Nutrition, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Extension: Linking Agriculture, Human Health, and Nutrition with ENAM


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Nutrition, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Extension: Linking Agriculture, Human Health, and Nutrition with ENAM. Presented by O. Sakyi-Dawson (University of Ghana) at the GL-CRSP End of Program Conference on June 17, 2009, Naivasha, Kenya.

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Nutrition, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Extension: Linking Agriculture, Human Health, and Nutrition with ENAM

  1. 1. Nutrition, Sustainable Livelihoods and Extension: Linking Agriculture, Human Health and Nutrition with ENAM Project Owuraku Sakyi-Dawson, PhD Agricultural Extension Department College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences University of Ghana, Legon The ENAM Project is funded through the Global Livestock-CRSP funded in part by US-AID Grant No. PCE-G-00-98-00036-00; Women in Development, US-AID
  2. 2. Overview • Describe evolution of a framework for sustainable linkage between agriculture, nutrition and human health based on the experiences of the ENAM project’s research and development approach • Outline a Nutrition, Sustainable Livelihoods and Extension course developed from the framework
  3. 3. Sources of the childhood malnutrition • Primarily vegetarian diets • Deficiencies in micronutrients – Vitamin A, B-12, riboflavin, calcium, iron and zinc • Sub-optimal child feeding practices and styles
  4. 4. Improved nutrition for better health requirements? • Field fortification / Food systems paradigm for sustainable production of nutritious food • Improve diet quality e.g. through consumption of Animal Source Food (ASF) - Challenge – Required increases in income and household production • Knowledge on importance and how of improved nutrition
  5. 5. Suitable Framework’s Attributes • Holistic food-based & integrated • Diets – balanced, safe / wholesome, adequate quantities • Efficiency in role of agriculture as source of inputs for diets (availability and diversity), lower prices • Efficiency in the post-harvest handling, distribution - more competitive and lower prices • Agriculture’s role as direct & indirect improved income source - accessibility
  6. 6. Primary objectives of ENAM Project Planning Grant 2003 - 2004 •Develop a Problem Model with key stakeholders to study the constraints to the intake of animal source food (ASF) in children •Identify potential mechanisms to increase the consumption of ASF Primary objectives of ENAM Project Research Grant 2004 - 2009 * Implement a multi-sectoral sustainable intervention (health, agriculture, and business development) to respond to the constraints identified in the Problem Model * Integrate training and research for capacity building
  7. 7. Phase 1 Participatory process to develop problem model for constraints on use of ASF in children’s diets Phase 2 Implement an income-generation and education intervention (Microfinance, entrepreneurial education and nutrition education) Phase 3 Transfer of activities to local agents
  8. 8. Phase 1 Participatory process to develop problem model for constraints on animal source foods (ASF) Availability Accessibility Utilization (Based on Food / Nutrition Security Framework and Multi- Stakeholder Process)
  9. 9. Problem model for constraints on ASF Feeding skills Number of extension Seasonality and nutrition field staff knowledge Processing Household and storage food allocation ASF Pests and diseases Availability Household size Accessibility Marketing Utilization Cultural beliefs linkages and attitudes Caregiver Financial services empowerment Income
  10. 10. Suggested interventions to overcome constraints Community level  Stimulate income-generation activities (IGA)  Provide access to micro-credit loans  Food processing/storage training  Entrepreneurship/marketing training  Nutrition education training for caregivers  Dialogue with leaders/communities to change commonly held beliefs and support women Regional/country level Extension continuing education ● Ministry and NGO staff
  11. 11. Phase 2 Implementation of an income-generation and education intervention Participatory research and development interventions - PRA tools + Multi-Stakeholder processes - Stakeholder key informants interviews - Synthesis - Validation workshops - Social Mapping / wealth ranking - Causal diagramming
  12. 12. Intervention process: identify IGA Community ENAM Team Community Develop list of IGA Consensus on IGA to support Promotion of Reviewed IGA suitability selected IGA Develop support packages for Cash flow analysis selected IGA
  13. 13. What are the “best practices” for IGA? Best practices Individual IGA – on-farm and off-farm Both cash and real input may be required Loan guaranteed by group (social collateral) Small weekly loan repayments Renewal of loan upon repayment Education linked to financial services Identified gaps Limited emphasis on ASF-specific IGA Inconsistent involvement with market linkages Limited emphasis on nutrition education & evaluation Mixture of activities, actors, service provision
  14. 14. VALUE CHAIN APPROACH/FRAMEWORK Agricultural Value chain—all the activities and services that bring an agricultural product (or a service) from its conception to its end use are important for addressing nutrition Input Production Processing Wholesale Retail supply Financial Services Services Support Value chain approach—identifying opportunities and addressing their constraints throughout the value chain at community and industry wide level
  15. 15. VALUE CHAIN FRAMEWORK Global Enabling Environment Global Retailers End Markets National / Local / Informal Enabling Environment National Retailers Sector-specific Exporters Wholesalers Vertical providers Linkages Cross-cutting Buyers providers Horizontal Linkages Producers Financial (cross cutting) Input Suppliers Supporting Markets
  16. 16. Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Livelihood Outcomes • + Sustainable Livelihood use of NR base Capital Assets • + Income Policies & • + Well-being Human Institutions • - Vulnerability (Transforming • + Food / Structures & Nutrition security Social Natural Processes) • Structures ● Government ● Private Sector • Processes Livelihood ● Laws Strategies Physical Financial ● Policies ● Culture Vulnerability ● Institutions Context • Shocks • Trends • Seasons Presentation © IDL
  17. 17. Linking Agriculture and Nutrition: a SL Framework Understanding SLF is necessary for: 2.Intervention design and monitoring 3.Turning household and community assets into resources that can be drawn on for increased resilience and decreased vulnerability 4.Linking nutrition and other disciplines in the SLF (esp. agriculture, food science) 5. Providing opportunity for holistic and dynamic interventions
  18. 18. Phase 3 Transfer of activities to local agents for sustainability
  19. 19. Phase 3 Sustainability: transfer of activities to local agents Making the intervention sustainable (1) Profitable Income Generation Activities (2) Continued access to financial services Transfer to rural banks (3) Nutrition education Transfer to rural banks Transfer to community peer counselors Work towards certificate course for extension staff
  20. 20. Partnerships to strengthen sustainability Microfinance Entrepreneurial Nutrition ENAM interventions activities education Enabling Freedom Peer institutions from Heifer Education & processes Hunger Capacity building and systems strengthening Permanent Rural Banks Communities Institutions
  21. 21. Lessons for Curriculum Development • A framework for “holistic” food-based linkages between agriculture, human nutrition and health can address malnutrition sustainably if: it integrates several components including food / nutrition security, value chain, sustainable livelihoods, and multi- stakeholder processes.
  22. 22. Nutrition, Sustainable Livelihoods and Extension 2 Credits Course : Univ. of Ghana • Basic Nutrition • Nutrition and the SLF • Role of extension in Nutrition • Qualitative Assessment Tools w.r.t SLF (Multi-Stakeholder Processes) • Improving Nutrition through Behavior Change • Fieldwork on PRA Tools/ MSPs, Value Chains (Food tracking), Assessment of Community Nutrition Programs
  23. 23. Good nutrition for healthy lives