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Grammar book![1]
 

Grammar book![1]

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    Grammar book![1] Grammar book![1] Presentation Transcript

    • GRAMMAR BOOK!(2nd Semester)
      Maxmiliano Glazier
    • Table Of Contents
      • Informal commands
      • Informal Irregulars
      • Nosotros Commands
      • Mono Verbs
      • DOP+IOP Placement
      • Subjunctive
      • Subjunctive Irregulars
      • Trigger Phrases
      • Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns
      • Tan/ Tanto
      Conditional
      Conditional Irregulars
      Present Perfect
      Present Perfect Irregulars
      Past Perfect
      Subjunctive Perfect
      Se Impersonal
      Saber Vs. Conocer
      Formal Commands
      Formal Irregulars
    • CONDITIONAL
      Would, could, should, probability
      If would is used for a repeated action in the past, the imperfect would be used
      At these endings to the end of the infinitive
      Ía
      Ías
      Ía
      Íamos
      Íais
      ían
    • Conditional Irregulars
      Caber-Cabr
      Poder-Podr
      Salir-Saldr
      Decir-Dir
      Poner-Poder
      Tener-Tendr
      Haber-Habr
      Querer-Querr
      Valer- Valdr
      Hacer-har
      Saber- Sabr
      Venir- Vendr
    • Present Perfect
      Indicates a recently completed action
      It is a compound tense, used with Haber and another verb
      Used to tell what has/hasn’t been done
      An action that was true in the past and is still true in the present
      He, has, ha, hemos, hebeís, han
    • Present Perfect Irregulars
      Abrir- Abierto
      Cubir- Cubierto
      Decir- Dicho
      Escribir- Escrito
      Hacer- Hecho
      Ir-Ido
      Ver- Visto
      Volver- Vuelto
      Romper- Roto
      Poner- Puesto
    • Past Perfect
      Compound form
      Haber and the past participle
      The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated
      He, has, ha, hemos, hebeís, han
      Ar- ado
      Ir-Ido
      Er-Ido
    • Subjunctive Perfect
      Used when a verb or subject that requires the subjunctive is used in the main clause in the present, future or present perfect
      Haber
      Haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayais, hayan
      Add the past Participle- Ar-Ado/ Er-Ido/ Ir-Ido
    • Se Impersonal
      Can be used in all verb tenses
      “se” is always used in the 3rd person
      Can replace an indirect object pronoun- “se lo”
    • Saber vs. Conocer
      Saber is to know facts or information
      Conocer is to know people, places, things, or literary works
    • Formal Commands
      Ar- Conjugate to the yo form and drop the “o” and add an “e”
      Er- Conjugate to the yo form and drop the “o” and add an “a”
      Ir- Conjugate to the yo form and drop the “o” and add an “a”
    • Irregular Formal Commands
      Tener- Tenga
      Venir- Venga
      Dar- De
      Ir- Vaya
      Ser- Sea
      Hacer- Haga
      Estar- Esté
      Saber- Sepa
    • Informal Commands
      Affirmative- Conjugate to the “tu” form and drop the “s”
      Negative- Change to the “yo” form, change to opposite ending, and add an “s”
    • Informal Irregulars
      • Tengas
      • Vengas
      • Digas
      • Vayas
      • Seas
      • Hagas
      • Estés
      • Sepas
      Di
      Haz
      Ve
      Pon
      Sal

      Ten
      Ven
      Negative
      Affirmative
    • Nosotros Commands
      Used when dealing with nosotros or “lets” in english
      Change the verb to the “yo” form
      Add the opposite vowel and add, “mos”
    • Mono Verbs
      The first “s” of the affirmative reflexive is dropped, that is “mosnos” goes to “monos”
      Irregulars- Vamonos, Vayamos
      If object pronouns are used they must be placed at the end of the affirmative commands
    • DOP & IOP Placement
      DOPs- lo, la, los and las
      IOPs- Me, te, se, nos, os
      Infinitive Phrases- attach to the end of an infinitive.
      Place in front of a conjugated verb
      • Commands-
      • Affirmative- attach to the end of the command
      • Negative- It is after the “no”, but before the command.
    • Present Subjunctive
      Infinitive, change to the “yo” form and change to the opposite vowel
      Ar verbs- a, as, a, amos, ais, an
      Er verbs- e, es, e, emos, eis, en
    • Subjunctive Irregulars
      Tener- Tenga
      Venir- Venga
      Decir- Diga
      Ir- Vaya
      Ser- Sea
      Hacer- Haga
      Estar- Esté
      Saber- Sepa
      Car- que
      Gar- gue
      Zar- cé
      Stem changing
      • Er and –Ar have the same stem changes
      • Nosotros and vosotros change with pedir (e-i), sentir (e-i) Dormir- (o-u)
    • Trigger Phrases
      Impersonal Expressions- Es… que
      Malo, importante, bueno, mejor, etc.
      • Expressions of Emotions- Main clause + subordinate Clause
      • (sentir)- to be sorry
      • (estriste)- It is sad
      • (Temer)- To fear
      • (Esperar)- To hope
      • Conjunctions of Time- Precedes the subjunctive after the subordinate clause
      • Asique
      • Hastaque
      • Cuando
      • Despues de que
    • Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns
      Este/ Esta- this
      Ese/ Esa- that
      Estos/ Estas- these
      Esos/ Esas- those
      Aquel/ Aquella- that over there
      Aquellos/ Aquellas- those over there
    • Tan and Tanto
      Tan
      • Como- (as… as)
      • Used always with adjectives and adverbs
      Tanto
      • Como- As much… as, as many…as
      • Used always with nouns and verbs