The Renaissance
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The Renaissance

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Based on the Social 8 Alberta Curriculum

Based on the Social 8 Alberta Curriculum

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    The Renaissance The Renaissance Presentation Transcript

    • The Renaissance
      Unit Review
    • Introduction
      Worldview
    • Worldview
      A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or group
      The overall perspective from which one sees/interprets the world
      Worldview is not a point of view or perspective
    • 7 Worldview elements
      Values
      Society
      Beliefs
      Time
      Geography
      Knowledge
      Economy
    • Chapter 1
      Times of Change
    • Feudalism
      Social Structure: People were born into a level of society and were expected to stay in that role for the rest of their lives
      European society was organized by feudalism
      A hierarchy
      In a hierarchy people are ranked according to their societal importance
      Feudalism was based on land, loyalty and duty
    • Feudalism
      Crown
      Barons, Abbots
      and
      Bishops
      Knights
      Commoners
      (Peasants)
    • Feudalism
      The Crown (monarch) was in charge.
      Bishops had as much power as Barons.
      Nobles/Knights swore oaths of allegiance. They promised to fight for the king in exchange for manors or fiefs
      Bishops received their land from the King (Crown), and the Church became a large land owner in time.
      The Church was very important to medieval people
    • Peasants
      Most people in the Middle Ages were peasants who lived in rural villages on a manor
      Assigned strips of land to plant/harvest
      In exchange for use of the manor, peasants gave the lord a portion of their crops
      Were illiterate and uneducated
      Some were freemen, who rented land from the lord or worked for pay
      Most were serfs, who couldn’t leave the manor without the lord’s permission
    • Hierarchy of the Church
      The Pope
      Archbishops
      Bishops
      Priests
      Parishioners
    • The Church
      Religious men became monks; joined monasteries
      Religious women became nuns and joined convents
      Many members of religious orders died as a result of caring for victims of the Black Death
      Were well educated
      Some monasteries became learning centers
    • The black death #1
      Made some people reconsider their faith
      They believed that they had failed God
      People began having a more critical attitude towards the church.
      Critics said that it cared more about luxur-ious living than spiritual values
    • Threats to feudalism
      Peasants Revolts
      1337: War started between England and France (The Hundred Years’ War)
      Peasants revolted cuz of high rents/taxes they had to pay to finance the war
      The revolts were put down by the authorities but the cause of their revolt was unresolved
    • Threats to Feudalism
      The Black Death #2
      Millions of Europeans died
      Regular outbreaks continued for the next several hundred years
      Severe labour shortages on manors, feudal estates, and became bankrupt
      Nobles began to sell their land to serfs
      Renaissance: a “rebirth” of classical knowledge and writing; started in Italy
    • Important people
      Christine de Pisan: French poet, philosopher, historian. Wrote that women should be allowed to participate more in society
      Vasco da Gama: Portuguese explorer. Was the first person to sail directly from Europe to India.
      Francois 1: King of France. Supported the construction of buildings using Renaissance architecture
      Martin Luther: German religious thinker. Translated the Bible into German.
    • Important people
      Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish astronomer and mathematician (Sun center of universe)
      Leonardo da Vinci: architect, inventor, engineer, painter, musician
    • Chapter 2
      The Expansion of Trade
    • The Crusades
      Palestine was under Christian control for many years
      In the 7th Century, it was taken over by the Turks (later, Muslims)
      1095: Pope Urban 2 launched a Christian crusade to drive out the Muslims. Thousands walked across Europe to the Holy Land, but were taken out.
      Groups of knights set to do battle with the Turks
      The 1st Crusade created a Christian kingdom in the Middle East for 100 years
      The Muslims regained their land
    • City-states
      Most countries in Europe were kingdoms ruled by monarchs
      Italy was a collection of City-States
      City-State: a city that is politically independent, and the rural area around it
    • Italian City-state success
      1. Geography: Italy was the closest to the port cities of Northern Africa/Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Trading was easier)
      2. Climate: Italy’s climate was warmer than Northern European countries, so trade/travel could continue throughout the year, and had a long growing season.
      3. Leadership: In pre-modern Europe, most countries were monarchies. Northern Italy was a collection of independent city-states.(Had their own government, armies, and controlled their own affairs).
    • Italian city-state Success
      4. Social Organization: Feudalism did not have a strong hold in Italy – Nobles tended to move into towns, and took their place in urban society
      Merchants: purchased goods in one place
      and sold them for a profit in another.
    • Venice and Genoa
      Were important because:
      Venice was easily defended by invasion
      Became a good trading center as a result of its dealings with the East
      Had thousands of ships travelling through the Mediterranean Sea
      The Venice Arsenal was the largest ship building center in Europe
      Genoa controlled a share of the trade in the East Mediterranean and the Black Sea
      Controlled trade with Barcelona and Valencia
      Genoa and Venice were on equal terms for centuries
      The Genoese fleet was destroyed in a battle in Venice, 1380
      Genoa never regained its former power
    • Chapter 3
      The Humanist Approach
    • Humanism
      An era in the Renaissance where people began to look at ancient works in a different way.
      A result of intercultural contact with earlier civilizations.
      David!
    • Humanism and the individual
      Belief in dignity/potential of the individual
      People could shape their lives through efforts/talents
      Beings can use power of reason to find truth
      Important to be curious/open/questioning
      Can achieve things through learning
      One should be skilled in many different areas (Develop mind/body/spirit)
      Christian worldview: to develop one’s talents was to serve God, because He gave you those talents.
    • Civic humanists
      Believed that being a responsible citizen meant educating yourself about history/politics and working to improve society.
      Uffizi!
    • Humanist education
      “Never wasted time by loitering, but returned home after business and spent his time studying Greek or Latin” –Leonardo Bruni (in the eyes of a wealthy merchant)
      It was important to train children’s bodies/characters/minds (educating the whole child)
      Encouraged a curious/questioning attitude towards students
      Humanists were sometimes tutors for students
    • Humanism and religion
      Thinkers emphasized ideas/values like individual achievement/the importance of history and the arts
      Religion played an important role in their lives
      Duomo!
    • 5 elements of renaissance art
      Natural World
      Light/Shadow
      Texture/Pattern
      Realistic Details
      Elegance
      Sistine Chapel
    • Chapter 4
      The Exchange of Ideas
    • Scientific method
      Process of making observations, experimenting and drawing conclusions based on evidence
    • Important people
      Johannes Kepler: concluded that planets travelled in an elliptical orbit, not circles as Copernicus believed
      Galileo Galilei: confirmed Copernicus’ idea of a Sun-centered universe
    • Medicine
      Doctors had little knowledge of anatomy/disease
      Remedies based on astrology, superstition, etc, were common
      During the Renaissance medical knowledge grew
      Doctors/scientists began applying the scientific method
      Andreas Vesalius: dissected bodies while his students watched
    • Martin Luther
      A German monk
      Concluded that the Bible should be a Christian’s guide, not the Church
      1575: Luther nailed the 95 Theses, criticizing the selling of indulgences on the Church door in Wittenberg
    • The Protestant Reformation
      Luther’s Protestant translation of the Bible reached an unprecedented number of Germans
      A new Church was created (Lutheran Church)
      Luther’s ideas spread across Europe
      People who agreed with Luther were called Protestants – became known and the Protestant Reformation
      Protestants “protested” against the Church’s refusal to allow “reform”, and achieved a Reformation
    • Information was spread through:
      Universities:
      Early humanists taught at Italian universities
      Shared their ideas through discussions and through their writings
      Some humanists attracted students from all over Europe, and they went back to their home cities and shared their knowledge
    • Information was spread through:
      Travelling Celebrities:
      Famous Humanists were the celebrities of their time
      They were in demand all over Europe
      Trained younger people
      Engaged in discussions with scholars all over Europe
    • Information was spread through:
      Royal Courts:
      Kings/Queens wanted scholars in their courts
      Francois 1’s court became a center of learning
      He collected manuscripts, paintings and sculptures
    • The printing press
      1450: Johannes Gutenberg made the printing press
      Printers produced thousands of books in the time it had once taken to make one
      Cheaper because they were printed on paper instead of parchment
    • Chapter 5
      The Age of Exploration
    • definitions
      Islam: The religious faith of Muslims
      Christianity: Religion (Protestant, Orthodox, etc.)
      Circumnavigate: travel completely around something (circumnavigating the Earth)
      Expansionism: the actions and attitudes of a state/country whose goal is to expand its power and territory
    • The three m’s of exploration
      1. Mindset
      • Definition: a way of thinking that determines somebody’s behaviour/outlook
      • E.g.: personal accomplishment of finishing a race
      2. Motivation
      • Definition: the act that drives or gives incentive to do something
      • E.g.: A medal (race)
      • 3. Means
      • Definition: the equipment and resources that enable an action to be possible
    • Mindset
      The ocean was still a frightening place to some Renaissance people. So why were explorers determined to venture off into the unknown and possibly dangerous territory?
      Because of:
      • Curiosity/adventure
      • Role of the individual
      • Faith in the potential of human beings
      • European monarchs supported the voyages even though they might not succeed.
      • Increase in wealth, territory and power of acount
    • Motivation
      Economic factors that motivated exploration:
      • Demand – luxury goods and spices
      • Expand Gold Supply
      • Expand Christianity
      • Expanding the Known World
      • Expanding Navigational Technology
    • Motivation
      Europeans believed that a sea route to the East was the solution to their trade problem. A sea route would give them control over their supply of goods. And they hoped to get rice by bringing in spices and other trade goods on the European market.
      The trading economy depended on the exchange of goods and resources for money
      European mines were running out of gold and silver, and needed new sources of precious metals.
    • Religious factors that motivated exploration
      “Go into all the world, and proclaim the good news to the whole creator” – Mark, 16:15
      Renaissance explorers believed they were doing to work of the Lord
      Muslims who follow the Qur’an have five religious duties to uphold the “Five Pillars of Faith”. One of these pillars include: If possible, make a pilgrimage to the city of Mecca during one’s lifetime.
      Europeans wanted to ensure the spread of Christianity and prevent the spread of Islam.
    • means
      Despite European worldview to be open and curious of outside influences, their knowledge beyond their borders was very limited.
      Navigation: the science of determining the course, position and distance travelled by a ship
      It comes from the Latin words:
      • Navis: ship
      • Agere: to drive
    • What factor might motivate a society to venture into unknown regions beyond its borders?
      Power: explorers and the government of the country sponsoring the explorer would have more power if the quest resulted in a newly discovered country, ocean, etc, they would receive more power
      E.g.:
      Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand sponsored Columbus, but stated that any possible unknown oceans would be theirs
    • What elements of the worldview or Renaissance Europeans led to exploration and expansionism?
      The Renaissance belief of the potential of the individual lead people to explore (role of the individual, faith in the potential of human beings)
      Increase in wealth, territory and power of a country.
    • What are the similarities and differences between expanding Christianity and the five pillars of faith?
      Similarities: Both of them believed in some way that they were doing the work of their Lord, and each act was somewhat based on their religion.
      Differences: Christian explorers/monarchs were set on expanding Christianity, and preventing the spread of Islam, whereas the Islam's where more so set on defending their religion.
    • What instruments were important for successful navigation of the earth?
      Compass: used for finding the direction a ship is travelling; developed in China about1700 years ago, used by Muslim travelers in navigation.
      Astrolabe: used the North Star or Sun to calculate latitude, the distance north or south of the Equator; probably invented by ancient Greeks, further developed by Arab mathematicians and astronomers.
      Cross-staff: used to measure the altitude of the Pole star above the horizon to determine latitude; invented around 1342 for astronomy and first used around 1514 for navigation
      Back-staff: used to measure the altitude of the Sun to determine latitude; developed in 1594 as an improvement over the cross-staff.
    • Which country was the first European country to become involved in organized exploration and how did this affect other countries?
      Portugal was the first European country to become involved in organized exploration.
      They focused on travelling East to reach Asia by travelling around Africa
      Bartholomeu Dias lead the first Portuguese expedition around the Cape of Good Hope. His crew mutinied and prevented the exhibition from reaching India.
      When Columbus crossed the Atlantic, it put pressure on the Portuguese to explore and expand
      They needed to reach the East before the Spanish.
    • continued
      5 years after Columbus’ voyage, Vasco da Gama sailed around Africa, across the Indian Ocean to Calicut
      He returned with precious spices and established a sea route to the East.
    • The Battle of Diu
      After Vasco da Gama achieved the sea route to the East, Portuguese fleets made yearly trips to the East to trade.
      Arab merchants believed that the Portuguese were intruding
      Large Arab fleet and a small Portuguese fleet
      The Portuguese had an advantage because of cannons
      1500s: Portugal became the most powerful trading country in Europe.
    • Explain how slavery was present before and after the Europeans ventured out to explore the world
      Slavery: a system under which people are treated as property (forced to work)
      Slavery has been a part of many country’s worldview.
      By the 1440s, the Portuguese were involved in the slave trade in Africa.
      They brought the African slaves to work on sugar plantations that they had established on islands in the Atlantic ocean.
      Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of the Europeans
    • continued
      During the next 3 centuries, Europeans captured and transported millions of Africans to the Americas as slaves
      Millions of them died on route from their terrible conditions on the slave ships or from overwork when they arrived
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages to slavery?
      Advantages: Europeans had people to work for them on their businesses; always had something to do
      Disadvantages: Slaves died from overwork and terrible conditions, lack of freedom, etc.
    • Why was the “Articles of agreement between the lords of catholic sovereigns and cristobal colon” important?
      It is important because it states the rules of Christopher Columbus’ exploration(s). Also, Spain wouldn’t have been able to claim territory, etc.
      How would this affect the New World inhabitants?
      It stated that Columbus had control over lands and goods, etc.
    • Who are they?
      Where are they from? What were their goals? What did they accomplish?
      Christopher Columbus
      Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
      Arab and Italian merchants
      Mansa Moussa
      Prester John
      Prince Henry
      Bartholomeu Dias
      Giovanni Caboto
      Jacques Cartier
    • Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506)
      His goal was to find a quicker route to the East, because spices and other goods were becoming too expensive because they were handled so much on the way to the countries in Europe, and a quicker route would lower the price immensely.
      Was sponsored by Spain, although he was Italian. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand (Spain) declared their sovereignty over unknown oceans, that any industry discovered or acquired would be claimed or bought. Columbus was given power to the places he visited. (pg. 125)
    • Columbus briefing
      His goal was to go to Asia through the Atlantic Ocean
      Took 3 voyages to the Caribbean. He died after his 4th voyage in 1506
      Was convinced until he died that he had reached Asia
    • Ferdinand magellan
      He found the Philippines but was killed after getting involved in a local war. His voyage was the first recorded voyage to circumnavigate the world.
    • Prince Henry the navigator
      Prince Henry of Portugal (1394 – 1460)
      Interest in ships and navigation
      Sponsored many voyages of exploration
      Established a center at Sagnes to improve navigational equipment and create new maps.
    • Prester john
      The legends of Prester John were popular in Europe from the 12th century through the 17th centuries.
      The legend tells of a Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst the Muslims and Pagans in the Orient
      Prince Henry and many others wanted to locate Prester John. Prince Henry hoped that Prester John would help the Portuguese explorers to convert people in Africa and to join the Christian nations of Europe in a crusade against the Muslims.
    • Mansa moussa
      Was the Muslim ruler of the powerful and wealthy empire of Mali in Africa.
      Mali was situated on important trade routes that dealt in gold, salt, ivory and slaves.
      In 1324, he set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca, the most holy city of Islam.
      He distributed wealthy goods to the poor on his way
      Italian merchants trading in Cairo spread stories around Europe about Moussa’s gold and rich empire.
    • others
      Giovanni Caboto: Travelled for England in 1497, and discovered the northern part of Newfoundland.
      Jacques Cartier: Travelled for France in 1534, and also rediscovered the northern part of Newfoundland.
    • Chapter 6
      O Brave New World
    • Imperialism
      The extension of power over a territory and its resources and people.
    • The treaty of Tordesillas
      Portugal wanted to make sure that the got their share of Asian trade after everyone thought that Columbus had reached Asia
      Portugal and Spain couldn’t agree, so they asked the pope to settle it
      1494: the pope proposed a secret treaty, that divided the world between the Spanish (West) and Portuguese (East)
      Other European rulers were angry when they heard about this. England and France ignored its terms and sent out explorers across the North Atlantic to find new territories. King Henry VI (England) sent Giovanni Caboto, and France, Jacques Cartier.
    • European Imperialist attitudes
      Territories Columbus discovered were named New Spain
      Spanish government granted land to people who wanted to settle in New Spain to mine and set up plantations
      Indigenous people were enslaved
      Bartolome de Las Casas: wrote about the atrocities committed against Indigenous people in New Spain
    • Cost of imperialism
      Europeans learned that there weren’t any monsters in the ocean
      That people everywhere looked similar to themselves
      The world was very different from how they had imagined it.
      Europeans saw themselves as superior to Indigenous civilizations because they were close to nature, did not live in a crowded civilization, and they focused on equality/sharing