• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Lift off with Groovy 2 at JavaOne 2013
 

Lift off with Groovy 2 at JavaOne 2013

on

  • 1,242 views

Presentations on the features of the Groovy 2.x line

Presentations on the features of the Groovy 2.x line

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,242
Views on SlideShare
1,242
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
26
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Lift off with Groovy 2 at JavaOne 2013 Lift off with Groovy 2 at JavaOne 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • © 2013 Guillaume Laforge. All rights reserved. Do not distribute without permission. GuillaumeLaforge @glaforge  Lift-offwithGroovy2 ...andbeyond!
    • © 2013 Guillaume Laforge. All rights reserved. Do not distribute without permission. GuillaumeLaforge @glaforge  Lift-offwithGroovy2 ...andbeyond!
    • GuillaumeLaforge @glaforge  http://glaforge.appspot.com  http://gplus.to/glaforge 
    • GuillaumeLaforge @glaforge  http://glaforge.appspot.com  http://gplus.to/glaforge  Presentation will be uploaded to https://speakerdeck.com/glaforge
    • A dynamic language, optionally typed Groovy
    • ...statically type checked and compiled as needed Groovy
    • Syntax deriving from Java, thus easy to learn Groovy
    • million downloads in 2012 1.7
    • 10
    • Ablossoming Ecosystem
    • GVM
    • Let’s start the engine Modularity Java 7: ProjectCoin & invokedynamic Static typechecking & compilation
    • Modularity « Not everybody needs everything, all the time, at the same time! »
    • Groovy modularity • The « groovy-all » weighted... 6 MB ! • In addition to the language, we have APIs: – template engine,Ant task scripting, Swing UI builder, JMX builder... • We want a lighter « core » – with APIs in the form of modules • Ability to wire in « extension methods » 16
    • The new JARs • One smaller core JAR of 3 MB • Modules – console – docgenerator – groovydoc – groovysh – ant – bsf – jsr-223 – jmx – sql – swing – servlet – templates – test – testng – json – xml 17
    • The new JARs • One smaller core JAR of 3 MB • Modules – console – docgenerator – groovydoc – groovysh – ant – bsf – jsr-223 – jmx – sql – swing – servlet – templates – test – testng – json – xml 17
    • « Let’s go shopping »
    • Extension modules • Create your own extension module – contribute instance methods package  foo class  StringExtension  {        static  introduces(String  self,  String  name)  {                "Hi  ${name),  I’m  ${self}"        } } //  usage:  "Guillaume".introduces("Cédric") 19
    • Extension modules • Create your own extension module – contribute instance methods package  foo class  StringExtension  {        static  introduces(String  self,  String  name)  {                "Hi  ${name),  I’m  ${self}"        } } //  usage:  "Guillaume".introduces("Cédric") Same structure as categories 19
    • Extension modules • Create your own extension module – contribute static methods 20 package  foo class  StaticStringExtension  {        static  hi(String  self)  {                "Hi!"        } } //  usage:  String.hi()
    • Extension module descriptor • META-INF/ – services/ •org.codehaus.groovy.runtime.ExtensionModule moduleName  =  stringExtensions moduleVersion  =  1.0 //  comma  separated  list  of  FQN  class  names extensionClasses  =  foo.StringExtension //  comma  separated  list  of  FQN  class  names staticExtensionClasses  =   foo.StaticStringExtension 21
    • Java 7 theme « ProjectCoin » syntax InvokeDynamic support
    • Binary literals • In addition to decimal, octal and hexa • A new binary representation: int  x  =  0b10101111 assert  x  ==  175   byte  aByte  =  0b00100001 assert  aByte  ==  33   int  anInt  =  0b1010000101000101 assert  anInt  ==  41285 23
    • Underscores in literals • Use underscores in number literals long  creditCardNumber  =  1234_5678_9012_3456L long  socialSecurityNumbers  =  999_99_9999L float  monetaryAmount  =  12_345_132.12 long  hexBytes  =  0xFF_EC_DE_5E long  hexWords  =  0xFFEC_DE5E long  maxLong  =  0x7fff_ffff_ffff_ffffL long  alsoMaxLong  =  9_223_372_036_854_775_807L long  bytes  =  0b11010010_01101001_10010100_10010010 25
    • Multi-catch exception blocks • A single catch block to catch several exceptions at once, rather than duplicating blocks try  {        /*  ...  */ }  catch(IOException  |  NullPointerException  e)  {        /*  un  seul  bloc  */ } 26
    • Woot!
    • JDK 7 Invoke Dynamic support • A « flag » to compile with « indy » – we might propose a backport for JDK < 7 • Avantages – more runtime performance •well... in theory... – In the long term, we might replace •« call site caching » ➔ MethodHandles •« metaclass registry » ➔ ClassValues – and the JIT « inlines » code more easily 28
    • A « static » theme Static type checking Static compilation
    • Static type checking • Goal: make the compiler grumpy! – throw errors at compile-time •rather than at runtime 30
    • We don’t need dynamic features all the time!
    • We don’t need dynamic features all the time! Nah !
    • Static type checking • A « grumpy » compiler should... – say when there’s a typo in a method or variable name – complain when a non-existent method is called – or on bad assignments or use a bad return type 32
    • Static type checking • The compiler should infer types... – less explicit types and casts – fine grained type inference •« flow typing » •« lowest upper bound » 33
    • Static type checking • But the compiler should understand extension methods – allows a good level of dynamism, despite the additional restrictions 34
    • Typos import  groovy.transform.TypeChecked   void  method()  {}   @TypeChecked  test()  {        //  Cannot  find  matching  method  metthhoood()        metthhoood()          def  name  =  "Guillaume"        //  variable  naamme  is  undeclared        println  naamme } 35
    • Typos import  groovy.transform.TypeChecked   void  method()  {}   @TypeChecked  test()  {        //  Cannot  find  matching  method  metthhoood()        metthhoood()          def  name  =  "Guillaume"        //  variable  naamme  is  undeclared        println  naamme } Compilation error 35
    • Typos import  groovy.transform.TypeChecked   void  method()  {}   @TypeChecked  test()  {        //  Cannot  find  matching  method  metthhoood()        metthhoood()          def  name  =  "Guillaume"        //  variable  naamme  is  undeclared        println  naamme } Compilation error Compilation error 35
    • Typos import  groovy.transform.TypeChecked   void  method()  {}   @TypeChecked  test()  {        //  Cannot  find  matching  method  metthhoood()        metthhoood()          def  name  =  "Guillaume"        //  variable  naamme  is  undeclared        println  naamme } Compilation error Compilation error Annotation at the method or class level 35
    • Wrong variable assignments //  cannot  assign  value  of  type...  to  variable... int  x  =  new  Object() Set  set  =  new  Object()   String[]  strings  =  ['a','b','c'] int  str  =  strings[0]   //  cannot  find  matching  method  plus() int  i  =  0 i  +=  '1' 36
    • Wrong variable assignments //  cannot  assign  value  of  type...  to  variable... int  x  =  new  Object() Set  set  =  new  Object()   String[]  strings  =  ['a','b','c'] int  str  =  strings[0]   //  cannot  find  matching  method  plus() int  i  =  0 i  +=  '1' Compilation error 36
    • Wrong variable assignments //  cannot  assign  value  of  type...  to  variable... int  x  =  new  Object() Set  set  =  new  Object()   String[]  strings  =  ['a','b','c'] int  str  =  strings[0]   //  cannot  find  matching  method  plus() int  i  =  0 i  +=  '1' Compilation error Compilation error 36
    • Wrong variable assignments //  cannot  assign  value  of  type...  to  variable... int  x  =  new  Object() Set  set  =  new  Object()   String[]  strings  =  ['a','b','c'] int  str  =  strings[0]   //  cannot  find  matching  method  plus() int  i  =  0 i  +=  '1' Compilation error Compilation error Compilation error 36
    • Wrong return type //  checks  if/else  branch  return  values @TypeChecked int  method()  {        if  (true)  {  'String'  }        else  {  42  } } //  works  for  switch/case  &  try/catch/finally   //  transparent  toString()  implied @TypeChecked String  greeting(String  name)  {        def  sb  =  new  StringBuilder()        sb  <<  "Hi  "  <<  name } 37
    • Wrong return type //  checks  if/else  branch  return  values @TypeChecked int  method()  {        if  (true)  {  'String'  }        else  {  42  } } //  works  for  switch/case  &  try/catch/finally   //  transparent  toString()  implied @TypeChecked String  greeting(String  name)  {        def  sb  =  new  StringBuilder()        sb  <<  "Hi  "  <<  name } Compilation error 37
    • Wrong return type //  checks  if/else  branch  return  values @TypeChecked int  method()  {        if  (true)  {  'String'  }        else  {  42  } } //  works  for  switch/case  &  try/catch/finally   //  transparent  toString()  implied @TypeChecked String  greeting(String  name)  {        def  sb  =  new  StringBuilder()        sb  <<  "Hi  "  <<  name } Compilation error In the end, call StringBuilder’s toString() 37
    • Type inference @TypeChecked  test()  {        def  name  =  "    Guillaume    "          //  String  type  infered  (even  inside  GString)        println  "NAME  =  ${name.toUpperCase()}"            //  Groovy  GDK  method  support        //  (GDK  operator  overloading  too)        println  name.trim()          int[]  numbers  =  [1,  2,  3]        //  Element  n  is  an  int        for  (int  n  in  numbers)  {                println  n        } } 38
    • Type inference @TypeChecked  test()  {        def  name  =  "    Guillaume    "          //  String  type  infered  (even  inside  GString)        println  "NAME  =  ${name.toUpperCase()}"            //  Groovy  GDK  method  support        //  (GDK  operator  overloading  too)        println  name.trim()          int[]  numbers  =  [1,  2,  3]        //  Element  n  is  an  int        for  (int  n  in  numbers)  {                println  n        } } Variable optionally typed 38
    • Type inference @TypeChecked  test()  {        def  name  =  "    Guillaume    "          //  String  type  infered  (even  inside  GString)        println  "NAME  =  ${name.toUpperCase()}"            //  Groovy  GDK  method  support        //  (GDK  operator  overloading  too)        println  name.trim()          int[]  numbers  =  [1,  2,  3]        //  Element  n  is  an  int        for  (int  n  in  numbers)  {                println  n        } } Variable optionally typed Type String infered 38
    • Type inference @TypeChecked  test()  {        def  name  =  "    Guillaume    "          //  String  type  infered  (even  inside  GString)        println  "NAME  =  ${name.toUpperCase()}"            //  Groovy  GDK  method  support        //  (GDK  operator  overloading  too)        println  name.trim()          int[]  numbers  =  [1,  2,  3]        //  Element  n  is  an  int        for  (int  n  in  numbers)  {                println  n        } } Variable optionally typed trim() method added dynamically by Groovy Type String infered 38
    • Type inference @TypeChecked  test()  {        def  name  =  "    Guillaume    "          //  String  type  infered  (even  inside  GString)        println  "NAME  =  ${name.toUpperCase()}"            //  Groovy  GDK  method  support        //  (GDK  operator  overloading  too)        println  name.trim()          int[]  numbers  =  [1,  2,  3]        //  Element  n  is  an  int        for  (int  n  in  numbers)  {                println  n        } } Variable optionally typed Array element type inferred trim() method added dynamically by Groovy Type String infered 38
    • Mix dynamic & statically checked code @TypeChecked String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } 39
    • Mix dynamic & statically checked code @TypeChecked String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } Statically checked 39
    • Mix dynamic & statically checked code @TypeChecked String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } Statically checked Dynamic 39
    • Instanceof checks @TypeChecked   void  test(Object  val)  {        if  (val  instanceof  String)  {                println  val.toUpperCase()        }  else  if  (val  instanceof  Number)  {                println  "X"  *  val.intValue()        } } 40
    • Instanceof checks @TypeChecked   void  test(Object  val)  {        if  (val  instanceof  String)  {                println  val.toUpperCase()        }  else  if  (val  instanceof  Number)  {                println  "X"  *  val.intValue()        } } No need for casts 40
    • Instanceof checks @TypeChecked   void  test(Object  val)  {        if  (val  instanceof  String)  {                println  val.toUpperCase()        }  else  if  (val  instanceof  Number)  {                println  "X"  *  val.intValue()        } } No need for casts No need for casts 40
    • Instanceof checks @TypeChecked   void  test(Object  val)  {        if  (val  instanceof  String)  {                println  val.toUpperCase()        }  else  if  (val  instanceof  Number)  {                println  "X"  *  val.intValue()        } } No need for casts No need for castsUnderstand GDK’s method: String#multiply(int) 40
    • Lowest Upper Bound • The smallest common « super » type – might be virtual (« non-denotable ») @TypeChecked  test()  {        //  an  integer  and  a  BigDecimal        return  [1234,  3.14] } 41
    • Lowest Upper Bound • The smallest common « super » type – might be virtual (« non-denotable ») @TypeChecked  test()  {        //  an  integer  and  a  BigDecimal        return  [1234,  3.14] } Infered type: List<T extends Number & Comparable & Serializable> 41
    • Flow typing • Static type checking « follows » the type of values assigned into variables @TypeChecked  test()  {        def  var  =  123                  //  int  infered        int  x  =  var                      //  var  is  an  int        var  =  "123"                      //  assign  a  String  into  var        x  =  var.toInteger()      //  no  cast  needed        var  =  123        x  =  var.toUpperCase()  //  error,  var  is  an  int  ! } 42
    • Not really clean, your code!
    • Not really clean, your code! Grmmpf...no!
    • Static type checking and dynamic code •Type checking happens at compile-time – @TypeChecked doesn’t change behavior! •do not confound with static compilation • Most dynamic features can’t be checked – metaclass changes, categories... – dynamic variables from the « script binding » • But compile-time metaprogramming OK – if enough type information is available 44
    • But if it ain’t dynamic, can we compile it statically?
    • But if it ain’t dynamic, can we compile it statically? But of course!!!
    • Static compilation • Given the code is statically type checked, lots of type information was infered... so we can as well compile statically ! – ie. generate the same bytecode as javac • Also interesting when stuck on JDK < 7 to gain performance improvements 46
    • Avantages of static compilation • We gain: – type safety •thanks to static type checking –the compiler builds upon it – better performance •close to Java’s performance – code immune to « monkey patching » •dynamic metaprogramming can interfere with your framework’s code – smaller generated bytecode 47
    • I canz do what I want wiz your code
    • I canz do what I want wiz your code Niark !
    • Drawbacks for static compilation • We lose... – Some dynamic features •metaclass changes, categories – Method « dynamic dispatch » can differ •but thanks to type inference, it’s as close as «classical» Groovy as possible 49
    • Mix statically compiled code with dynamic @CompileStatic String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } 50
    • Mix statically compiled code with dynamic @CompileStatic String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } Statically compiled 50
    • Mix statically compiled code with dynamic @CompileStatic String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } Statically compiled Dynamic 50
    • Mix statically compiled code with dynamic @CompileStatic String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } Statically compiled Dynamic Call a method with dynamic content 50
    • Mix statically compiled code with dynamic @CompileStatic String  greeting(String  name)  {        //  call  method  with  dynamic  behavior        //  but  with  proper  signature        generateMarkup(name.toUpperCase()) }   //  usual  dynamic  behavior String  generateMarkup(String  name)  {        def  sw  =  new  StringWriter()        new  MarkupBuilder(sw).html  {                body  {                        div  name                }        }        sw.toString() } Statically compiled Dynamic Call a method with dynamic content Method signatures are a contract! 50
    • What about performance? • Comparisons between: – Java – Groovy •with static compilation (Groovy 2.0) •with primitive type optimization (Groovy 1.8) •no optimization (Groovy 1.7) 51
    • What about performance? Fibonacci Pi (π) quadrature Binary trees Java Static compilation Primitive optimizations No prim. optimizations 191 ms 97 ms 3.6 s 197 ms 101 ms 4.3 s 360 ms 111 ms 23.7 s 2590 ms 3220 ms 50.0 s 1.71.82.x 52
    • ...and now, onto Groovy2.1 Complete Invoke Dynamic support Meta-annotations Advanced compilerconfiguration Typecheckerextensions
    • Invoke Dynamic Complete support of Invoke Dynamic
    • Meta-annotations One annotation to rule them all!
    • Meta-annotations • Create meta-annotations which combine and/or parameterize other annotations • And which work with AST transformations 56
    • Meta-annotations @Immutable @ToString(excludes  =  ["age"]) @AnnotationCollector @interface  MyAlias  {} 57
    • Meta-annotations @Immutable @ToString(excludes  =  ["age"]) @AnnotationCollector @interface  MyAlias  {} Collected annotations 57
    • Meta-annotations @Immutable @ToString(excludes  =  ["age"]) @AnnotationCollector @interface  MyAlias  {} Collected annotations The collector 57
    • Meta-annotations @Immutable @ToString(excludes  =  ["age"]) @AnnotationCollector @interface  MyAlias  {} Collected annotations The collector Your own annotation alias 57
    • Meta-annotations @Immutable @ToString(excludes  =  ["age"]) @AnnotationCollector @interface  MyAlias  {} @MyAlias class  Person  {        String  name        int  age } Collected annotations The collector Your own annotation alias 57
    • Meta-annotations @Immutable @ToString(excludes  =  ["age"]) @AnnotationCollector @interface  MyAlias  {} @MyAlias class  Person  {        String  name        int  age } Collected annotations The collector Your own annotation alias Use your meta- annotation 57
    • @DelegatesTo annotation Richer tooling support for Domain-Specific Languages
    • @DelegatesTo annotation • Static type checking works fine with a certain range of DSLs – « command chains », extension methods... • But less for DSLs using closure delegation – often used by DSLs like in Gradle task  copyTask(type:  Copy)  {        from  'src/main/webapp'        into  'build/explodedWar' } 59
    • @DelegatesTo annotation exec(spec)  {        foo() } 60
    • @DelegatesTo annotation class  ExecSpec  {        void  foo() } exec(spec)  {        foo() } 60
    • @DelegatesTo annotation class  ExecSpec  {        void  foo() } void  exec(ExecSpec  sp,  Closure  c)  {        c.delegate  =  sp        c() } exec(spec)  {        foo() } 60
    • @DelegatesTo annotation class  ExecSpec  {        void  foo() } void  exec(ExecSpec  sp,  Closure  c)  {        c.delegate  =  sp        c() } exec(spec)  {        foo() } The static type checker doesn’t know about method foo() 60
    • @DelegatesTo annotation class  ExecSpec  {        void  foo() } void  exec(ExecSpec  sp,  Closure  c)  {        c.delegate  =  sp        c() } exec(spec)  {        foo() } Annotate with @DelegatesTo(ExecSpec) The static type checker doesn’t know about method foo() 60
    • @DelegatesTo annotation • With another delegation strategy void  exec(ExecSpec  sp,  Closure  c)  {        c.delegate  =  sp        c.resolveStrategy  =  DELEGATE_FIRST        c() } 61
    • @DelegatesTo annotation • With another delegation strategy void  exec(ExecSpec  sp,  Closure  c)  {        c.delegate  =  sp        c.resolveStrategy  =  DELEGATE_FIRST        c() } Annotate with @DelegatesTo(value = ExecSpec, strategy = DELEGATE_FIRST) 61
    • @DelegatesTo annotation • Very interesting for DSLs using closure’s delegation strategy • Excellent for... – documenting your APIs – the integration within the IDE •code completion, code navigation – works well with static type checking and static compilation 62
    • Extend the static type checker To go even further than Java itself!
    • Extend the static type checker • Extend the type checker to make it smarter! – even smarter than Java’s! :-) • By creating your own extension @TypeChecked(extensions  =                            'MyExtension.groovy') void  exec()  {        //  code  to  be  further  checked... } 64
    • Extend the static type checker • Extend the type checker to make it smarter! – even smarter than Java’s! :-) • By creating your own extension @TypeChecked(extensions  =                            'MyExtension.groovy') void  exec()  {        //  code  to  be  further  checked... } We could use a meta-annotation 64
    • Extend the static type checker • Help the static type checker when... – impossible to infer types – no matching method found – no matching attribute found – on wrong variable assignment – ... 65
    • Extend the static type checker • Your extension has access to an event- oriented API 66 • onMethodSelection • afterMethodCall • beforeMethodCall • afterVisitMethod • beforeVisitMethod • methodNotFound • unresolvedVariable • unresolvedProperty • unresolvedAttribute • incompatibleAssignment
    • Extend the static type checker onMethodSelection  {  expr,  method  -­‐>  ...  } afterMethodCall  {  mc  -­‐>  ...  } unresolvedVariable  {  var  -­‐>  ...  } methodNotFound  {  receiver,  name,  argList,  argTypes,  call  -­‐>  ...  } incompatibleAssignment  {  lhsType,  rhsType,  expr  -­‐>  ...  } 67
    • Extend the static type checker onMethodSelection  {  expr,  method  -­‐>  ...  } afterMethodCall  {  mc  -­‐>  ...  } unresolvedVariable  {  var  -­‐>  ...  } methodNotFound  {  receiver,  name,  argList,  argTypes,  call  -­‐>  ...  } incompatibleAssignment  {  lhsType,  rhsType,  expr  -­‐>  ...  } MyExtension.groovy 67
    • Extend the static type checker onMethodSelection  {  expr,  method  -­‐>  ...  } afterMethodCall  {  mc  -­‐>  ...  } unresolvedVariable  {  var  -­‐>  ...  } methodNotFound  {  receiver,  name,  argList,  argTypes,  call  -­‐>  ...  } incompatibleAssignment  {  lhsType,  rhsType,  expr  -­‐>  ...  } MyExtension.groovy Learn your Groovy AST! 67
    • Extend the static type checker onMethodSelection  {  expr,  method  -­‐>  ...  } afterMethodCall  {  mc  -­‐>  ...  } unresolvedVariable  {  var  -­‐>  ...  } methodNotFound  {  receiver,  name,  argList,  argTypes,  call  -­‐>  ...  } incompatibleAssignment  {  lhsType,  rhsType,  expr  -­‐>  ...  } MyExtension.groovy Learn your Groovy AST! No need to be pre-compiled 67
    • Extend the static type checker • A few examples – check that a string is a valid SQL query – check the arguments and types of sprintf() method calls so they match the pattern 68
    • Compiler configuration Custom base script class Configuration script Configuration DSL
    • Compiler customization • Groovy 1.8 introduced « customizers » – add imports transparently – apply AST transformations by default – filter / secure scripts • With the « static type checker » and « static compilation », we were asked if we could apply them by default 70
    • Compiler customization • New options – --basescript to define a base script class for your scripts – --configscript to indicate a script to configure the CompilerConfiguration object 71
    • Compiler customization • Add the @ToString AST transformation import  groovy.transform.ToString import  org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers              .ASTTransformationCustomizer configuration.addCompilationCustomizer(        new  ASTTransformationCustomizer(ToString) ) 72
    • Compiler customization • Add the @ToString AST transformation import  groovy.transform.ToString import  org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers              .ASTTransformationCustomizer configuration.addCompilationCustomizer(        new  ASTTransformationCustomizer(ToString) ) CompilerConfiguration instance, injected by default 72
    • Compiler customization • A small DSL to configure the customization configuration.customizers  {        //  apply  to  MyBean.groovy        source(basename:  'MyBean')  {                ast(ToString)        } } 73
    • Compiler customization • A small DSL to configure the customization configuration.customizers  {        //  apply  to  MyBean.groovy        source(basename:  'MyBean')  {                ast(ToString)        } } configuration.customizers  {        //  apply  to  *.gbean  files        source(extension:  '.gbean')   {                ast(ToString)        } } 73
    • Compiler customization • A small DSL to configure the customization configuration.customizers  {        //  apply  to  MyBean.groovy        source(basename:  'MyBean')  {                ast(ToString)        } } configuration.customizers  {        //  apply  to  *.gbean  files        source(extension:  '.gbean')   {                ast(ToString)        } } configuration.customizers  {        //  custom  filter  logic        source(unitValidator:  {  unit  -­‐>  ...  })   {                ast(ToString)                imports  {                        staticStar  'java.lang.Math'                }        } } 73
    • To learn more... Groovy2.0 http://groovy.codehaus.org/Groovy+2.0+release+notes Groovy2.1 http://groovy.codehaus.org/Groovy+2.1+release+notes
    • And what’s next? Groovy2.2,2.3&3 ! New « MOP » NewGrammar with Antlr v4 Java8Lambdassupport
    • A few words about the roadmap 2014201420132012 Groovy 2.1 Groovy 2.0Groovy 2.0 Groovy 2.2 Groovy 2.3 76 Groovy 3.0
    • A few words about the roadmap 2014201420132012 Groovy 2.1 Groovy 2.0Groovy 2.0 Groovy 2.2 Groovy 2.3 76 Groovy 3.0
    • A few words about the roadmap 2014201420132012 Groovy 2.1 Groovy 2.0Groovy 2.0 Groovy 2.2 Groovy 2.3 76 Groovy 3.0
    • Groovy 2.2 Implicitclosurecoercion @Memoized transformation DelegatingScript base script class
    • Implicit closure coercion 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) list.filter((it)  -­‐>  it.age  >  18) Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) list.filter((it)  -­‐>  it.age  >  18) Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... Java 8 lambdas can be more concise than Groovy! 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) list.filter((it)  -­‐>  it.age  >  18) list.filter({  it.age  >  18  }  as  Predicate) Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... Java 8 lambdas can be more concise than Groovy! 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) list.filter((it)  -­‐>  it.age  >  18) list.filter  {  it.age  >  18  }   Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... Java 8 lambdas can be more concise than Groovy! 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) list.filter((it)  -­‐>  it.age  >  18) list.filter  {  it.age  >  18  }   Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... Java 8 lambdas can be more concise than Groovy! When no ambiguity, make coercion implicit! 78
    • Implicit closure coercion interface  Predicate<T>  {        boolean  test(T  t) } List<T>  filter(Predicate<T>  p) list.filter((it)  -­‐>  it.age  >  18) list.filter  {  it.age  >  18  }   Given a predicate & a List method to filter according to that predicate... Java 8 lambdas can be more concise than Groovy! When no ambiguity, make coercion implicit! Go beyond Java, by making it work on abstract classes too 78
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Special base script class to delegate method calls and property accesses to a delegatee 79
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Special base script class to delegate method calls and property accesses to a delegatee Handy for DSLs! 79
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Special base script class to delegate method calls and property accesses to a delegatee Handy for DSLs! name  =  "Guillaume" sayHi() 79
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Special base script class to delegate method calls and property accesses to a delegatee class  Person  {        String  name        void  sayHi()  {                  println  "Hi  $name"          } } Handy for DSLs! name  =  "Guillaume" sayHi() 79
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Special base script class to delegate method calls and property accesses to a delegatee class  Person  {        String  name        void  sayHi()  {                  println  "Hi  $name"          } } Handy for DSLs! name  =  "Guillaume" sayHi() Use Person’s name property 79
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Special base script class to delegate method calls and property accesses to a delegatee class  Person  {        String  name        void  sayHi()  {                  println  "Hi  $name"          } } Handy for DSLs! name  =  "Guillaume" sayHi() Use Person’s name property Call Person#sayHi() 79
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Integration example: def  cc  =  new  CompilerConfiguration() cc.scriptBaseClass  =  DelegatingScript.class.name def  sh  =  new  GroovyShell(cc) def  script  =  sh.parse(file) def  p  =  new  Person() script.setDelegate(p) script.run() assert  p.name  ==  "Guillaume" 80
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Integration example: def  cc  =  new  CompilerConfiguration() cc.scriptBaseClass  =  DelegatingScript.class.name def  sh  =  new  GroovyShell(cc) def  script  =  sh.parse(file) def  p  =  new  Person() script.setDelegate(p) script.run() assert  p.name  ==  "Guillaume" Specify DelegatingScript base class 80
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Integration example: def  cc  =  new  CompilerConfiguration() cc.scriptBaseClass  =  DelegatingScript.class.name def  sh  =  new  GroovyShell(cc) def  script  =  sh.parse(file) def  p  =  new  Person() script.setDelegate(p) script.run() assert  p.name  ==  "Guillaume" Specify DelegatingScript base class Parse the script 80
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Integration example: def  cc  =  new  CompilerConfiguration() cc.scriptBaseClass  =  DelegatingScript.class.name def  sh  =  new  GroovyShell(cc) def  script  =  sh.parse(file) def  p  =  new  Person() script.setDelegate(p) script.run() assert  p.name  ==  "Guillaume" Specify DelegatingScript base class Parse the script Define the delegate 80
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Integration example: def  cc  =  new  CompilerConfiguration() cc.scriptBaseClass  =  DelegatingScript.class.name def  sh  =  new  GroovyShell(cc) def  script  =  sh.parse(file) def  p  =  new  Person() script.setDelegate(p) script.run() assert  p.name  ==  "Guillaume" Specify DelegatingScript base class Parse the script Define the delegate Run the script 80
    • DelegatingScript base script class • Integration example: def  cc  =  new  CompilerConfiguration() cc.scriptBaseClass  =  DelegatingScript.class.name def  sh  =  new  GroovyShell(cc) def  script  =  sh.parse(file) def  p  =  new  Person() script.setDelegate(p) script.run() assert  p.name  ==  "Guillaume" Specify DelegatingScript base class Parse the script Define the delegate Run the script Be Happy! 80
    • groovysh doc command 81
    • groovysh doc command Launches your browser with the JavaDoc and GDK doc of the class 81
    • groovysh code completion 82
    • groovysh code completion Import completion 82
    • groovysh code completion Import completion Method call completion 82
    • @Memoized transformation • Piggypack on Closure’s own memoization capabilities, but applied to methods @Memoized  int  expensiveOp(int  a,  int  b)  {        sleep  1000        return  a  +  b } //  one  second  to  return expensiveOp(1,  2)   //  immediate  result  returned expensiveOp(1,  2) 83
    • Miscelanous improvements • Precompiled type checking extensions • Further tweaks to Groovysh with code completion, better error reporting... • Better syntax highlighting in Groovy Console • Various dependency upgrades (Gradle,Ant) @TypeChecked(extensions  =  'fqn.MyExtension') 84
    • Additional GDK methods... • groupBy() on arrays • combinations(Closure) • collectMany() on Iterables • JsonSlurper’s parse(File) and parse(URL) assert  [[2,  3],  [4,  5,  6]]                    .combinations  {  x,  y  -­‐>  x*y  }  ==                                            [8,  12,  10,  15,  12,  18] 85
    • Likely in Groovy 2.3 Traits GroovyDoc rewrite New documentation & website
    • Trait implementation 87
    • Trait implementation trait  FlyingAbility  {        String  fly()  {                "I  believe  I  can  fly!"        } } 87
    • Trait implementation trait  FlyingAbility  {        String  fly()  {                "I  believe  I  can  fly!"        } } A trait keyword applying the @Trait transformation 87
    • Trait implementation trait  FlyingAbility  {        String  fly()  {                "I  believe  I  can  fly!"        } } A trait keyword applying the @Trait transformation class  Car  implements  FlyingAbility  {} 87
    • Trait implementation trait  FlyingAbility  {        String  fly()  {                "I  believe  I  can  fly!"        } } A trait keyword applying the @Trait transformation class  Car  implements  FlyingAbility  {} A class «implements» the trait 87
    • Trait implementation trait  FlyingAbility  {        String  fly()  {                "I  believe  I  can  fly!"        } } A trait keyword applying the @Trait transformation class  Car  implements  FlyingAbility  {} A class «implements» the trait def  c  =  new  Car() assert  c.fly()  ==  "I  believe  I  can  fly!" 87
    • GroovyDoc rewrite 88
    • GroovyDoc rewrite GroovyDoc != Sexy Doc 88
    • New documentation and website • New reference documentation and guides using AsciiDoctor • New website with a refreshed skin and the new content 89
    • Groovy 3 New MOP New Antlr v4 grammar JDK 8 lambda support
    • MOP 2
    • Antlr4 grammar
    • λ JDK 8
    • Summary • A very rich and blossoming ecosystem •Groovy 2.0 – more modular – a static theme •static type checking •static compilation – JDK 7 theme •Invoke Dynamic support •Project Coin syntax enhancements 95
    • Summary •Groovy 2.1 – Invoke Dynamic support completed – @DelegatesTo annotation – type checker extensions for DSLs – meta-annotations 96
    • Summary • Groovy 2.2 – implicit closure coercion – @Memoized transformation – DelegatingScript for script DSLs – groovysh improvements 97
    • Summary • Groovy 2.3 – traits – new GroovyDoc – new documentation – new website 98
    • Summary • Groovy 3 – a new MOP (Meta-Object Protocol) – a new grammar with Antlr v4 – the support of JDK 8 and lambdas 99
    • Questions&Answers
    • Thankyou! @glaforge  http://glaforge.appspot.com  http://gplus.to/glaforge 
    • Image credits • lift-off: http://www.wpclipart.com/space/ships/space_shuttle/Space_Shuttle_liftoff.png • anniversary: http://www.empowernetwork.com/fam/files/2013/03/happy_birthday_cake_with_candles-1920x1200.jpg • cerisier: http://wallpaperswide.com/cherry_blossom_3-wallpapers.html • NKOTB: http://images1.fanpop.com/images/photos/2300000/nkotb-new-kids-on-the-block-2314664-1280-960.jpg • lunar module: http://www.clavius.org/img/lm-diag.gif • tomates: http://www.infoescola.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/tomate.jpg • patates: http://toooof.free.fr/blogs/captainslip/screenshots/pommes_de_terre.jpg • coins: http://www.coins-jewelry.com/c22.png • more coins: http://diamond-center.co.il/upload/articles/gold-coins1.jpg • binary: http://okletsgo.co.uk/img/binary.jpg • grumpy: https://si0.twimg.com/profile_images/3115998027/b47c180a703a5ffa7d1437a66f545dc0.jpeg • singe: http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/how-to-draw-animals-31.jpg • warning: http://th07.deviantart.net/fs71/PRE/i/2012/261/8/6/warning_gangnam_style_zone_by_untoucheddesigns-d5f6bal.png • coyote: http://nittygriddy.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Wiley-Coyote-Help.jpg • ring: http://img.banggood.com/images/upload/2012/limin/SKU028431_11.JPG • magnifying glass: http://www.renders-graphiques.fr/image/upload/normal/loupe.png • work in progress: http://www.sbscompany.org/multimedia/immagini/work-in-progress.png • tab key: http://www.meganga.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Tab-Key-Word-Tutorials.jpg • chronomètre: http://www.moineau-instruments.com/59-thickbox/chronometre-mecanique-1-10-t15-mn-2-fonctions.jpg • that’s all folks: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-wJxosualm48/T4M_spcUUjI/AAAAAAAAB8E/njfLjNZQdsc/s1600/thats-all-folks.jpg • MOP: http://imagethumbnails.milo.com/024/913/894/trimmed/24913521_25989894_trimmed.jpg • grammar: http://edudemic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/connected-learner-grammar.jpg 102