl S. Buck Award • 1999 One of Time Magazines 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th Century • 2001 World Citizenship Award • 2005 David Rockefeller Bridging Leadership Awards • 2005 One of the Worlds Elite Women Who Make a Difference by the International Womens Forum Hall of Fame • 2006 One of Time Magazines 65 Asian Heroes • 2008 One of A Different Views 15 Champions of World Democracy • EWC Asia Pacific Community Building Award • Womens International Center International Leadership Living Legacy Award • Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize • United Nations Development Fund for Women Noel Award for Political Leadership
Fidel Valdez RamosTwelfth PresidentThird President of the Fifth Republic―There are no easy tasks, no softcomforts for those chosen bycircumstances to forge from thecrucible of crisis the national destiny.‖ Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program:•Peace and Stability•Economic Growth and Sustainable Development•Energy and Power Generation•Environmental Protection•Streamlined Bureaucracy First Protestant President of the country Only Filipino officer in history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief
Early Life•born March 18, 1928 in Lingayen, Pangasinan •instrumental in founding the Philippine Army Special Forces, an elite paratroop unit skilled• He took his elementary education in Lingayen and in community development as well as fightingsecondary education at the University of the Philippines communist insurgents.Integrated School and Centro Escolar UniversityIntegrated School •served the Marcos regime for more than 20 years. He was head of the Philippine•Philippine Military Academy as cadet and won a Constabulary, the countrys national policegovernment scholarship to the United States Military force, and was one of Marcos trustedAcademy in West Point advisers, for which he was known as a• Masters Degree in Civil Engineering in the University of member of the Rolex 12, an elite group ofIllinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he was a loyal to Marcos himselfgovernment scholar in 1951 •Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the• licensed civil engineer in the Philippines, passing the Philippines, and later Secretary of Nationalboard exams in 1953 and finishing in the top 10. Defense under Pres. Aquino•In 1960, he topped Special Forces-Psy Operations-Airborne course at the United States Army InfantrySchool at Fort Bragg, North Carolina•Masters Degree in National Security Administrationfrom the National Defense College of the Philippines anda Masters in Business Administration (MBA) from theAteneo de Manila University•2nd Lieutenant infantry platoon leader in the PhilippineExpeditionary Forces to Korea (PEFTOK) in 1952 duringthe Korean War to Chief of Staff of the Philippine CivilAction Group to Vietnam from 1966 to 1968
ProgramsPower crisis- Ramos issued licenses to independent power producers (IPP) to construct power plantswithin 24 monthsEconomic reforms- (E-VAT law) from 4% to 10% mandated by World Bank and the InternationalMonetary Fund; Philippines 2000Death penalty- In 1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital punishment with the electric chairPeace with separatists- he signed into law Republic Act 7636, which repealed the Anti-Subversion Law.With its repeal, membership in the once-outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines became legalSpratly Islands- starting to claim the Islands from ChinaMigrant Workers Protection- enactment of Republic Act 8042, better known as the Magna Carta forOverseas Workers or the Migrant Workers Act Achievements Problems•Philippine 2000 • Graft and Corruption problems•Southern Philippines Council for Peace • Economic Problemsand Development • High crime rate • Charter change•ARMM • Clark Centennial Expo•Peace Agreement with the MNLF Scandal • PEA-Amari Scandal•Increased foreign investments • Power crisis•APEC • Spratly Islands • Asian Financial Crisis
Joseph Ejercito Estrada Thirteenth President Third President of Fifth Republic 1998-2001“One hundred years after Kawit, fifty years afterindependence, twelve years after EDSA, andseven years after the rejection of foreign bases, itis now the turn of the masses to experienceliberation. We stand in the shadow of those whofought to make us free- free from foreigndomination, free from domestic tyranny, free fromsuperpower dictation, free from economicbackwardness.”Gained popularity as a film actor, playingthe lead role in over 100 films in an actingcareer spanning 33 years
Early Life •entered politics in 1967 when he ran for mayor of San Juan, a municipality of Metro•Joseph Marcelo Ejercito, popularly Manila but proclaimed mayor in 1969, afterknown as Erap, was born on April winning an electoral protest against Dr.19, 1937 in Tondo, the poorest district Braulio Sto. Domingo.of Manila •Senator; chairman of the senate committee•Ateneo de Manila University- high on cultural minorities and passed a bill onschool;expeled because of unruly commission on ancestral domain.behavior •sponsored bills that were signed into•Mapúa Institute of Technology; law, namely, The Preservation of the Carabaoengineering course, but dropped out (Republic Act no. 7307)The Construction offrom studies altogether two years Irrigation Projects (Republic Act no. 6978)later. •Vice-President; chairman of the Presidential•Began in Film at 20 years of age Anti-Crime Commission (PACC). Estrada arrested criminal warlords and kidnapping•first FAMAS Hall of Fame awardee syndicates.for Best Actor (1981)•Hall of Fame award-winner as aproducer (1983)
Programs AchievementsDomestic Policies•Agrarian Reform The administration distributed more than 266,000 hectares of ―Erap para sa Mahirap Project‖land to 175,000 landless farmers, including land owned by the traditionalrural elite. (Total of 523,000 hectares to 305,000 farmers during his 2nd yearas President)•Anti-Crime Task Forces Executive Order No.8;creation of the Presidential Anti-Organized Crime Task Force (PAOCTF) with the objective of minimizing, if Problemsnot totally eradicating, car theft and worsening kidnapping cases in thecountry •The Philippine Daily Inquirer;•Charter Change bias, malice and fabrication" against CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development;would only amend the restrictive economic provisions of the himconstitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreigninvestments in the Philippines. •The Manila Times; libel suit against•International Relations the countrys oldest newspaper the strengthened bilateral ties with neighboring countries; Visiting Manila Times over a story that allegedForces Agreement with the United States, which was ratified in the Senate•Economy corruption in the awarding of a public The Estrada administration is said to have a strong economic works project team •BW Resources; BW Resources a•War against the MILF In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic small gaming company listed on theLiberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps Philippine Stock Exchange and linked to people close to Estrada experienced "a meteoric rise" •Corruption charges and impeachment; allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from power after the trial was aborted.
Maria Gloria Macapagal – ArroyoFourteenth PresidentFourth President of the Fifth RepublicSecond Female President2001- Present―I believe in leadership by example. Weshould promote solid traits such as workethic and a dignified lifestyle, matchingaction to rhetoric, performing rather thangrandstanding.‖
Biography As Senator • Born on April 5, 1947; Daughter of former Pres. Diosdado Macapagal and Eva •Ranked as 13th and has 3 year term, 1992 Macaraeg • Valedictorian, Elementary and Highschool at •Top in the election, 1995 Assumption Convent, 1964 • Magna Cum Laude, BA Economics at •400 bills, 55 sponsored or authored laws ( Anti- Assumption College, 1968 sexual harrasment Law, the Indigenous People’s • Consistent Dean’s List, Georgetown Univ.’s Rights Law, Export Dev’t Act Walsh School of Foreighn Svc in Washington D.C. (Former US Pres Bill Clinton as classmate) As Vice President • Professor of Economics 1977-1987 • Master’s Degree in Economics ADMU 1978 •Run under Lakas CMD with Jose de Venecia • Doctorate Degree in Economics UP 1985 •Sen Edgardo angara as opponent • Chairperson of Economics Dep’t. at Assumption College •1st Female Vice President • 1987, Asst. Sec of DTI •Sec of DSWD (resigned in 2000 because of allegation against Pres. EstradaPresident, 1st Term 2001-2004 •Became President through EDSA 2―Strong Republic‖ •Sworn as President by Chief Justice Hilario -strong bureaucracy Davide Jr. -lowering crime rates •International community expressed that Arroyo -increasing tax collection with the church and business elites were an opportunist of post and planned well the coup -improving economic growth •May 1, 2001 EDSA 3 against arroyo -intensifying counter-terrorism efforts administration; Manila was declared in State of Rebellion
Oakwood Mutiny 2nd Term, 2004-Present•July 27, 2003 •Dec 2002- Arroyo announced that she will not run for Pres in 2004 Election but 10 months after she•Led by Lt. Antonio Trillanes reversed her decision.IV, Army Capt. Gerardo •2004 Presidential Election- FPJ, Ping Lacson, RaulGambala of the Phil. Navy Roco and Eddie Villanueva as her opponent•Arroyo Administration was •Issues as President after 2004 Electiongoing to proclaim Martial •―Hello Garci Tape‖Law and issue of corruption •State of Emergency under Proclamation No. 1017 •Manila Peninsula Rebellion •NBN ZTE Deal •-32 Satisfaction rate as of 1st quarter of 2009, lowest rate among the presidents •Impeachment complaints •Extra-judicial killings
President Gloria Macapagal-ArroyosPrograms 10-point Agenda•Economy- 5% GDP, highest percentage than 3 1. The creation of six million jobs in six years via more opportunities given to entrepreneurs, tripling of theprevious administartion amount of loans for lending to small and medium•EVAT- economic reform agenda, Nov 2005 enterprises and the development of one to two million hectares of land for agricultural business.•International Relations 2. The construction of new buildings, classrooms, provision •Philippine as No.1 ally of USA of desks and chairs and books for students and scholarships to poor families, •Foreign Policy is anchored on building 3. The balancing of the budget, strong ties with nations where OFW work and live 4. The "decentralization" of progress around the nation through the use of transportation networks like the roll- •RP as host of 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu on, roll-off and the digital infrastructure, City 5. The provision of electricity and water supply to barangays nationwide,•Domestic Relations 6. The decongestion of Metro Manila by forming new cores •Charter Change-federal parliamentary- of government and housing centers in Luzon, Visayas unicameral form of government and Mindanao, 7. The development of Clark and Subic as the best •EO 464- forbidding gov’t officials w/0 Arroyo’s international service and logistic centers in the region, consent in congressional inquiries 8. The automation of the electoral process •Estrada pardon last Oct 25, 2007 9. A just end to the peace process, and 10. A fair closure to the divisiveness among the Edsa 1, 2 and 3 forces.
Awards / Commendations /Citations:Magazine, Public EyeMagazine, Trade Union Congress ofthe Philippines, and by Emil Jurado(Manila Standard Columnist)Woman of the Year, CatholicEducation Association of thePhilippinesUlirang Ina, Ulirang Ina AwardsCommittee, 13 May 2001One of Asia’s Most PowerfulWomen, AsiaweekMaking a Difference for Women –Women of DistinctionAward, Soroptimist International of thePhilippines Region, 30 May 2003Most Distinguished Alumna, Universityof the Philippines Alumni Association(UPAA), 16 June 2001
BENIGNO AQUINO III 2010-2016 PILIPINAS NATIN• a campaign that seeks to harness the spirit of People Power to boost the partnership between government and the Filipino people toward progress and development.
AQUINOMICS“economics of business confidence” aims to create an environment that will give the privatesector confidence to put in their money, generatejobs, accelerate economic growth and sustain it. FOUR PILLARS 1. Fiscal sustainability and macroeconomic stability 2. Private and Public Partnership ( PPP ) 3. Ease in doing business, for both local and foreign investors 4. Investment in people – giving Filipinos health care, education and the skills necessary to become “productive participants in the economy
Compiled byGLENDA R. PEREYForHISN01G – Philippine HistoryABC 1027:00-8:30 AM/MThJ418
Sources• Halili, Maria Christine N. (2010). Philippine History. Second Edition. Manila: Rex Book Store.• Zaide, Gregorio F. and Sonia M. Zaide. (2004). Philippine History and Government. Quezon City: All Nations Publishing Co., Inc.• http://www.slideshare.net