Explanation – Accurate Interpretation – Application – Effective Points Possible
- Why is that so? Meaningful - How and where can we
- What explains such events? - What does it mean? use this knowledge,
- How does this work? - Why does it matter?
- What makes sense?
skill, or process?
- How should my
thinking and action be
modified to meet this
Sophisticated: a thorough, Profound: a powerful and Masterful: fluent,
elegant, and inventive illuminating interpretation flexible, and efficient;
account (model, theory, or and analysis of the able to use knowledge
explanation); fully importance /meaning/ and skill and adjust
supported, verified, and significance; tells a rich understandings well in
justified; deep and broad: and insightful story: novel, diverse, and
goes well beyond the provides a rich history or difficult contexts.
information given. context
In-depth: going beyond Revealing: a nuanced Skilled: competent in
what is obvious or what was interpretation and using knowledge and
explicitly taught; makes analysis of the skill and adapting
subtle connections; well importance/ meaning/ understandings in a
supported by argument and significance: tells an variety of appropriate
evidence; novel thinking insightful story; provides and demanding contexts.
displayed. a telling history or con
Developed: the student is Perceptive: a helpful Able: able to perform
making the work his/her interpretation or analysis well with knowledge and
own, going beyond the given of the importance/ skill in a few key
—there is supported theory meaning/ significance; contexts, with a limited
here, but insufficient or tells a clear and repertoire, flexibility, or
inadequate evidence and instructive story adaptability to diverse
Intuitive: an incomplete Interpreted: a plausible Apprentice: relies on a
account; extends and interpretation or analysis limited repertoire of
deepens some of what was of the importance/ routines; able to perform
learned; some "reading meaning/ significance; well in familiar or
between the lines"; account makes sense of a story simple contexts; limited
has limited support/ use of personal judgment
argument/data or sweeping and responsiveness to
generalizations. There is a specifics of
theory, but one with limited feedback/situation.
testing and evidence.
Naive: a superficial account; Literal: a simplistic or Novice: can perform
sketchy account of superficial reading; only with coaching or
facts/ideas or glib mechanical translation; a relies on highly scripted,
generalizations; a black-and- decoding with little or no singular "plug-in"
white account less a theory interpretation; no sense of (algorithmic and
than an unexamined hunch wider importance or mechanical) skills,
or borrowed idea. significance; a procedures. or
restatement of what was approaches.
taught or read.
Wiggins, Grant, and McTighe. Understanding by Design. 1st. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1998.