Introduction to Groovy and what's New in Groovy 1.6 - SpringOne Europe 2009

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  • 1. An Introduction to Groovy and the New Features in 1.6 Get started with Groovy and learn about all the novelties in the latest release Guillaume Laforge Head of Groovy Development Copyright 2009 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 2. Guillaume Laforge Groovy Project Manager — SpringSource Working on Groovy since 2003 > JSR-241 Spec Lead > Initiator of the Grails web framework > Co-author of Groovy in Action > Speaker: JavaOne, QCon, JavaPolis/Devoxx, > JavaZone, Sun Tech Days, SpringOne/The Spring Experience, JAX, DSL DevCon, and more… 2 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 3. What’s new in Groovy 1.6? Article Published by InfoQ This presentation was prepared with the examples > I’ve used in my article written for InfoQ http://www.infoq.com/articles/groovy-1-6 > Read this article for more detailed explanations of > all the new features in Groovy 1.6 3 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 4. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 4 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 5. Groovy in a Nutshell Simplify the Life of Java Developers Groovy is a dynamic language for the JVM > With a Meta-Object Protocol  Compiles down to bytecode  Open Source Apache licensed project > Relaxed grammar derived from the Java 5 grammar > Borrowed some good ideas from Smalltalk/Python/Ruby  Java 5 features out of the box:  annotations, generics, static imports, enums…  Flat learning curve  5 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 6. • Are you a Groovy developer? 6 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 7. • Ok, so, are you a Java developer? 7 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 8. • Then, yes, you are a Groovy developer! •Any Java developer is a also a Groovy developer! 8 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 9. A Taste of Groovy — Take 1 A Normal Java Program public class HelloWorld { > private String name; public void setName(String name) { this.name = name; } public String getName() { return name; } public String greet() { return quot;Hello quot; + name; } public static void main(String[] args) { HelloWorld helloWorld = new HelloWorld(); helloWorld.setName(quot;Groovyquot;); System.out.println( helloWorld.greet() ); } } 9 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 10. A Taste of Groovy — Take 2 A Valid Groovy Program public class HelloWorld { > private String name; public void setName(String name) { this.name = name; } public String getName() { return name; } public String greet() { return quot;Hello quot; + name; } public static void main(String[] args) { HelloWorld helloWorld = new HelloWorld(); helloWorld.setName(quot;Groovyquot;); System.out.println( helloWorld.greet() ); } } 10 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 11. A Taste of Groovy — Take 3 A Groovier Program! class HelloWorld { > String name String greet() { quot;Hello $namequot; } } def helloWorld = new HelloWorld(name: quot;Groovyquot;) println helloWorld.greet() 11 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 12. The Groovy Web Console A Groovy Playground Groovy works nicely on Google App Engine > You can also deploy Grails applications  You can play with Groovy in the web console > http://groovyconsole.appspot.com/  12 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 13. The Groovy Web Console A Screenshot 13 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 14. Features at a Glance Fully Object-Oriented > Joint compiler: seamless Java integration > Closures: reusable blocks of code / anon functions > Properties: forget about getters and setters > Optional typing: your choice! > BigDecimal arithmetic by default for floating point > Handy APIs >  XML, JDBC, JMX, template engine, Swing UIs Strong ability for authoring Domain-Specific > Languages  Syntax-level “builders”  Adding properties to numbers: 10.dollars  Operator overloading: 10.meters + 20.kilometers 14 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 15. Joint Compilation • Total Java interoperability • Concretely, what does it mean? JInterface GInterface <<implements>> <<implements>> JClass GClass GClass JClass 15 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 16. Native Syntax Constructs • Lists – def numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] • Maps – def map = [FR: ‘France’, BE: ‘Belgium’] • Ranges – def allowed = 18..65 • Regular expressions – def whitespace = ~/s+?/ – if (‘foo’ ==~ /o+/) { ... } 16 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 17. GStrings! • GStrings are... interpolated strings – Sorry, not really what you expected! – Placeholder variables are replaced – You can have multiline strings • def person = ‘John’ def letter = “““${new Date()} Dear ${person}, I hope you’re fine! ””” 17 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 18. Closures • Closures are reusable and assignable code blocks or anonymous functions – No need to wait for Java 7/8/9 to get them! – def greet = { println “Hello ${it}” } greet(“Guillaume”) • You can pass parameters – def greet = { String name -> println “Hello ${name}” } • You can passe closures around – def method(Closure c) { c(“Hello”) } method(greet) 18 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 19. BigDecimal Arithmetic • Main reason why financial institutions often decide to use Groovy for their business rules! – Although these days rounding issues are overrated! • Java vs Groovy for a simple interpolation equation • BigDecimal uMinusv = c.subtract(a); BigDecimal vMinusl = b.subtract(c); BigDecimal uMinusl = a.subtract(b); return e.multiply(uMinusv) .add(d.multiply(vMinusl)) .divide(uMinusl, 10, BigDecimal.ROUND_HALF_UP); • (d * (b - c) + e * (c - a)) / (a - b) 19 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 20. Groovy Builders • The Markup builder – Easy way for creating XML or HTML content – def mkp = new MarkupBuilder() mkp.html { head { title “Groovy in Action” } body { div(width: ‘100’) { p(class: ‘para’) { span “Best book ever!” } } } } 20 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 21. Parsing XML • And it’s so easy to parser XML and navigate through the node graph! • def geocodingUrl = quot;http://...quot;.toURL() geocodingUrl.withInputStream { stream -> def node = new XmlSlurper().parse(stream) if (node.Response.Status.code == quot;200quot;) { def text = node.Response.Placemark. Point.coordinates.text() def coord = text.tokenize(','). collect{ Float.parseFloat(it) } (latitude, longitude) = coord[1..0] } } 21 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 22. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 22 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 23. Performance Improvements Both Runtime & Compile-Time The Groovyc compiler is 3x to 5x faster > With a clever class lookup cache  Certain online micro-benchmarks show > 150% to 460% increase in performance compared to Groovy 1.5 Thanks to advanced call-site caching techniques  Beware of micro-benchmarks!  Makes Groovy one of the fastest dynamic languages > available 23 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 24. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 24 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 25. Multiple Assignment Assign Multiple Variables at Once Newly defined variables > def (a, b) = [1, 2]  assert a == 1 assert b == 2 Assign to existing variables > def lat, lng  (lat, lng) = geocode(‘Paris’) The classical swap case > (a, b) = [b, a]  Extra elements ⇒ not assigned to any variable > Less elements ⇒ null into extra variables > 25 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 26. More Optional Return In if/else and try/catch Blocks The return keyword is optional for the last > expression of a method body  But if/else & try/catch didn’t return any value def method() { if (true) 1 else 0 } > assert method() == 1 def method(bool) { > try { if (bool) throw new Exception(quot;fooquot;) 1 } catch(e) { 2 } finally {3} } assert method(false) == 1 assert method(true) == 2 26 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 27. Annotation Definition The Missing Bit of Java 5 Support Groovy support for Java 5 features is now complete > with the missing annotation definition Nothing to show here, it’s just normal Java :-) > Note that the sole dynamic language supporting > annotation is… Groovy Opens the door to EJB3 / JPA / Spring annotations /  Guice / TestNG… 27 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 28. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 28 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 29. Meta-What? Meta-Programming The ability of a language to modify itself > Groovy 1.6 introduces AST Transformations > Abstract Syntax Tree  Goodbye to a lot of boiler-plate technical code! > Two kinds of transformations > Global transformations  Local transformations: triggered by annotations  29 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 30. AST Transformations in Groovy 1.6 Implement Patterns through Transformations Several transformations finds their way > @Singleton — okay, not really a pattern ;-)  @Immutable, @Lazy, @Delegate  @Newify  @Category and @Mixin  @PackageScope  Swing’s @Bindable and @Vetoable  Grape’s @Grab  Let’s have a look at some of them! > 30 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 31. @Singleton (Anti-)Pattern Revisited The evil Java singleton > public class Evil {  public static final Evil instance = new Evil (); private Evil () {} Evil getInstance() { return instance; } } In Groovy: > @Singleton() class Evil {}  There’s also a « lazy » version > @Singleton(lazy = true) class Evil {}  31 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 32. @Immutable The Immutable… Boiler-Plate Code To properly implement immutable classes > No mutators (state musn’t change)  Private final fields  Defensive copying of mutable components  Proper equals() / hashCode() / toString() for  comparisons or for keys in maps, etc. In Groovy > @Immutable final class Coordinates {  Double lat, lng } def c1 = new Coordinates(lat: 48.8, lng: 2.5) def c2 = new Coordinates(48.8, 2.5) assert c1 == c2 32 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 33. @Lazy Not Just for Lazy Dudes! When you need to lazy evaluate / instantiate > complex data structures for class fields, mark them as @Lazy class Dude {  @Lazy pets = retriveFromSlowDB() } Groovy will handle the boiler-plate code for you > 33 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 34. @Delegate Not Just for Managers! You can delegate to fields of your class > Think multiple inheritance  class Employee {  def doTheWork() { quot;donequot; } } class Manager { @Delegate Employee slave = new Employee() } def god = new Manager() assert god.doTheWork() == quot;donequot; Damn manager who will get all the praise… > 34 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 35. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 35 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 36. Grab a Grape Groovy Advanced Packaging Engine Helps you distribute scripts without dependencies > Just declare your dependencies with @Grab > Will look for dependencies in Maven or Ivy repositories  @Grab(group = 'org.mortbay.jetty', > module = 'jetty-embedded', version = '6.1.0') def startServer() { def srv = new Server(8080) def ctx = new Context(srv , quot;/quot;, SESSIONS) ctx.resourceBase = quot;.quot; ctx.addServlet(GroovyServlet, quot;*.groovyquot;) srv.start() } 36 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 37. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 37 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 38. @Bindable (1/2) Event-Driven Made Easy Speaking of boiler-plate code… > property change listeners import java.beans.PropertyChangeSupport; > import java.beans.PropertyChangeListener; public class MyBean { private String prop; PropertyChangeSupport pcs = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener l) { pcs.add(l); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener l) { pcs.remove(l); } public String getProp() { return prop; } public void setProp(String prop) { pcs.firePropertyChanged(quot;propquot;, this.prop, this.prop = prop); } } 38 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 39. @Bindable (2/2) Event-Driven Made Easy Groovy’s solution > class MyBean {  @Bindable String prop } Interesting in Griffon and Swing builder > textField text: bind { myBean.prop }  Also of interest: @Vetoable > 39 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 40. Griffon The Swing MVC Framework Leverages Groovy’s SwingBuilder > and Grails’ infrastructure http://griffon.codehaus.org  40 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 41. Swing Console Improvements The console can be run as an applet > Code indentation support > Script drag’n drop > Add JARs in the classpath from the GUI > Execution results visualization plugin > Clickable stacktraces and error messages > Not intended to be a full-blown IDE, but handy > 41 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 42. 42 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 43. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming Additions > JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 43 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 44. ExpandoMetaClass DSL Less Repetition EMC is a way to change the behavior of types at > runtime Before > Number.metaClass.multiply = { Amount amount ->  amount.times(delegate) } Number.metaClass.div = { Amount amount -> amount.inverse().times(delegate) } Now in Groovy 1.6 > Number.metaClass {  multiply { Amount amount -> amount.times(delegate) } div { Amount amount -> amount.inverse().times(delegate) } } 44 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 45. Runtime Mixins Inject New Behavior to Types at Runtime class FlyingAbility { > def fly() { quot;I'm ${name} and I fly!quot; } } class JamesBondVehicle { String getName() { quot;James Bond's vehiclequot; } } JamesBondVehicle.mixin FlyingAbility assert new JamesBondVehicle().fly() == quot;I'm James Bond's vehicle and I fly!quot; 45 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 46. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 46 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 47. javax.script.* Scripting APIs Groovy Scripting Engine Built-In In Groovy 1.6, the JSR-223 / javax.script.* > scripting engine for Groovy is bundled import javax.script.*  def manager = new ScriptEngineManager() def engine = manager.getEngineByName(quot;groovyquot;) assert engine.evaluate(quot;2 + 3quot;) == 5 To evaluate Groovy scripts at runtime in your > application, just drop the Groovy JAR in your classpath! 47 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 48. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 48 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 49. JMX Builder (1/2) Domain-Specific Language for JMX • Simplify JMX handling with a Builder pattern approach • Declaratively expose Java/Groovy objects as MBeans • JMX's event model support –Inline closures to create event handler & broadcaster –Closures for receiving event notifications • Provides a flexible registration policy for MBean • Exposes attribute, constructors, operations, parameters, and notifications • Simplified creation of connector servers & clients • Support for exporting JMX timers • http://groovy.codehaus.org/Groovy+JmxBuilder 49 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 50. JMX Builder (2/2) Examples Create a connector server > def jmx = new JmxBuilder()  jmx.connectorServer(port:9000).start() Create a connector client > jmx.connectorClient(port:9000).connect()  Export a bean > jmx.export { bean new MyService() }  Defining a timer > jmx.timer(name: quot;jmx.builder:type=Timerquot;,  event: quot;heartbeatquot;, period: quot;1squot;).start() JMX listener > jmx.listener(event: quot;…quot;, from: quot;fooquot;,  call: { event -> …}) 50 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 51. Agenda Groovy Overview > Performance Improvements > Syntax Enhancements > Compile-Time Metaprogramming > The Grape Module System > Swing-Related Improvements > Runtime Metaprogramming > Additions JSR-223 Scripting Engine Built-In > JMX Builder > OSGi Readiness > 51 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 52. OSGi Readiness The Groovy JAR contains OSGi metadata > Can be reused in OSGi containers out-of-the-box  Tutorials on Groovy and OSGi >  http://groovy.codehaus.org/OSGi+and+Groovy Will show you how to load Groovy as a service, write,  publish and consume Groovy services, and more 52 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 53. Summary Copyright 2009 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 54. Summary Just Remember that Groovy Rocks! :-) Any Java developer is a Groovy developer! > Great for admin tasks, extending apps, writing DSLs > Groovy 1.6 provides > Important performance gains  Efficient compile-time metaprogramming hooks  New useful features (JMX, javax.script.*, etc.)  A script dependencies system  Various Swing-related improvements  Several runtime metaprogramming additions  Get it now! > http://groovy.codehaus.org/Download  54 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 55. GR8 Conference • If you wish to learn more about Groovy, Grails and Griffon, register for the GR8 Conference • A conference dedicated to Groovy, Grails, Griffon and other Groovy related technologies • Co-organized by SpringSource and the Danish JUG (Javagruppen) • Takes place in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 18th and 19th • Use the code SPRING to get a discount ;-) 55 Copyright 2008 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.
  • 56. Questions & Answers Copyright 2009 SpringSource. Copying, publishing or distributing without express written permission is prohibited.