B Ed (HONS) Research Theories and Methods               RTM0017   Contact Session 3: Academic Writing                16 Ma...
Why is it so difficult to write?                                   2
Why is it so difficult to write?  •   Reshuffle desk  •   Adjust the light  •   Open the window  •   Sharpen pencil  •   S...
Distractions?                4
We cannot write     whatwe do not know                  5
6
Writing formally• Academic English – mostly a written language• In general, confined to the realm of the serious:  textboo...
What to avoid• Contractions  – don’t, didn’t, haven’t• Sweeping statements  – all over the world  – everyone is involved  ...
9
Do you rely on spell check?        Eye halve a spelling cheque, It came with my pea sea   It plainly Marques four my revue...
Do you rely on spell check?   continued
How to create unity in a paragraph  • A paragraph    – not made up of disconnected sentences      and clauses    – consist...
Paragraph A• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead  bodies. Mummification, which was remarkably effective,...
Paragraph BRewriting to develop coherence• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead  bodies by mummifying the...
Ways to develop coherence1. by the repetition of key words and phrases• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving d...
Ways to develop coherence 2. Make use of pronouns                                             Possessive       Personal   ...
Ways to develop coherence3. using linking words and phrases* - show relationships   between ideas• The ancient Egyptians w...
Transitional expressions • to indicate a connection between ideas, • making obvious the developing thread of meaning which...
Transitional expressions• To show addition     – again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first,  ...
Transitional expressions• To summarise, repeat, or conclude   – all in all, all together, as a result, as had been noted, ...
Writing tips                  21
Punctuation              Punctuation is crucial!!A woman without her man is nothing
Punctuation              Punctuation is crucial!!A woman, without her man, is nothing!              As men write it!A woma...
General Confusion with writing?                                                 24   March 18, 2013                 ADS Wo...
Argument 1• DAUGHTER 1• Mom, I don’t believe you! You are so unfair! Why can’t I  stay out until three! You never let me d...
Argument 2• DAUGHTER 2• Mom, I would really like to stay at this party tonight until it’s  over. I know you have a problem...
Argument 1• Daughter 1 has a lot to learn about making her  point successful. She:  –insults her mother  –inaccurately app...
Argument 2• Daughter 2 offers a reasonable argument:  – She acknowledges her mother’s concerns  – She cites a sensible rea...
What is an argument?• An argument puts forward a viewpoint with sufficient  evidence to the claim and may include sections...
Writing an introduction • Write the introduction last? • The introduction is the broad beginning of   the paper that answe...
What is this?     Why am I reading it?            What do you want me to do? • Answer these questions by doing the   follo...
Writing an introduction• If your argument paper is long, you may want to forecast how you  will support your thesis by out...
Writing the literature review• Analyze relevant works in relation to your specific research problem and  ideas.• Critique ...
Writing the literature review  • Allows you to use your research problem to frame, integrate,    and assess the literature...
Translations!                                 35 March 18, 2013   ADS Workshop
Non First Language English Speakers
Writing the methodology• Present in a stepwise fashion - anyone else should be able to follow the  same procedures/plan.• ...
Writing the findings  • What could the findings mean?  • Why are they significant?  • From which theoretical standpoint do...
Writing the conclusion  • In a general way, restate your topic and why it is important,  • restate your thesis/claim,  • A...
40
The end (again)                  41
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2013 academic writing -brief intro

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An overview of academic writing

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  • Give 5 minutes for the students to write own definitions. Encourage to compare notes.
  • 2013 academic writing -brief intro

    1. 1. B Ed (HONS) Research Theories and Methods RTM0017 Contact Session 3: Academic Writing 16 March 2013 Prof G Lautenbach
    2. 2. Why is it so difficult to write? 2
    3. 3. Why is it so difficult to write? • Reshuffle desk • Adjust the light • Open the window • Sharpen pencil • Search for paper • Go to kitchen to eat; wash dishes; wash car; clean up cupboards • Put on comfortable shoes; • Lock the door • Read the newspaper; watch TV • Phone a friend; read emails and respond to Facebook • Put on music; change CD • Look outside; check the time; tidy room • Finish novel; go to the bathroom 3
    4. 4. Distractions? 4
    5. 5. We cannot write whatwe do not know 5
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. Writing formally• Academic English – mostly a written language• In general, confined to the realm of the serious: textbooks, academic or technical works, and most essays or reports• Remember - you need to move from the informal language of speaking to the more formal language of writing 7
    8. 8. What to avoid• Contractions – don’t, didn’t, haven’t• Sweeping statements – all over the world – everyone is involved – the whole of South Africa is at risk• Clichés – avoid like the plague – better late than never – bright and early 8
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. Do you rely on spell check? Eye halve a spelling cheque, It came with my pea sea It plainly Marques four my revue miss steaks eye kin knot sea. Eye strike a key and type a word and weight four it two say Weather eye am wrong oar write it shows me strait a weigh. As soon as a mist ache is maid it nose bee fore two long And eye can put the error rite its rare lea ever wrong. Eye have run this poem threw it, I am shore your pleased two no Its letter perfect awl the weigh, my cheque tolled me sew. Sauce unknown
    11. 11. Do you rely on spell check? continued
    12. 12. How to create unity in a paragraph • A paragraph – not made up of disconnected sentences and clauses – consists of a web of related ideas that are logically connected; this helps develop coherence and enhances readability – Normally one main idea per paragraph 12
    13. 13. Paragraph A• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead bodies. Mummification, which was remarkably effective, consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and outside, and wrapping the body in layers of bandages. Mummies several thousands of years old have been discovered nearly intact, with well-preserved skin, hair, teeth, nails and facial features. Mummies may show evidence of diseases such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutrititional deficiencies. Fatal afflictions are apparent: a middle-aged Egyptian king died from a blow to the head; a child-king died from polio. 13
    14. 14. Paragraph BRewriting to develop coherence• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead bodies by mummifying them. Basically, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and outside, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. This process was remarkably effective. Indeed, mummies several thousands of years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, nails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged Egyptian king died from a blow to the head; a child-king died from polio. (paragraphs from Little, Brown Handbook, 4th Edition, p. 87) 14
    15. 15. Ways to develop coherence1. by the repetition of key words and phrases• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead bodies by mummifying them. Basically, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and outside, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. This process was remarkably effective. Indeed, mummies several thousands of years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, nails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged Egyptian king died from a blow to the head; a child-king died from polio. 15
    16. 16. Ways to develop coherence 2. Make use of pronouns Possessive Personal I, you, we this, your, our, their Reflexive himself, Pronouns Demonstrative this, that, these, those yourself, themselves Indefinite Relative few, any, several, none who, whom, whose, which, that• …This process was remarkably effective. Indeed, mummies several thousands of years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, nails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal16 afflictions are still apparent…
    17. 17. Ways to develop coherence3. using linking words and phrases* - show relationships between ideas• The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead bodies by mummifying them. Basically, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and outside, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. This process was remarkably effective. Indeed, mummies several thousands of years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, nails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged Egyptian king died from a blow to the head; a child-king died from polio.• *transitional expressions; - also known as linking words, logical connectors, 17 conjunctions or rhetorical devices.
    18. 18. Transitional expressions • to indicate a connection between ideas, • making obvious the developing thread of meaning which the writer is trying to communicate • often helping the reader to anticipate what is coming next. When a writer uses connectives effectively, we say that the text is cohesive (it ‘sticks’ together). 18
    19. 19. Transitional expressions• To show addition – again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, likewise, moreover, next, or, still, then, too.• To compare – also, in comparison, in the same way, likewise, similarly.• To contrast – although, and yet, at the same time, but, conversely, despite, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, whereas, yet.• To give examples or intensify, expand, enlarge (amplification) – after all, as an illustration, certainly, even, for example, for instance, indeed, in fact, it is true that, namely, of course, specifically, that is, to be sure, to illustrate, to tell the truth, truly, to prove, to show, in particular, such as. 19
    20. 20. Transitional expressions• To summarise, repeat, or conclude – all in all, all together, as a result, as had been noted, basically, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarise, again, to repeat.• To indicate place – above, adjacent to, below, elsewhere, farther on, here, near, nearby, on the other side, opposite to, there, to the east, to the left.• To indicate time – after a while, afterward, as long as, as soon as, at length, at that time, before, currently, earlier, eventually, first (second, third, etc.), finally, formerly, immediately, in the meantime, in the past (future), lately, later, meanwhile, now, presently, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, until now, when, while.• To indicate cause and effect – accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this purpose, for this reason, hence, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thereupon, thus, to this end, with this object. 20
    21. 21. Writing tips  21
    22. 22. Punctuation Punctuation is crucial!!A woman without her man is nothing
    23. 23. Punctuation Punctuation is crucial!!A woman, without her man, is nothing! As men write it!A woman: without her, man isnothing! As women write it!
    24. 24. General Confusion with writing? 24 March 18, 2013 ADS Workshop
    25. 25. Argument 1• DAUGHTER 1• Mom, I don’t believe you! You are so unfair! Why can’t I stay out until three! You never let me do anything fun. None of my friends has a curfew. How do you think it feels to be the only one who has to leave a party early?• Everybody thinks it’s ridiculous, and I bet they’re all really glad they don’t have you for a mother. 25
    26. 26. Argument 2• DAUGHTER 2• Mom, I would really like to stay at this party tonight until it’s over. I know you have a problem with my being out late, and I understand you’re concerned about my welfare. But I’m eighteen now, I’ll be leaving for university next month, and maybe it’s time you let me start testing my own judgement. You and I both know I’m not going to do anything stupid, and I would really like to get some practice making my own decision about my comings and goings. 26
    27. 27. Argument 1• Daughter 1 has a lot to learn about making her point successful. She: –insults her mother –inaccurately appeals to crowd behaviour –“none of my friends has curfew” –fails to offer any sensible reason for her mother to change her mind 27
    28. 28. Argument 2• Daughter 2 offers a reasonable argument: – She acknowledges her mother’s concerns – She cites a sensible reason for lifting the curfew – she needs practice at being grown up while she is in her home environment 28
    29. 29. What is an argument?• An argument puts forward a viewpoint with sufficient evidence to the claim and may include sections on the background information, any premises the view may be based on, the evidence supporting the claim, other opposing viewpoints and a conclusion.• Effective arguments are ethical as well as reasonable, being made openly and honestly• An argument is a position supported by clear thinking and reasonable evidence, with a secure connection to solid facts. 29
    30. 30. Writing an introduction • Write the introduction last? • The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions: – What is this? – Why am I reading it? – What do you want me to do? 30
    31. 31. What is this? Why am I reading it? What do you want me to do? • Answer these questions by doing the following: – Set the context – provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support – State why the main idea is important – tell the reader why they should care & keep reading. Create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon – State your thesis/claim – state the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility). 31
    32. 32. Writing an introduction• If your argument paper is long, you may want to forecast how you will support your thesis by outlining the structure of your paper, the sources you will consider, and the opposition to your position. Your forecast could read something like this:• First, I will define key terms for my argument, and then I will provide some background of the situation. Next I will outline the important positions of the argument and explain why I support one of these positions. Lastly, I will consider opposing positions and discuss why these positions are outdated. I will conclude with some ideas for taking action and possible directions for future research. 32
    33. 33. Writing the literature review• Analyze relevant works in relation to your specific research problem and ideas.• Critique and assess the literature.• Make your literature review do more work for you than merely list, summarize, and synthesize key works. A literature review serves the following purposes: – Demonstrates your grasp of relevant works – Shows your skill in identifying and discussing the most significant ideas and findings in earlier works – Specifies who did what, when and why and how they did it – Evaluates earlier studies 33
    34. 34. Writing the literature review • Allows you to use your research problem to frame, integrate, and assess the literature • Prompts you to make explicit and compelling connections between your study and earlier studies • Reveals gaps in extant knowledge and states how your study answers them • Helps you to position your study and to clarify its contribution • Permits you to make claims 34
    35. 35. Translations! 35 March 18, 2013 ADS Workshop
    36. 36. Non First Language English Speakers
    37. 37. Writing the methodology• Present in a stepwise fashion - anyone else should be able to follow the same procedures/plan.• Organise each section to show progression taken through data generation, gathering, processing, and analysis: – Identify what type of qualitative inquiry was used, explain rationale for this choice, discuss how the methodology is appropriate to answering the question under study, and provide supporting citations; – Include a full discussion of how participants were recruited; – Explain every step of data collection, provide a rationale for each of these research decisions, and identify what constitutes data in the study; – Describe each step of the generation, collection, processing, and analysis of the data and include illustrative examples; – Include a full discussion (including relevant literature) of every step taken to ensure rigor and trustworthiness; and – Describe how the results will be presented and how these findings are derived from your analysis. 37
    38. 38. Writing the findings • What could the findings mean? • Why are they significant? • From which theoretical standpoint do you interpret the findings? • What possible recommendations could come from the discussion? • Have you addressed the research question sufficiently? Henning 2003 38
    39. 39. Writing the conclusion • In a general way, restate your topic and why it is important, • restate your thesis/claim, • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position, • Call for action or overview future research possibilities. • Done. Complete. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message. • The preachers maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers: – Tell what youre going to tell them (introduction). – Tell them (body). – Tell them what you told them (conclusion). 39
    40. 40. 40
    41. 41. The end (again) 41
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