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Embedded systems: Future perspectives


This presentation describes the future perspectives of embedded devices due to the spread of ubiquitous applications. The presentation shows the transition from Internet of Things to Web of Things and …

This presentation describes the future perspectives of embedded devices due to the spread of ubiquitous applications. The presentation shows the transition from Internet of Things to Web of Things and presents Webinos as a platform for WoT

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  • 1. Embedded Systems: FuturePerspectivesLaurea Magistrale in Ingegneria InformaticaSistemi Embedded
  • 2. Outline¤  Pervasive Computing Definition¤  Internet of Things¤  Web of Things¤  State of the Art¤  Arduino introduction
  • 3. Mark Weiser’s Vision of PervasiveComputing The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it . Mark Weiser 1991
  • 4. Ubiquitous ComputingUbiquitous computing =Ability to handle informationfrom physical world +Ubiquitous connectivity
  • 5. PerComp: Basic Elements¤  Pervasive computing applications are characterized by the following basic elements ¤  Ubiquitous access ¤  Context-awareness ¤  Intelligence ¤  Natural interaction
  • 6. Ubiquitous Access ¤  Ubiquitous access refers to a situation in which users are surrounded by a multitude of interconnected embedded systems, which are mostly invisible and weaved into the background of the surrounding, like furniture, clothing, rooms, etc., and all of them able to sense the setting and state of physical world objects via a multitude of sensors. ¤  Internet of Things / Web of Things
  • 7. Context-awareness ¤  Context awareness refers to the ability of the system to recognise and localise objects as well as people and their intentions. ¤  The context of an application is understood as “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity”, an entity being “a person, place or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves” ¤  Issues ¤  Context discovery ¤  Context representation
  • 8. Intelligence ¤  Intelligence refers to the fact that a technology-rich environment is able to adapt itself to the people that live (or artefacts that reside) in it, learn from their behaviour, and possibly recognise as well as show emotion. ¤  Example ¤  Contextual advertising
  • 9. Natural Interaction ¤  Natural interaction finally refers to advanced modalities like natural speech and gesture recognition, as well as speech synthesis which will allow a much more human-like communication with the digital environment than is possible today. ¤  Example ¤  Gesture Recognition ¤  Speech Recognition
  • 10. PerComp: Enabling Technologies¤  Ubiquitous access is promisingly implemented based on a wireless communication infrastructure involving broadband satellite systems, cellular radio communication (e.g. GSM, GPRS, TETRA, DECT, EDGE, UMTS/IMT2000), personal and local area radio communication (e.g. Bluetooth, HomeRF, IEEE802.11, HiperLAN, HomeCast), infrared (IrDA) and ultrasonic communication.¤  Above these technologies, the capability of an object to identify, localize and track other objects, and to coordinate its activites with respect to and relative to the other objects is essential in pervasive computing systems: ¤  Identification (sensing the identity of a real world object), ¤  localization (sensing its position and movement in space), and ¤  coordination (relating it semantically to other objects and behavioral rules)
  • 11. Internet of Things¤  If all objects and people in daily life were equipped with radio tags, they could be identified and inventoried by computers.
  • 12. Identification: QR-Code, RFID, NFC¤  Near field communication (NFC) and Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) are wireless communication technologies that connect two wireless devices. The devices in NFC are placed close to each other, while in RFID, they can be situated at some distance because it uses radio frequency. Yet, its limitation is same as that of radio waves. The credit of discovering NFC technology goes to Sony and NXP semiconductors in 2002. Near field communications can be used in mobile phones while for radio frequency, we need separate devices. NFC technology is becoming more widely used because it is used for making payments with the help of smartphones. NFC technology can be embedded in a smartphone. Furthermore, RFID is an older technology than NFC. RFID can also be used for making payments, car- sharing, toll roads, and season parking tickets.
  • 13. 6LoWPAN¤  6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks.¤  The 6LoWPAN concept originated from the idea that "the Internet Protocol could and should be applied even to the smallest devices,” and that low-power devices with limited processing capabilities should be able to participate in the Internet of Things.¤  The 6LoWPAN group has defined encapsulation and header compression mechanisms that allow IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks.¤  Mapping between IPv6 and IEEE 802.15.4 standard packets
  • 14. Machine-to-Machine (M2M)¤  Machines cooperate with other machines¤  No user intervention¤  Typical machines: sensors, actuators¤  Typical applications: ¤  Monitoring ¤  Health
  • 15. From IoT to WoT¤  Internet of Things (IoT) ¤  Network of daily life objects (things) ¤  Identifiable things: RFID, QR-Code ¤  Lack of a standard communication protocol ¤  Fields: Tracking, domotic, health¤  Web of Things (WoT) ¤  Identifiable and controllable “smart things” ¤  Things are identified by URI ¤  Communication through RESTfull API
  • 16. Web of Things vs Internet of Things:what is the difference?¤  Internet = Interconnected networks ¤  They are interconnected via IP (Internet Protocol) ¤  There are IP addresses in the internet, no domain names such as ¤  Started around 1950 in a effort to make two computers talk to each other ¤  Manifold of protocols: DHCP, DHCPv6, DNS, FTP, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, LDAP, MGCP, NNTP, NTP, POP, RPC, RTP, RTSP, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SOCKS, SSH, Telnet, TLS/SSL, XMPP¤  Web = Linked documents and resources ¤  Uses HTTP ¤  The web needs the Internet underneath to function ¤  Started around 1980 in an effort to help people share data over the Internet
  • 17. The Web evolution
  • 18. Future trends Source: Cisco IBSG, 2011
  • 19. Future trends Source: Analysis Mason
  • 20. How to identify these objects?¤  Each object is available on Internet ¤  Handsets ¤  Appliances ¤  Every day objects¤  IPv4 (4,3 x 109 addresses)¤  IPv6 (3,4 x 1038 addresses)
  • 21. What’s REST?¤  Representational State Transfer or REST basically means that each unique URL is a representation of some object. You can get the contents of that object using an HTTP GET, to delete it, you then might use a POST, PUT, or DELETE to modify the object (in practice most of the services use a POST for this).¤  All of the major webservices on the Internet now use REST: Twitter, Yahoo’s web services use REST, others include Flickr,, pubsub, bloglines, technorati, and several others.
  • 22. REST vs SOAP - Main features¤  The main advantages of REST web services are: ¤  Lightweight – not a lot of extra xml markup ¤  Human Readable Results ¤  Easy to build – no toolkits required¤  SOAP also has some advantages: ¤  Easy to consume – sometimes ¤  Rigid – type checking, adheres to a contract ¤  Development tools
  • 23. JSON¤  JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data- interchange format. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language,¤  JSON is a text format that is completely language independent but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C-family of languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python, and many others.¤  These properties make JSON an ideal data-interchange language.
  • 25. WoT Platforms Social Networks of Things¤  REST Web technologies for API¤  JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)
  • 26. Cosm (Pachube)
  • 27. WoT Architecture
  • 28. WoT Requirements¤  Things discovery ¤  Identification, position¤  Multi-user access ¤  E.g. Network of temperature sensors¤  Privacy and access control ¤  Health applications¤  Low-level abstraction ¤  Several languages, Several hardware
  • 29. State of the art: The Webinos ProjectThe webinos project will define and deliver an Open Source Platformand software components for the Future Internet in the form of webruntime extensions, to enable web applications and services to beused and shared consistently and securely over a broad spectrum ofconverged and connected devices, including mobile, PC, home media(TV) and in-car units.
  • 30. Webinos features¤  Cross-platform ¤  Windows, Linux, OSX, Android¤  Cross-domain ¤  PC, Handsets, Entertainment, Automotive, Embedded systems (Pandaboard) ¤  As soon: Raspberry PI¤  Service Discovery¤  User Management¤  Security
  • 31. Webinos Personal Zones¤  A Personal Zone Virtually contains a set of devices owned by a user¤  PZ can include non-IP devices (BT, ZigBee)¤  Devices authenticate themselves to the PZH¤  PZHs can be bridged for inter-user communication
  • 32. Webinos Personal Zones
  • 33. Webinos Device/PZP Architecture 33
  • 34. Raspberry PIThe SoC is a Broadcom BCM2835. Thiscontains an ARM1176JZFS, withfloating point, running at 700Mhz, anda Videocore 4 GPU. The GPU iscapable of BluRay quality playback,using H.264 at 40MBits/s. It has a fast3D core accessed using the suppliedOpenGL ES2.0 and OpenVG libraries.
  • 35. Arduino
  • 36. Contacts¤  Giuseppe La Torre ¤ ¤