Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
The Enlightenment And Revolution
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Enlightenment And Revolution

7,335

Published on

A slideshow for Mr. Lehr's classes over the Enlightenment. It includes basic ideas for Locke, Hobbes and a variety of enlightened thinkers.

A slideshow for Mr. Lehr's classes over the Enlightenment. It includes basic ideas for Locke, Hobbes and a variety of enlightened thinkers.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
7,335
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
257
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • One of the main points of The Wealth of Nations is that the free market, while appearing chaotic and unrestrained, is actually guided to produce the right amount and variety of goods by a so-called " invisible hand " (an image that Smith had previously employed in Theory of Moral Sentiments, but which has its original use in his essay, "The History of Astronomy"). If a product shortage occurs, for instance, its price rises, creating a profit margin that creates an incentive for others to enter production, eventually curing the shortage. If too many producers enter the market, the increased competition among manufacturers and increased supply would lower the price of the product to its production cost, the " natural price ". Even as profits are zeroed out at the "natural price," there would be incentives to produce goods and services, as all costs of production, including compensation for the owner's labour, are also built into the price of the goods. If prices dip below a zero profit, producers would drop out of the market; if they were above a zero profit, producers would enter the market. Smith believed that while human motives are often selfishness and greed , the competition in the free market would tend to benefit society as a whole by keeping prices low, while still building in an incentive for a wide variety of goods and services. Nevertheless, he was wary of businessmen and argued against the formation of monopolies .
  •   Few, if any chemists have discovered more new simple substances than Scheele.  He is credited with: � the discovery of oxygen, chlorine (which he called dephlogisticated marine acid), hydrogen fluoride, silicon fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide. � isolating and characterizing for the first time glycerol, tartaric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, uric acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, oxalic acid, lactose, Prussic acid, arsenic acid, molybdic acid, tungstic acid, copper arsenite (called "Scheele's green") �  First to report the action of light on silver salts (which became the basis of modern photography)
  • Besides the first good description of the sphenoid bone , he showed that the sternum consists of three portions and the sacrum of five or six; and described accurately the vestibule in the interior of the temporal bone. He not only verified the observation of Etienne on the valves of the hepatic veins, but he described the vena azygos , and discovered the canal which passes in the fetus between the umbilical vein and the vena cava, since named ductus venosus . He described the omentum , and its connections with the stomach, the spleen and the colon ; gave the first correct views of the structure of the pylorus ; observed the small size of the caecal appendix in man; gave the first good account of the mediastinum and pleura and the fullest description of the anatomy of the brain yet advanced. He did not understand the inferior recesses; and his account of the nerves is confused by regarding the optic as the first pair, the third as the fifth and the fifth as the seventh.
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • - In reality, Monesquieu had misunderstood the British gov’t but it still worked out
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Enlightenment and Revolution Big Idea: Think, Think, Think
    • 2. The Enlightenment is like _________ <ul><li>because _____________ </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 3. Enlightenment Basics <ul><li>Who: Europe (including Russia) </li></ul><ul><li>What: Age of reason, believed that reason could answer every question </li></ul><ul><li>When: Approximately 1600 – 1800 </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 4. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>People were cruel, greedy and selfish </li></ul><ul><li>If people weren’t controlled there would be chaos </li></ul><ul><li>People gave up some control to live in an organized society (social contract) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 5. John Locke <ul><li>Natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>People were reasonable and moral </li></ul><ul><li>People had natural rights or rights that belonged to all humans from birth (life, liberty and property) </li></ul><ul><li>People formed gov’ts to protect their natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>If a gov’t doesn’t do their job, the people can overthrow it </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 6. Voltaire <ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted corrupt officials </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked the French gov’t and the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Was imprisoned and forced into exile </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do not agree with a word that you say, he supposedly declared, “but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 7. Baron de Montesquieu <ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Admired the British gov’t for separating gov’t into three separate branches (legislative, executive and judicial) </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that each branch should be a check on each other </li></ul><ul><li>Is this influential? </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 8. Cesare Beccaria <ul><li>Crime and </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that using torture was useless and evil </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment should be used to prevent crime rather than be used as an act of vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>The punishment should fit the crime </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent until proven guilty </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 9. Rene Descartes <ul><li>Everything needs to be proved using reason </li></ul><ul><li>Developed analytical geometry (algebra & geometry combined) </li></ul><ul><li>Helped design the scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think therefore I am” because he knew one thing – he existed. </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 10. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Telescope and the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Assembled an astronomical telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Saw mountains on the moon, sunspots </li></ul><ul><li>Saw four moons moving around Jupiter, just like the earth and the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Was condemned and threatened with death unless he said his information was false </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 11. Jean Jacques Rousseau <ul><li>Theory of Natural Man </li></ul><ul><li>Social Contract Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Man was born neither good nor evil but is corrupted by society </li></ul><ul><li>Society is more important than its individual members </li></ul><ul><li>Each person could maintain personal freedom while being a loyal member of society </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 12. Mary Wollstonecraft <ul><li>Women’s Rights </li></ul><ul><li>During this time, women were treated poorly </li></ul><ul><li>Denying women an education would hurt humanity </li></ul><ul><li>If women were to stay in housekeeping mode then they would be nothing but slaves </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 13. Copernicus <ul><li>Heliocentric Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Theory that the earth rotates around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>The theory is the starting point for modern astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the way people looked at the world and galaxy </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 14. Adam Smith <ul><li>Laissez-faire economics </li></ul><ul><li>Limited gov’t role in the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Said the state should provide schools, armies, navies and roads </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible hand economics </li></ul><ul><li>(supply and demand) </li></ul><ul><li>(shortages and surpluses) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 15. Carl Scheele <ul><li>Oxygen is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered the chemical oxygen, chlorine, and many other chemical compounds </li></ul><ul><li>First to observe the action of light on silver salts (basis for modern photography) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 16. Andreas Vesalius <ul><li>Father of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of modern human anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the use of human dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered many new things about the human body </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 17. Francis Bacon <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>His works established the Baconian method or the Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of arguing about something, use experimentation to find the answer </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 18. Thomas Paine <ul><li>Have some Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Common Sense , a pamphlet that promoted American independence from Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Also helped influence the French Revolution </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 19. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Motion and Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Three laws of motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The inventor of calculus </li></ul><ul><li>Removed the doubt from the Heliocentric Theory </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 20. Philosophes <ul><li>Thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>This group originated in France </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes means “lovers of wisdom” </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes included Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot ( Encyclopedia helped spread Enlightenment ideals) </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 21. Salons <ul><li>Let’s Party </li></ul><ul><li>Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers and others exchanged ideas </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1700’s the salon became a meeting for both middle-class and the nobility </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 22. Enlightened Despotism <ul><li>“ Enlighten” the ruling classes </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes tried to convince European rulers to adopt their ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Some monarchs did accept these ideas </li></ul><ul><li>They became enlightened despots, or absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 23. Bingo <ul><li>Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel, Greedy and Selfish </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrow the government </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 24. <ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu </li></ul><ul><li>Beccaria </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think therefore I am” </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Natural Man </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric Theory </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 25. <ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Scheele </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Motion and gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Salons </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened Despotism </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
    • 26. <ul><li>American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul>Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com

    ×