What's New in Groovy 1.6?
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What's New in Groovy 1.6?

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    What's New in Groovy 1.6? What's New in Groovy 1.6? Presentation Transcript

    • What’s new in Groovy 1.6 Guillaume Laforge SpringSource Groovy Project Manager
    • Guillaume Laforge Groovy Project Manager — SpringSource
      • Working on Groovy since 2003
      • JSR-241 Spec Lead
      • Initiator of the Grails web framework
      • Co-author of Groovy in Action
      • Speaker: JavaOne, QCon, JavaPolis/Devoxx, JavaZone, Sun Tech Days, SpringOne/The Spring Experience, JAX, DSL DevCon, and more…
    • What’s new in Groovy 1.6? Article Published by InfoQ
      • This presentation was prepared with the examples I’ve used in my article written for InfoQ
      • http://www. infoq . com/articles/groovy-1-6
      • Read this article for more detailed explanations of all the new features in Groovy 1.6
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • Groovy in a Nutshell Simplify the Life of Java Developers
      • Groovy is a dynamic language for the Java Virtual Machine
        • With a Meta-Object Protocol
        • Compiles down to bytecode
      • Open Source Apache licensed project
      • Relaxed grammar derived from the Java 5 grammar
        • Borrowed some good ideas from Smalltalk/Python/Ruby
        • Java 5 features out of the box: annotations , generics , static imports, enums…
        • Flat learning curve
    • Features at a Glance Lots More Than This!
      • Fully Object-Oriented
      • Joint compiler : seamless Java integration
      • Closures : reusable blocks of code / anon functions
      • Properties : forget about getters and setters
      • Optional typing: your choice!
      • BigDecimal arithmetic by default for floating point
      • Handy APIs
        • XML, JDBC, JMX, template engine, Swing UIs
      • Strong ability for authoring Domain-Specific Languages
        • Syntax-level “builders”
        • Adding properties to numbers: 10.dollars
        • Operator overloading: 10.meters + 20.kilometers
    • A Taste of Groovy — Take 1 A Normal Java Program
      • public class HelloWorld { private String name; public void setName(String name) { this.name = name; } public String getName() { return name; } public String greet() { return "Hello " + name; } public static void main(String[] args) { HelloWorld helloWorld = new HelloWorld(); helloWorld.setName("Groovy"); System.out.println( helloWorld.greet() ); } }
    • A Taste of Groovy — Take 2 A Valid Groovy Program
      • public class HelloWorld { private String name; public void setName(String name) { this.name = name; } public String getName() { return name; } public String greet() { return "Hello " + name; } public static void main(String[] args) { HelloWorld helloWorld = new HelloWorld(); helloWorld.setName("Groovy"); System.out.println( helloWorld.greet() ); } }
    • A Taste of Groovy — Take 3 A Groovier Program!
      • class HelloWorld { String name String greet() { "Hello $name" } } def helloWorld = new HelloWorld(name: "Groovy") println helloWorld.greet()
    • The Groovy Web Console A Groovy Playground
      • Groovy works nicely on Google App Engine
        • You can also deploy Grails applications
      • You can play with Groovy in the web console
        • http: //groovyconsole . appspot . com/
    • The Groovy Web Console A Screenshot
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • Performance Improvements Both Runtime & Compile-Time
      • The Groovyc compiler is 3x to 5x faster
        • With a clever class lookup cache
      • Certain online micro-benchmarks show 150% to 460% increase in performance compared to Groovy 1.5
        • Thanks to advanced call-site caching techniques
        • Beware of micro-benchmarks!
      • Makes Groovy one of the fastest dynamic languages available
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • Multiple Assignment Assign Multiple Variables at Once
      • Newly defined variables
        • def (a, b) = [1, 2] assert a == 1 assert b == 2
      • Assign to existing variables
        • def lat, lng (lat, lng) = geocode(‘Paris’)
      • The classical swap case
        • (a, b) = [b, a]
      • Extra elements  not assigned to any variable
      • Less elements  null into extra variables
    • More Optional Return In if/else and try/catch Blocks
      • The return keyword is optional for the last expression of a method body
        • But if / else & try / catch didn’t return any value
      • def method() { if (true) 1 else 0 } assert method() == 1
      • def method(bool) { try { if (bool) throw new Exception("foo") 1 } catch(e) { 2 } finally { 3 } } assert method(false) == 1 assert method(true) == 2
    • Annotation Definition The Missing Bit of Java 5 Support
      • Groovy support for Java 5 features is now complete with the missing annotation definition
      • Nothing to show here, it’s just normal Java :-)
      • Note that the sole dynamic language supporting annotation is… Groovy
        • Opens the door to EJB3 / JPA / Spring annotations / Guice / TestNG…
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • Meta-What? Meta-Programming
      • The ability of a language to modify itself
      • Groovy 1.6 introduces AST Transformations
        • Abstract Syntax Tree
      • Goodbye to a lot of boiler-plate technical code!
      • Two kinds of transformations
        • Global transformations
        • Local transformations: triggered by annotations
    • AST Transformations in Groovy 1.6 Implement Patterns through Transformations
      • Several transformations finds their way
        • @Singleton — okay, not really a pattern ;-)
        • @Immutable , @Lazy , @Delegate
        • @Newify
        • @Category and @Mixin
        • @PackageScope
        • Swing’s @Bindable and @Vetoable
        • Grape’s @Grab
      • Let’s have a look at some of them!
    • @Singleton (Anti-)Pattern Revisited
      • The evil Java singleton
        • public class Evil { public static final Evil instance = new Evil (); private Evil () {} Evil getInstance() { return instance; } }
      • In Groovy:
        • @Singleton class Evil {}
      • There’s also a « lazy » version
        • @Singleton(lazy = true) class Evil {}
    • @Immutable The Immutable… Boiler-Plate Code
      • To properly implement immutable classes
        • No mutators (state musn’t change)
        • Private final fields
        • Defensive copying of mutable components
        • Proper equals() / hashCode() / toString() for comparisons or for keys in maps, etc.
      • In Groovy
        • @Immutable final class Coordinates { Double lat, lng } def c1 = new Coordinates(lat: 48.8, lng: 2.5) def c2 = new Coordinates(48.8, 2.5) assert c1 == c2
    • @Lazy Not Just for Lazy Dudes!
      • When you need to lazy evaluate / instantiate complex data structures for class fields, mark them as @Lazy
        • class Dude { @Lazy pets = retrieveFromSlowDB() }
      • Groovy will handle the boiler-plate code for you
    • @Delegate Not Just for Managers!
      • You can delegate to fields of your class
        • Think multiple inheritance
        • class Employee { def doTheWork() { "done" } } class Manager { @Delegate Employee slave = new Employee() } def god = new Manager() assert god.doTheWork() == "done"
      • Damn manager who will get all the praise…
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • Grab a Grape Groovy Advanced Packaging Engine
      • Helps you distribute scripts without dependencies
      • Just declare your dependencies with @Grab
        • Will look for dependencies in Maven or Ivy repositories
      • @Grab(group = 'org.mortbay.jetty', module = 'jetty-embedded', version = '6.1.0') def startServer() { def srv = new Server(8080) def ctx = new Context(srv , "/", SESSIONS); ctx.resourceBase = "." ctx.addServlet(GroovyServlet, "*.groovy") srv.start() }
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • @Bindable (1/2) Event-Driven Made Easy
      • Speaking of boiler-plate code… property change listeners
      • import java.beans.PropertyChangeSupport; import java.beans.PropertyChangeListener; public class MyBean { private String prop; PropertyChangeSupport pcs = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener l) { pcs.add(l); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener l) { pcs.remove(l); }
      • public String getProp() {
      • return prop; }
      • public void setProp(String prop) { pcs.firePropertyChanged("prop", this.prop, this.prop = prop); } }
    • @Bindable (2/2) Event-Driven Made Easy
      • Groovy’s solution
        • class MyBean { @Bindable String prop }
      • Interesting in Griffon and Swing builder
        • textField text: bind { myBean.prop }
      • Also of interest: @Vetoable
    • Griffon The Swing MVC Framework
      • Leverages Groovy’s SwingBuilder and Grails’ infrastructure
        • http://griffon.codehaus.org
      • Don’t miss the “Griffon in Depth” BOF-5189!
        • Wednesday 8:45pm, Gateway 104
    • Swing Console Improvements
      • The console can be run as an applet
      • Code indentation support
      • Script drag’n drop
      • Add JARs in the classpath from the GUI
      • Execution results visualization plugin
      • Clickable stacktraces and error messages
      • Not intended to be a full-blown IDE, but handy
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • ExpandoMetaClass DSL Less Repetition
      • EMC is a way to change the behavior of types at runtime
      • Before
        • Number.metaClass.multiply = { Amount amount -> amount.times(delegate) } Number.metaClass.div = { Amount amount -> amount.inverse().times(delegate) }
      • Now in Groovy 1.6
        • Number.metaClass { multiply { Amount amount -> amount.times(delegate) } div { Amount amount -> amount.inverse().times(delegate) } }
    • Runtime Mixins Inject New Behavior to Types at Runtime
      • class FlyingAbility { def fly() { "I'm ${name} and I fly!" } } class JamesBondVehicle { String getName() { "James Bond's vehicle" } } JamesBondVehicle.mixin FlyingAbility assert new JamesBondVehicle().fly() == "I'm James Bond's vehicle and I fly!"
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • javax.script.* Scripting APIs Groovy Scripting Engine Built-In
      • In Groovy 1.6, the JSR-223 / javax.script. * scripting engine for Groovy is bundled
        • import javax.script.* def manager = new ScriptEngineManager() def engine = manager.getEngineByName("groovy") assert engine.evaluate("2 + 3") == 5
      • To evaluate Groovy scripts at runtime in your application, just drop the Groovy JAR in your classpath!
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • JMX Builder (1/2) Domain-Specific Language for JMX
      • Simplify JMX handling with a Builder pattern approach
      • Declaratively expose Java/Groovy objects as MBeans
      • JMX's event model support
        • Inline closures to create event handler & broadcaster
        • Closures for receiving event notifications
      • Provides a flexible registration policy for MBean
      • Exposes attribute, constructors, operations, parameters, and notifications
      • Simplified creation of connector servers & clients
      • Support for exporting JMX timers
      • http: //groovy . codehaus . org/Groovy + JmxBuilder
    • JMX Builder (2/2) Examples
      • Create a connector server
        • def jmx = new JmxBuilder() jmx.connectorServer(port:9000).start()
      • Create a connector client
        • jmx.connectorClient(port:9000).connect()
      • Ex port a bean
        • jmx.export { bean new MyService() }
      • Defining a timer
        • jmx.timer(name: "jmx.builder:type=Timer", event: "heartbeat", period: "1s").start()
      • JMX listener
        • jmx.listener(event: "…", from: "foo", call: { event -> …})
    • Agenda
      • Groovy Overview
      • Performance Improvements
      • Syntax Enhancements
      • Compile-Time Metaprogramming
      • The Grape Module System
      • Swing-Related Improvements
      • Runtime Metaprogramming Additions
      • JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In
      • JMX Builder
      • OSGi Readiness
    • OSGi Readiness
      • The Groovy JAR contains OSGi metadata
        • Can be reused in OSGi containers out-of-the-box
      • Tutorials on Groovy and OSGi
        • http: //groovy . codehaus . org/OSGi + and + Groovy
        • Will show you how to load Groovy as a service, write, publish and consume Groovy services, and more
    • Summary
    • Summary Just Remember that Groovy Rocks! :-)
      • Groovy 1.6 provides
        • Important performance gains
        • Efficient compile-time metaprogramming hooks
        • New useful features (JMX, javax.script.*, etc.)
        • A script dependencies system
        • Various Swing-related improvements
        • Several runtime metaprogramming additions
      • Get it now!
        • http://groovy.codehaus.org/Download
    • Guillaume Laforge [email_address]