Introduction to and Scope of the
Underwater Munitions Issue
1
October 2010
Geoff Carton
CALIBRE Systems, Inc/Support Contr...
2
Highlights
• Terminology
• Site types
• Scope
• UWM distribution
• Munitions 101
• Conceptual model
• Projects
• Corrosi...
Important Munitions-Related
Terms
3
Military Munitions
Military munitions means all ammunition products and
components produced for or used by the armed force...
Discarded Military
Munitions (DMM)
DMM are military munitions that have been abandoned
without proper disposal or removed ...
Unexploded Ordnance
Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) – Military munitions that
(A) have been primed, fuzed, armed, or otherwise p...
Munitions Constituents
Any materials originating from unexploded
ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions
(DMM), or ot...
UWM Site Types
• Live-fire testing and training ranges (operational; former)
– Surface munitions (e.g., bombs, artillery p...
9
Island Targets
Former Culebra Training Area, Cayo Alkazar Target
10
Littoral Training Areas
Bahia Tamarindo Hondo, Former Culebra Training Area
11
Flooded Ranges
Former Camp Maxey
Disposal Sites
12
Scope of UWM in US Waters
13
Disposal Sites
(Pacific)
14
Source: Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions, FY 09 Defense
Environmental Programs A...
Disposal Sites
(Atlantic and Gulf)
15
Source: Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions, FY 09 Defense
Environmental ...
16
Distribution of Munitions
17
18
Munitions Distribution
Fixed Firing Position
• Distribution exhibits a
clear, predictable pattern
• Munitions present w...
Over the Side Disposal
19
Disposed Munitions
20
• Loose disposal
– Meandering trails from
a ship underway
– Trails by munitions type
– Items fairly ...
Consolidated Disposal
21
Munitions 101
22
Munitions 101
• Families of ammunition
• Energetic materials
• Explosive train
• Munitions fillers
• Bomb components
• Pro...
Families of Ammunition
• Small Arms
• Artillery
• Bombs
• Grenades
• Rockets
• Mines
• Pyrotechnics
• Guided Missiles and ...
Energetic Materials and
Purpose
• High Explosives: Blast, Fragmentation
• Propellant: Propulsive Energy
• Pyrotechnics: Fi...
Explosive Train
• Most munitions contain more than one type of
energetic material
• Energetics are arranged in a particula...
Explosive Train
• Sequence of energetic materials begin with priming or
initiating material (primer or fuze), through boos...
Explosive Train - Propelling
Primer is initiated by external source (e.g., firing pin,
electric current)
Output from the p...
Types of Fillers
• High Explosive
• Incendiary
• Chemical or industrial
agents
• Illumination (pyrotechnics)
• Screening o...
Components of Bombs
30
Booster
Body
Filler
Components of Artillery
Munitions
Detailed information
on materials is
often available
• Body - steel
• Rotating band –
copper
• Fuze – steel or
brass
32
Conceptual Corrosion and
Release Model
33
Theoretical Distribution of
Releases from Numerous Items
34Figure after MEDEA, 1997
Initial release - Transient at time of...
Release of Low Solubility Fill
35
Content of munitions released over an extended period and is a continuing
source of muni...
Release of High Solubility Fill
36
Fill of munition rapidly enters water column
Figure after MEDEA, 1997
Projects
37
Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions
Assessment Program (HUMMA, HI-05)
• Develop efficient and cost effective method for
cha...
HUMMA Photographs
HUMMA Conclusion
on Corrosion
• Deterioration level ranged from almost pristine to
virtually disintegrated
• Varied within...
HUMMA “Pedestals”
41
M47 Bomb
• 16,000 M47A2 100-lb
mustard filled bombs
disposed in 1944 south of
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
• 40% were leaking at t...
Possible M47 Bombs
Off Hawaii
43
Possible M47 Bombs
44
Ordnance Reef (HI-06) Projects
• Army and Navy funded NOAA survey (2006) to obtain
screening-level data of potential explo...
Ordnance Reef Projects
• NOAA:
– Ocean current monitoring
• Shallow (under 300 feet) and deep (about 8,000 feet) sensor
ne...
47
Ocean Current Monitoring
48
Deep Water Site
~ 8,000’
• Current speed
• Current direction
Ordnance Reef Projects
• Army Environmental Quality Technology Program
demonstrations (Apr 11) of commercial technology:
–...
Corrosion Research
50
Early Corrosion
Rate Predictions
• Estimates based on corrosion
rate and wall thickness
• Materials include carbon or
wrou...
Corrosion of 1-Ton Containers
• NASA/Army Research Laboratory study
• Major factors affecting
corrosion are:
– Dissolved o...
NASA/ARL Conclusions
• Difficult to bracket life expectancy of containers
• To improve confidence of prediction using exis...
Best References on Ranges
References on individual sites:
• Formerly Used Defense Sites Reports
• Defense Environmental Pr...
Best References on Disposals
Most up-to-date data on quantities and locations of disposals
• Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of M...
56
Contact Information
Geoff Carton
CALIBRE Systems, Inc/Support Contractor
Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of th...
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2010 Introduction to and Scope of Underwater Munitions Issue

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Presented at the 2010 NOAA International Corrosion Workshop. Provides an overview of sites that may have munitions, distribution of munitions at the sites, how munitions are constructed, and studies on corrosion of munitions.

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2010 Introduction to and Scope of Underwater Munitions Issue

  1. 1. Introduction to and Scope of the Underwater Munitions Issue 1 October 2010 Geoff Carton CALIBRE Systems, Inc/Support Contractor Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health
  2. 2. 2 Highlights • Terminology • Site types • Scope • UWM distribution • Munitions 101 • Conceptual model • Projects • Corrosion research • References
  3. 3. Important Munitions-Related Terms 3
  4. 4. Military Munitions Military munitions means all ammunition products and components produced for or used by the armed forces for national defense and security, including ammunition products or components under the control of the Department of Defense, the Coast Guard, the Department of Energy, and the National Guard. The term includes confined gaseous, liquid, and solid propellants; explosives, pyrotechnics, chemical and riot control agents, smokes, and incendiaries, including bulk explosives, and chemical warfare agents; chemical munitions, rockets, guided and ballistic missiles, bombs, warheads, mortar rounds, artillery ammunition, small arms ammunition, grenades, mines, torpedoes, depth charges, cluster munitions and dispensers, demolition charges; and devices and components thereof. (10 U.S.C. 101(e)(4)(A) through (C)) 4 -- Military munitions are, by definition, only US munitions
  5. 5. Discarded Military Munitions (DMM) DMM are military munitions that have been abandoned without proper disposal or removed from storage in a military magazine or other storage area for the purpose of disposal. The term does not include UXO, military munitions that are being held for future use or planned disposal, or military munitions that have been properly disposed of, consistent with applicable environmental laws and regulations. (10 U.S.C. 2710(e)(2)) 5
  6. 6. Unexploded Ordnance Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) – Military munitions that (A) have been primed, fuzed, armed, or otherwise prepared for action; (B) have been fired, dropped, launched, projected, or placed in such a manner as to constitute a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material; and (C) remain unexploded whether by malfunction, design, or any other cause. (10 U.S.C. 101(e)(5)(A) through (C)) • DMM were taken from storage for disposal and have less chance of functioning than UXO 6
  7. 7. Munitions Constituents Any materials originating from unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), or other military munitions, including explosive and non-explosive materials, and emission, degradation, or breakdown elements of such ordnance or munitions. (10 U.S.C. 2710(e)(3)) 7
  8. 8. UWM Site Types • Live-fire testing and training ranges (operational; former) – Surface munitions (e.g., bombs, artillery projectiles) – Subsurface munitions (e.g., torpedoes, sea mines) • Defensive sites (e.g., forts, coastal artillery batteries) • Disposal sites • Acts of war (e.g., combat sites, sunken vessels) • Accident sites (e.g., Port Chicago) • Emergencies (e.g., jettisoned munitions) 8
  9. 9. 9 Island Targets Former Culebra Training Area, Cayo Alkazar Target
  10. 10. 10 Littoral Training Areas Bahia Tamarindo Hondo, Former Culebra Training Area
  11. 11. 11 Flooded Ranges Former Camp Maxey
  12. 12. Disposal Sites 12
  13. 13. Scope of UWM in US Waters 13
  14. 14. Disposal Sites (Pacific) 14 Source: Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions, FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress (www.denix.osd.mil)
  15. 15. Disposal Sites (Atlantic and Gulf) 15 Source: Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions, FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress (www.denix.osd.mil)
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Distribution of Munitions 17
  18. 18. 18 Munitions Distribution Fixed Firing Position • Distribution exhibits a clear, predictable pattern • Munitions present will determined based on records review and weapons used at site • Records may be more complete than for bombing ranges or disposal sites 325,000 325,000 330,000 330,000 335,000 335,000 340,000 340,000 4,600,000 4,600,000 4,605,000 4,605,000 4,610,000 4,610,000 4,615,000 4,615,000 4,620,000 4,620,000 4,625,000 4,625,000 UTM Easting (m) UTMNorthing(m) NAD 83 Zone 17N anomalies/acre 11-20 21-40 81-110 41-60 61-80 Erie Army Depot
  19. 19. Over the Side Disposal 19
  20. 20. Disposed Munitions 20 • Loose disposal – Meandering trails from a ship underway – Trails by munitions type – Items fairly evenly spaced • Consolidated in hulks – Little dispersion of munitions – Items in contact – Possible galvanic coupling – Better documentation on quantities Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HI-05) Sonar Survey – loose disposal
  21. 21. Consolidated Disposal 21
  22. 22. Munitions 101 22
  23. 23. Munitions 101 • Families of ammunition • Energetic materials • Explosive train • Munitions fillers • Bomb components • Projectile components 23
  24. 24. Families of Ammunition • Small Arms • Artillery • Bombs • Grenades • Rockets • Mines • Pyrotechnics • Guided Missiles and Large Rockets (GMLR) 24
  25. 25. Energetic Materials and Purpose • High Explosives: Blast, Fragmentation • Propellant: Propulsive Energy • Pyrotechnics: Fireworks, Signals • Incendiary: Initiate Fires 25 Energetic Materials Explosives Propellants Pyrotechnics Primary Secondary Inorganic Organic Single Base Double Base Triple Base Composite Flares Smoke Tracers Incendiaries
  26. 26. Explosive Train • Most munitions contain more than one type of energetic material • Energetics are arranged in a particular order called an “explosive train” 26
  27. 27. Explosive Train • Sequence of energetic materials begin with priming or initiating material (primer or fuze), through boosting material, and finally to the main charge • Sequence is typically from low-yielding, but very sensitive material (primary explosive) to a high-yielding, but not as sensitive material (high explosive) FUZE BOOSTER MAIN CHARGE High Sensitivity Low Small Quantity Large PRIMER PROPELLANT
  28. 28. Explosive Train - Propelling Primer is initiated by external source (e.g., firing pin, electric current) Output from the primer (flame) initiates the igniter Output from the igniter initiates the propellant 28 Primer Igniter tube Propellant grains
  29. 29. Types of Fillers • High Explosive • Incendiary • Chemical or industrial agents • Illumination (pyrotechnics) • Screening or smoke • Sub-munitions • Inert Items • Riot Control Agents
  30. 30. Components of Bombs 30
  31. 31. Booster Body Filler Components of Artillery Munitions
  32. 32. Detailed information on materials is often available • Body - steel • Rotating band – copper • Fuze – steel or brass 32
  33. 33. Conceptual Corrosion and Release Model 33
  34. 34. Theoretical Distribution of Releases from Numerous Items 34Figure after MEDEA, 1997 Initial release - Transient at time of disposal from failure of items T1 – Corrosive attack on munitions and formation of pinholes T – Period of maximum release likely to be an extended period Corrosive Disintegration Period T1 T Initial Release Time (decades) NumberofMunitionsOpened Primary Release
  35. 35. Release of Low Solubility Fill 35 Content of munitions released over an extended period and is a continuing source of munitions constituents Figure after MEDEA, 1997
  36. 36. Release of High Solubility Fill 36 Fill of munition rapidly enters water column Figure after MEDEA, 1997
  37. 37. Projects 37
  38. 38. Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment Program (HUMMA, HI-05) • Develop efficient and cost effective method for characterizing munitions sea disposal sites • Deep water site – approximately 400 meters • South of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • SONAR survey of about 70 km2 • Manned submersibles and ROVs used • Seawater, sediment and biota collected and analyzed • Report available (www.hummaproject.com) • Additional SONAR survey planned for 2011 to south of original study area 38
  39. 39. HUMMA Photographs
  40. 40. HUMMA Conclusion on Corrosion • Deterioration level ranged from almost pristine to virtually disintegrated • Varied within similar munition types in the same general area, as well as between different types of munitions spread over a wide region • Generally, munitions with thicker casings were better preserved • Most munitions were not obviously breached • Many had “skirts” or columnar “pedestals” beneath that appear to be the result of rusting, possibly in combination with leakage of internal MC 40
  41. 41. HUMMA “Pedestals” 41
  42. 42. M47 Bomb • 16,000 M47A2 100-lb mustard filled bombs disposed in 1944 south of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • 40% were leaking at time of disposal • Painted body made of 0.061 in (1.5 mm) thick sheet steel • Several possible M47 bombs observed at a depth of about 1,800 feet 42
  43. 43. Possible M47 Bombs Off Hawaii 43
  44. 44. Possible M47 Bombs 44
  45. 45. Ordnance Reef (HI-06) Projects • Army and Navy funded NOAA survey (2006) to obtain screening-level data of potential explosives safety and human health risks • DASA(ESOH) established (2007) Ordnance Reef Coordinating Council (mirrors TPP) • University of Hawaii completed (2009) two rounds of sampling (Remedial Investigation (RI)) to address data gaps – Focus on human health – Screening level ecological risk assessment • RI (sampling results) report expected in early 2011 • Outreach efforts - expanded 45
  46. 46. Ordnance Reef Projects • NOAA: – Ocean current monitoring • Shallow (under 300 feet) and deep (about 8,000 feet) sensor networks collected data over a 1 year period • Data being used to develop a model to predict fate of potential release • Incorporating data into UH circulation models and export to NOAA 3D fate and transport models • Final report expected by mid-2011 – Pre-removal coral survey completed, with recommendations for minimizing impacts to coral to be provided in Nov/Dec 2010 46
  47. 47. 47 Ocean Current Monitoring
  48. 48. 48 Deep Water Site ~ 8,000’ • Current speed • Current direction
  49. 49. Ordnance Reef Projects • Army Environmental Quality Technology Program demonstrations (Apr 11) of commercial technology: – Adapted from oil exploration technology for the remote recovery of sea disposed munitions – NOAA input used in order to minimize impacts of recovery on coral – Barge mounted technology (existing and innovative) for destruction of recovered munitions 49
  50. 50. Corrosion Research 50
  51. 51. Early Corrosion Rate Predictions • Estimates based on corrosion rate and wall thickness • Materials include carbon or wrought steel, aluminum (6061), and brass alloys • Steel bodied munitions 46 – 749 years • Aluminum M55 – 2 years • Ton container – 539 years 51 Epstein, et al, 1973
  52. 52. Corrosion of 1-Ton Containers • NASA/Army Research Laboratory study • Major factors affecting corrosion are: – Dissolved oxygen – Temperature 52Reference: NASA/ARL, Analysis of the Effects of Sea Disposal on a One-Ton Container, July 2007
  53. 53. NASA/ARL Conclusions • Difficult to bracket life expectancy of containers • To improve confidence of prediction using existing data need: – Thorough survey of literature on deep-water corrosion in order to learn about specific characteristics – Specific account of materials, construction techniques and processes (e.g., welding process, mill scale present) – Types of coatings and processes, and relative age and condition prior to disposal – Comprehensive literature review of case studies involving similar materials (such as with shipwrecks) should be performed 53
  54. 54. Best References on Ranges References on individual sites: • Formerly Used Defense Sites Reports • Defense Environmental Programs, Annual Report to Congress, Munitions Response Site Inventory (deparc.xservices.com/do/mmrp) • Service historical offices • Nautical charts 54
  55. 55. Best References on Disposals Most up-to-date data on quantities and locations of disposals • Chapter 10, Sea Disposal of Military Munitions, FY 09 Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress (www.denix.osd.mil) Overview of issue • U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service Report RL33432, 2007 • Munitions Dumped at Sea: A Literature Review, Beddington and Kinloch, Imperial College London 2005 (http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/77CEDBCA-813A-4A6C-8E59- 16B9E260E27A/0/ic_munitions_seabed_rep.pdf) 55
  56. 56. 56 Contact Information Geoff Carton CALIBRE Systems, Inc/Support Contractor Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Geoff.Carton@calibresys.com

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