The great english writers


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The great english writers

  1. 1. Born: c. 1343 London, England Died: 25 October 1400 (aged 56–57)  Father of English Literature  widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey.
  2. 2.  He is also philosopher,, alchemist and astronome r  Chaucer also maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat.  Chaucer is a crucial figure in developing the legitimacy of the vernacular, Middle English, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French and
  3. 3. Among his many works, which include The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame  The Legend of Good Women Troilus and Criseyde, he is best known today for The Canterbury Tales.
  4. 4. Geoffrey Chaucer
  5. 5.  TYPE OF WORK Poetry (two tales are in prose: the Tale of Melibee and the Parson’s Tale)  GENRES Narrative collection of poems; character portraits; parody; estates satire; romance; fabliau  NARRATOR The primary narrator is an anonymous, naïve member of the pilgrimage, who is not described. The other pilgrims narrate most of the tales.
  6. 6.  POINT OF VIEW In the General Prologue, the narrator speaks in the first person, describing each of the pilgrims as they appeared to him. Though narrated by different pilgrims, each of the tales is told from an omniscient third-person point of view, providing the reader with the thoughts as well as actions of the characters.  TONE · The Canterbury Tales incorporates an impressive range of attitudes toward life and literature. The tales are by turns satirical, elevated, pious, earthy, bawdy, and comical. The reader should not accept the naïve narrator’s point of view as Chaucer’s.
  7. 7.  SETTING (TIME) · The late fourteenth century, after 1381  SETTING (PLACE) · The Tabard Inn; the road to Canterbury  PROTAGONISTS · Each individual tale has protagonists, but Chaucer’s plan is to make none of his storytellers superior to others; it is an equal company
  8. 8. Fragment Group Tales I A General Prologue, Knight, Miller, Reeve, Cook II B1 Man of Law III D Wife of Bath, Friar, Summoner IV E Clerk, Merchant V F Squire, Franklin VI C Physician, Pardoner VII B2 Shipman, Prioress, Sir Thopas, Melibee, Monk, Nun’s Priest VIII G Second Nun, Canon’s Yeoman IX H Manciple X I Parson
  9. 9.  MAJOR CONFLICT · The struggles between characters, manifested in the links between tales, mostly involve clashes between social classes, differing tastes, and competing professions. There are also clashes between the sexes, and there is resistance to the Host’s somewhat tyrannical leadership.
  10. 10.  THEMES · The pervasiveness of courtly love, the importance of company, the corruption of the church  MOTIFS Romance, fabliaux
  11. 11.  style  It is a decasyllable line, probably borrowed from French and Italian forms, with riding rhyme and a caesura in the middle of a line. His meter would later develop into the heroic meter of the 15th and 16th centuries and is an ancestor of iambic pentameter. He avoids allowing couplets to become too prominent in the poem, and four of the tales (the Man of Law's, Clerk's, Prioress', and Second Nun's) use rhyme royal
  12. 12.  Symbols  Springtime The springtime symbolizes rebirth and fresh beginnings, and is thus appropriate for the beginning of Chaucer’s text. >>> Springtime also evokes erotic love, as evidenced by the moment when Palamon first sees Emelye gathering fresh flowers to make garlands in honor of May.
  13. 13.  Clothing In the General Prologue, the description of garments helps to define each character. In a sense, the clothes symbolize what lies beneath the surface of each personality. >>>The Physician’s love of wealth reveals itself most clearly to us in the rich silk and fur of his gown. >>>The Merchant’s forked beard could symbolize his duplicity, at which Chaucer only hints.
  14. 14.  Physiognomy Physiognomy was a science that judged a person’s temperament and character based on his or her anatomy. Physiognomy plays a significant role in Chaucer’s descriptions of the pilgrims in the General Prologue. The most exaggerated facial features are those of the peasants. >>>> The Miller represents the stereotypical peasant physiognomy most clearly: round and ruddy, with a wart on his nose, the Miller appears rough and therefore suited to rough, simple work. >>>> The Pardoner’s glaring eyes and limp hair illustrate his fraudulence
  15. 15.  Introduction: The tales are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return.
  16. 16.  RISING ACTION · As he sets off on a pilgrimage to Canterbury, the narrator encounters a group of other pilgrims and joins them. That night, the Host of the tavern where the pilgrims are staying presents them with a storytelling challenge and appoints himself judge of the competition and leader of the company.
  17. 17.  CLIMAX · Not applicable (collection of tales)  FALLING ACTION After twenty-three tales have been told, the Parson delivers a long sermon. Chaucer then makes a retraction, asking to be forgiven for his sins, including having written The Canterbury Tales.
  18. 18. The Canterbury Tales
  19. 19.  Introduction: Cousins Arcite and Palamon are captured and imprisoned by Theseus, duke of Athens following his intervention against Creon. Their cell is in the tower of Theseus's castle which overlooks his palace garden.
  20. 20.  Hint of Conflict:  In prison Palamon wakes early one morning in May, to see Emily (Emelye) in the courtyard; his moan is heard by Arcite, who then too wakes to see Emily, and falls in love with her as well.  The competition brought about by this love causes them to hate each other.
  21. 21.  Rising Action:  After some years, Arcite is released from prison through the good offices of Theseus's friend Pirithoos, and then returns to Athens in disguise and enters service in Emily's household.  Palamon eventually escapes by drugging the jailer and while hiding in a grove overhears Arcite singing about love and fortune.
  22. 22.  Climax:  They begin to duel with each other over who should get Emily, but are thwarted by the arrival of Theseus, who sentences them to gather 100 men apiece and fight a mass judicial tournament, the winner of which is to marry Emily.  The forces assemble; Palamon prays to Venus to make Emily his wife; Emily prays to Diana to stay unmarried and that if that should prove impossible that she marry the one who really loves her; and Arcite prays to Mars for victory.
  23. 23.  Falling Action:  Arcite wins the battle, but following an intervention by Saturn, is wounded by his horse throwing him off and then falling on him before he can claim Emily as his prize.  As he dies, he tells Emily that she should marry Palamon, because he would make a good husband for her, and so Palamon marries Emily.
  24. 24. Resolution: all prayers were fulfilled by the gods for those who asked for their assistance. Palamon and Emily Are getting married and they live happily ever after.
  25. 25. The Canterbury Tales
  26. 26. A holy young woman named Cecilia is determined to live a Christian life in pagan Rome. She converts her husband and his brother-in-law to Christianity.
  27. 27. Almachius decrees that everyone must worship at the shrine of Jupiter, or die. Cecilia’s husband and brother-in- law choose to die, converting their executioner, Maximus, in the process.
  28. 28.  Confrontation between pagan oppressor and virgin martyr.  Almachius tries to convince Cecilia to worship at Jupiters’s shrine, and to fear him.  Cecilia responds that his gods are deaf and dumb, Almachius is foolish and powerless, and hers is the true faith
  29. 29.  Almachius offers Cecilia an ultimatum: worship at Jupiter’s shrine or die. Cecilia refused.  Almachius ordered that Cecilia be burnt to death by being sealed in a boiling hot bath. However the intense heat of the fire had no effect upon her. Then the evil Almachius sent an executioner to murder Cecilia in the bath. This killer struck three times on Cecilia’s neck but failed to behead her. He left her half dead with a slit neck in the bath.
  30. 30. Cecilia continued to live for three days and her preaching succeeded in winning more converts to Christianity.
  31. 31.  Cecilia entrusted the Christians to Pope Urban and died after expressing the wish that her house be turned into a church.  Pope Urban secretly buried her corpse at night and named her house St. Cecilia’s Church.
  32. 32. The Canterbury Tales
  33. 33.  the three young men are at a bar talking to each other until they see a dead body. A boy tells them it is a companion of theirs who died by the plague. Innkeeper then talks about the plague and the three men agree to find and kill death.
  34. 34. the three men go on journey and talk to the man on path and then find the gold. One leaves to get food and wine while the others guard the treasure. Both groups then plan to do the other group in.
  35. 35.  The man who returns from town gets stabbed to death Falling Action  the two remaining men drink poison and die. Resolution  Everyone dies at the end which means the three men find death.
  36. 36. •Born: 1405 •Died: March 14, 1471, Newgate Prison •Knighted in 1442, he served in the parliament of 1445. •He was evidently a violent, lawless individual who committed a series of crimes, including poaching, extortion, robbery, rape, and attempted murder. •Most of his life from 1451 on was spent in prison, and he probably did most of his writing there.
  37. 37. The Death of Arthur
  38. 38.  compilation of Romance tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table.  best-known work of English- language Arthurian Literature today.  In composing this work, Malory took a body of legends, mostly French in origin, and adapted them to English life, with an English perspective.
  39. 39.  Le Morte d'Arthur is thought to have been written in 1469, the first known publication was in 1485, by William Caxton.  Caxton was responsible for separating Malory's eight book format into 21 books, subdividing each book into a total of 507 chapters, and adding a summary of each chapter and colophon to the entire book.
  40. 40. Originally, Malory divided his work principally into eight tales:  The birth and rise of Arthur: "From the Marriage of King Uther unto King Arthur that Reigned After Him and Did Many Battles"  King Arthur's war against the Romans: "The Noble Tale Between King Arthur and Lucius the Emperor of Rome"  The book of Lancelot: "The Tale of Sir Launcelot Du Lac"  The book of Gareth (brother of Gawain): "The Tale of Sir Gareth"
  41. 41.  Tristan and Isolde: "The Book of Sir Tristrams de Lyons"  The Quest for the Holy Grail: “The Noble Tale of the Sangreal”  The affair between Lancelot and Guinevere: "Sir Launcelot and Queen Gwynevere"  The breaking of the Knights of the Round Table and the death of Arthur: "Le Morte D'Arthur"
  42. 42.  Betrayal  Loyalty  Revenge (or Vengeance)  Rules and Order  Tradition and Customs  Strength and Skill
  43. 43. King Arthur Launcelot Trystam gawain gareth mordred galahad merlin morgan le fay gwenyvere isode
  44. 44.  Sword Setting  England, Ireland, Cornwall, France, and Western Europe in the Middle Ages
  45. 45. Third Person (omniscient) >>Our narrator is absolutely all-knowing in the truest sense of the word. He sees and hears just about everything, and instead of narrating events from the point of view of just one two people, he opts to follow almost one hundred different characters on their adventures throughout the course of the story.
  46. 46.  Tragedy; Adventure; Quest Tone  Moralizing Writing style  episodic
  47. 47.  Arthur rises King Arthur's reign than just getting crowned, getting married, and getting the world's largest table as a wedding gift. But it's with the establishment of the Round Table that the plot really takes off.
  48. 48.  Love Triangle, Vengeful Nephews, Arthur's goal after establishing the Round Table is to have unity amongst his knights, and to command the loyalty and respect of the best knights in the world. Unfortunately, Artie, that's a bit of a pipe dream. Launcelot's love for Gwenyvere obviously conflicts with this goal, and the blood feud between the families of Lot and Pellynore splits the Round Table in two.
  49. 49.  Caught in the Act! Launcelot's affair with Gwenyvere has been going on for a long time, but it's not until now that Aggravayne and Mordred decide to do something about it. It forces the knights in court to take sides so battle-lines form quickly. Launcelot's rescue of Gwenyvere, who's about to be burned at the stake, leaves things unresolved, though. The affair has ended, but nobody has really been punished.
  50. 50.  Arthur at War He's been in several wars. He goes to war with Launcelot, of all people. Of course the only possible reason a king would go to war with his favorite knight is a woman. So this war is the inevitable end of Launcelot and Gwenyvere's affair. Arthur can't ignore what Launcelot has done; he has to punish the guy somehow. And Launcelot can't help fighting with Arthur once he invades his lands.
  51. 51.  Death and Reconciliation o The war with Launcelot is still going on, but now Mordred's set himself up as King of England, while Arthur's off, fighting over his Queen. o Gawain's reconciliation with Launcelot symbolizes the end of the feuding between Arthur's Knights, resolving that tension. Unfortunately, though, Arthur is not able to re-claim his lands from Mordred without dying.
  52. 52.  A Love Triangle Loses a Side. England loses a king. With Arthur dead at the hands of Mordred, Launcelot and Gwenyvere's affair is really at an end. Both of them have now devoted themselves to God. Launcelot's burial of Gwenyvere's body at Arthur's side signals his final ceding of Gwenyvere to the King in death, which is something he refused to do in life. And so ends the reign of Arthur.
  53. 53. Anonymous
  54. 54.  a late 14th-century Middle English alliterative romance  It's written in a dialect of Middle English called North West Midland. one of the better-known Arthurian stories  Written in bob and wheel stanzas, it emerges from Welsh, Irish and English tradition and highlights the importance of honor and chivalry
  55. 55. The author of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is an anonymous genius.  A few things are clear: the man knew French and French poetry well, lived in or came from a northwest English province, and placed great import on his Christianity and his knowledge thereof.
  56. 56. Sir Gawain The Green Knight / Lord Bertilak Lady Bertilak King Arthur Morgan le Fay
  57. 57.  The Pentangle >>These five ways in which Gawain is virtuous are in the dexterity of his five fingers, the perfection of his five senses, his devotion to the five wounds of Christ, his reflection on the five joys of Mary in Christ and, finally, five virtues: generosity, fellowship, chastity, courtesy, and charity.
  58. 58.  King Arthur’s court at Christmas time;  the enchanted wilderness;  Sir Bertilak’s castle at Christmas time
  59. 59.  Third Person (Limited Omniscient)  For the most part, the narrator of Sir Gawain recounts his tale in a third-person voice limited to Gawain’s point of view. This voice is necessary in order for the tale’s surprise ending – that Sir Bertilak and the Green Knight are really one and the same person – to really be a surprise.
  60. 60.  Medieval Romance  Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a medieval romance. This genre of literature features adventuring knights, noble ladies, and often, elements of the supernatural. More importantly, the hero usually undergoes a process of self-discovery in the course of his adventure, which enables him to reincorporate into society (represented by the court) as a better version of himself. 
  61. 61.  And all his vesture verayly watz clene verdure, (And truly all his clothing was brilliant green,)  Bothe the barres of his belt and other blythe stones. (Both the bars on his belt and other gay gems.) (161-162)
  62. 62. The "bob" is a short connecting line, sometimes only two syllables in length, that connects a four-line ABAB rhyming section in iambic trimeter to the rest of the stanza
  63. 63.  The fole that he ferkkes on fyn of that ilke, (The horse that he rides entirely of that color,) sertayn. (in truth.)  A grene hors gret and thikke, (A green horse huge and strong,)  A stede ful stif to strayne, (A proud steed to restrain,)  In brawden brydel quik; (Spirited under bridle,)  To the gome he watz ful gayn. (But obedient to the man.) (173-178)
  64. 64.  Arthur and his knights have gathered at his castle for the Christmas holiday season, but Arthur has a custom of refusing to eat until he has heard a marvelous tale or witnessed a wonder. Suddenly, an enormous, completely green man carrying a giant axe rides in on a completely green horse.
  65. 65. Gawain chops off the Green Knight’s head, but he picks it right back up and clatters out of the castle on his horse.
  66. 66. Gawain spends the next holiday season at a mysterious castle in the middle of an enchanted forest.
  67. 67. Gawain meets the Green Knight. Gawain withstands two feints (blows that aren’t carried through) and one blow that breaks the skin on his neck.
  68. 68.  The Green Knight explains that he is actually Lord Bertilak, and that the feints represent the days on which Gawain honorably followed the rules of their exchange-of-winnings game, whereas the last stroke represents his dishonesty in withholding the magic girdle. Furthermore, Bertilak tells Gawain that the old lady in his castle is Morgan le Fay, a powerful sorceress who enchanted him and sent him to Arthur’s court in order to test the knights and frighten Guinevere.
  69. 69.  Gawain returns to Arthur’s court and recounts his adventure, explaining that he will wear the green girdle forever as a symbol of his failure and of how his misdeeds can never be erased. The knights of the round table decide to wear a similar belt in honor of Gawain, and it becomes a symbol of honor.