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One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at theHuman-Livestock-Wildlife Interface
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One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at the Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface



The One Health Approach: Identifying Solutions to Complex Problems at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface. Presented by Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement Principal Investigators Jon Erickson ...

The One Health Approach: Identifying Solutions to Complex Problems at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface. Presented by Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement Principal Investigators Jon Erickson (University of Vermont) and Rudovick Kazwala (Sokoine University of Agriculture) at the GL-CRSP End of Program Conference, June 17, 2009, Naivasha, Kenya.



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  • Zoonotic pathogens, such as influenza and SARS, account for the majority of emerging infectious diseases in people [Taylor et al., Phil Trans Royal Society, 2001].More than three quarters of emerging zoonoses are the result of wildlife-origin pathogens [Jones et al., Nature, 2008].4. Wittermyer et al. [Science, 2008] found that average annual population growth rates were higher in buffers to protected areas than in rural areas of the same country in Africa and Latin America. Protected areas provide some of the last supplies of ecosystem goods and services for expanding human populations, including firewood, bush meat, clean water, medicinal plants, and areas of safety during civil strife.
  • The consequences of change are far reaching. Increased livestock-horticulture conflict, as scarce water resources affect land management decisionsIncreased grazing pressure as more cattle are packed into smaller areas with remaining water, also overgrazing has led to increased incursions into the wildlife protected areas by cattle to gain access to better grazing and waterIncreased wildlife conflicts, especially with elephants coming through farms seeking access to waterConcentration of wildlife at few waterholes has led some to poison those water holes for bushmeatLost potential tourism revenues as habitat degraded and wildlife become scarce; areas of water scarcity are the same areas where wildlife viewing is popular. Decreased water causes water stress and forces all to share low quality sourcesIn 2006 power shortages resulted after both reserviors fed by the GRR were too low to generate hydropower, turning an ecosystem level crisis into a national economic issue. Water stress, poor forage can all result in increased vulnerability of livestock and wildlife to disease
  • SE Goals:What are the impacts of water limitation and disease on Maasai, Barabaig and Sukuma household economies? How are these impacts distributed across different socioeconomic groups? What are the economic impacts of disease and water scarcity on other economic sectors in the region? What are the attitudes, perceptions, and practices of pastoralists and agropastoralists in regards to disease, disease management and livestock/wildlife extension?
  • One pathogen of particular interest is bovine TB (comment on Claire’s talk). In the Southern Highlands region 13% of cattle tested between 1994-1997 reacted to M.bovis using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test, with 51% of herds containing at least one reactor. (Kazwala 2001). The highest reactor prevalence in cattle was reported in the hot, dry, lowland areas closer to Ruaha NP. Reactor prevalence of 80% has been reported in a sample of cattle from Usangu. Therefore, recent movement of Usangu cattle out of one area may disperse these highly infected herds. TB reduces market value for any livestock sold. Additionally, BTB is zoonotic and traditional practices of pastoralists such as drinking fresh milk and milk products, eating undercooked meat and living in close proximity with cattle may increase their risk of exposure. On the wildlife side, buffalo populations have declined sharply in RNP. Although water limits may be playing a major role, other causes have not been investigated. In fact it is not known whether wildlife in RNP have ever been exposed to BTB, and given its high ungulate diversity and the existence of both large kudu and buffalo populations, known reserviors in S. Africa, the question is urgent.
  • Kaz – these are the spoligotype patterns for 3 of 4 HALI samples (there is no pattern for the 2nd impala?). Also patterns from HarrisonsCows. If you want can use this to show point: BTB bacteria isolated from infected wildlife and livestock share a similar molecular pattern, supporting the hypothesis that disease transmission between livestock and wildlife has occurred.

One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at the Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface Presentation Transcript

  • 1. One Health Approach to Solve Complex Problems and Improve Livelihoods at theHuman-Livestock-Wildlife Interface
    Health for Animals & Livelihood Improvement (HALI) Project
  • 2. One Health Approach
    Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania
    Stakeholder-Research Partnership
    HALI Project – Socioeconomic research
    – Disease & water sampling
    – Education & outreach
    One Health Approach to Livelihood Improvement
  • 3. Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface
    • Majority of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in people are zoonotic
    • 4. 75% of emerging zoonoses with wildlife origins
    • 5. Anthropogenic activities at the interface linked to EIDs (Nipah virus, SARS, Ebola)
    • 6. Avg. annual population growth among highest in buffers to protected areas
  • IP
    Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania
  • 7. Importance of the Ruaha Landscape
    Conservation Significance
    Resources for Rural
    National Development
  • 8. Increasing Water Scarcity …
    Year round flow
    of Great Ruaha
    119 days of
    no flow
  • 9. … from Irrigation and Grazing Pressures
    Presumed extent of irrigation
    vs. observed flooded areas
    Cattle density (#/km2) at boundary
    of RNP, WMA, & village lands
  • 10. Decline of the IhefuWetland and …
    22 Aug 1991
    322 km2
    21 July 2000
    153 km2
    2-9 Feb 2006
    84 km2
  • 11. … Collapse of Water Buffalo Range
  • 12. Stakeholder-Research Partnership
    Identifying the
    Problem Model
    • Pastoralist interviews
    • 13. Field visits
    • 14. Pre-project stakeholder workshop
  • Consequences of Change
    ↑ Livestock-horticulture conflict
    ↑ Grazing pressure
    ↑ Wildlife conflicts & poaching
    ↓ Tourism revenues
    ↓ Wildlife
    ↓ Water & Water quality
    ↓ National economy
    ↑ Disease?
  • 15. HALI Project
    – Goals
    Determine the prevalence and transmission ecology of zoonotic diseases among wildlife, livestock, and pastoral communities.
    Assess the effects of water management and quality on the presence, abundance, and severity of disease.
    Assess how water management and disease affect the health and economic livelihoods of pastoral communities.
    Identify and recommend measures to mitigate the effects of zoonotic diseases and water limitations.
    Strengthen local capacity to diagnose zoonotic diseases and design prevention programs.
  • 16. HALI Project – Approach
    Disease Data
    Livestock sampling
    Health and economic
    impact of disease
    for disease prevention
    for water management
    Wildlife sampling
    Water sampling
    & focus groups
  • 17. HALI Project – Socioeconomic Research
  • 18. HALI Project – Household Survey Sample
  • 19. HALI Project – Household Survey Sample
    Percent of head of households born in the village:
    Maasai (n=63) = 19%
    Sukuma (n=53) = 0%
    Barabaig (n=43) = 0%
    Number of years head of household has lived in
    the village:
  • 20. HALI Project – Disease Perception
    Where does illness come from in your livestock?
  • 21. HALI Project – Household health
    Do you or anyone in your household drink blood from your livestock (%)?
  • 22. Photo: J. Brownlee
    HALI Project – Water and Sanitation
    Do livestock enter the sources of any of your drinking or bathing water?
    Yes = 67% No = 30%
    Don’t know = 3%
    Do wildlife enter the sources of any of your drinking or bathing water?
    Yes = 65% No = 23%
    Don’t know = 12%
    Do you believe sharing water sources with livestock to be a health risk?
    Yes = 18% No = 61%
    Don’t know = 22%
  • 23. HALI Project – SE Regression Analysis
    Probability of reported chronic diseases in households:
    Of poorer socioeconomic group
    With reports of sick cattle
    Who reported consumption of raw cow blood
    Located further away from surface water sources
    Probability of reported sick cattle in herd in households:
    • With low accessibility to veterinary care through extension officer
    • 24. Located further away from surface water sources
    Next steps are to merge SE analysis with
    wildlife, livestock, and water data
  • 25. HALI Project – Livestock Disease
    Slaughtered animals
    • 170 cattle and 58 shoats
    • 26. 18% M. bovis
    • 27. Both cattle & shoats
    Live cattle
    • BTB reactor prevalence = 2%
    (n=1350 cattle)
    • Herd BTB reactor prevalence = 18% (18/102 households)
    • 28. Herd BTB prevalence w/ suspects = 28% (28/102 households)
    • 29. Brucellaseropositve = 7%
    (88/1334 cattle)
    • Herd Brucellaseropositive = 42%
    (39/93 households)
    Photo: HALI
  • 30. HALI Project – Wildlife Disease
    Samples collected in 2006/2007 through mid-2008
    4/43 (9%) positive for BTB via culture
    2 impala, 1 buffalo, 1 lesser kudu
    1/27 (4%) tested to date seropositive
    Only seropositive animal was the BTB infected buffalo
  • 31. HALI Project – Potential BTB Transmission
  • 32. HALI Project – Water Sampling
    11 Sites:
    • 9 rivers
    • 33. 1 seasonal pond
    • 34. 1 reservoir
    Stratified by use:
    • 1 livestock only
    • 35. 2 wildlife only
    • 36. 1 human only
    • 37. 4 human + livestock
    • 38. 1 wildlife + livestock
    • 39. 1 human + wildlife
    • 40. 1 human + livestock +
  • 41. HALI Project – Water Sampling
    Detection of water borne parasites:
    • Giardia
    • 42. Cryptosporidium
    • First use of MS–DFA
    • Heaviest protozoa
    burden in water source
    frequented by humans
    and livestock
  • 43. HALI Project – Water Sampling
    Isolations of enteric
    • E. coli
    • 44. Salmonella
    • 45. Vibrio
    • 46. Shigella
    Salmonella -virulence gene PCRs
    19 Salmonella isolates characterized for
    relatedness using rapid PCR and virulence genes
  • 47. HALI Project – Education & Outreach
    2 MPVM @ SUA, 1 MS @ UC Davis, 1 PhD @ UVM, 3 externs (2 TZ, 1 UC Davis), 2 honors BVM @ SUA, & outreach to over 600 people
    Direct assistance to pastoralists + various community events
    4 radio shows on health and education
    Community scout and hunter education
    Publications & Conference Presentations
    6 GL CSRP research briefs published
    Invited article under review at PLOS Medicine (others drafted)
    17 professional meetings & seminar presentations
  • 48. HALI Project – Education & Outreach
    Partnerships and Networking
    Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania National Parks Authority, Veterinary Investigation Centers, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, District Livestock Offices, National Institute for Medical Research, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program, Southern Highland Livestock Development Association
    United States: University of California at Davis, University of Vermont, USAID, Envirovet, Einstein Medical College
    International: Wildlife Conservation Society, International Livestock Research Institute, various professional societies
  • 49. One Health Approach to Livelihood Improvement
    • HALI Project has demonstrated that when livestock and wildlife are in close proximity, diseases can have severe impacts on livelihoods and biodiversity, and may also affect human health.
    • 50. These findings call for the One Health approach in intervening the challenges presented in ecosystems with interfaces between livestock, wildlife and humans.
    • 51. Trade-offs are needed to balance the needs of people and their domestic animals with wildlife.
    • 52. Disease control must consider natural resource use, cultural or indigenous practices, and perceptions.
  • Asante sana
    This research was made possible through support provided to the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program by the United States Agency for International Development under terms of Grant No. PCE-G-00-98-00036-00 and by contributions of participating institutions.