• Some writers call this period
. This view is justified
by the great literary developments far
exceeding those of previous periods that
characterized the reign of Queen
refers to the
period in European literature that began
in Italy during the 14th century and spread
around Europe through the 17th century.
• The single greatest innovation of the
Renaissance era was the printing
press, put into service around 1440 by
• His greatest innovation was a means to
rapidly produce movable
typesets, meaning that new sheets of text
could be set in place and printed with far
less effort than had previously been the
• The religious upheaval known as the
Protestant Reformation would not have
been possible without the capacity to
make many copies of a document
quickly and with minimal effort.
• The effect of having readily available
literature was almost inconceivably
profound in its democratization of the
• Poetry and drama were written as they were
never written before. Indeed, literature and the
other arts could not but flourish then because
of a movement that by the end of the fifteenth
century had taken root in England.
• This movement revived interest in the classic
arts of ancient Greece and Rome. Because
one aspect of the movement was emphasis on
the earthly existence of man and in perfecting
human life, its leaders were called
and their part in the Renaissance, humanism.
• The term refers to the attitude, the
point of view, or the philosophy of life that laid
emphasis on man’s life in this world rather than
in the next. It questioned the theological and
philosophical system that till then had held
absolute sway over the minds and hearts of
• The dominant forms of English literature during
the Renaissance were poem and the drama.
Among the many varieties of poetry one might
have found in sixteenth century England were
the lyric, the elegy, the tragedy and the pastoral.
• Near the close of the English
Renaissance, John Milton composed
his epic, Paradise Lost, widely
considered the grandest poem in the
of the era was intended to be
accompanied by music. In any
case, English poetry of the period was
ostentatious, repetitious, and often
betrayed a subtle wit.
• In the area of , no one matched
William Shakespeare in terms of
variety, profundity, and exquisite use of
language. He is known for his ability to
shift between comedy and tragedy, from
complex character study to light-hearted
• In particular, Shakespeare’s sonnets
display a verbal pyrotechnics seldom seen
even today, with images layered one on
top of another in a kind of sensory collage.
• By the middle 17th century, the quest for
human perfection ha given way to
decadence, cynicism and an introversion
which would stifle creativity for a long time
• In England, the rise of Puritanism, itself
offshoot of Renaissance philosophy, put
the brakes on the pursuit of knowledge
and aesthetic endeavors.
• Another factor leading to the end of the
English Renaissance was the failure of
Queen Elizabeth to produce a heir.
• Western Europe is home to some of the
thinkers, writers, philosophers and artists.
From 1300s through 1900s several major
intellectual movements helped shape
politics and culture in Western Europe.
• These movements brought great
advancement in human rights, technology
and political freedom.
• In the 14th and 15th century there
emerged in Italy and France a group of
thinkers known as the .
• Almost all of them were practicing
Catholics. They argued that the proper
worship of God involved admiration of
his creation, and in particular of that
crown of creation: .
• The goal of Renaissance humanists was
to recapture some of the pride, breadth of
spirit, and creativity of the ancient Greeks
and Romans, to replicate their successes
and go beyond them.
• Europeans developed the belief that
tradition could and should be used to
• The great religious movement that divide
the Catholic church was a direct result of
the questioning spirit engendered by
• By liberating the mind from what was
considered then to be repressive practices
of the Church, the Reformation and the
Renaissance strengthened one another.
• Born: January 22, 1561
• Died: April 09, 1626
• He was an English
philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, an
• He served both as Attorney
General and Lord Chancellor of England.
• Bacon has been called the creator
• He was also educated at the University of
• His works established and popularized
inductive methodologies for scientific
inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or
simply the scientific method.
• Bacon was knighted in 1603, and created
both the Baron Verulam in 1618 and the
Viscount St. Alban in 1621; as he died without
heirs, both peerages became extinct upon his
death. He famously died by
contracting pneumonia while studying the
effects of freezing on the preservation of
Francis Bacon's Philosophy is displayed in the vast
and varied writings he left, which might be divided in
three great branches:
- in which his ideas for an
universal reform of knowledge, scientific method
and the improvement of mankind's state are
- in which he
presents his moral philosophy and theological
- in which his reforms in Law
• New Atlantis (1627)
• Sylva Sylvarum, or Natural History (1627)
• Certain Miscellany Works (1629)
• Use of the Law (1629)
• Elements of the Common Laws (1629)
• Operum Moralium et Civilium (1638)
• Dialogum de Bello Sacro (1638)
• Cases of Treason (1641)
• Confession of Faith (1641)
• Speech concerning Naturalisation (1641)
• Baptised on February 26, 1564
• Died on May 30, 1593
• an English dramatist, poet and translator of the
• He greatly influenced William Shakespeare, who
was born in the same year as Marlowe and who
rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan
playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early
• Marlowe's plays are known for the use of blank
verse, and their overreaching protagonists.
• Marlowe's first play performed on the
regular stage in London, in 1587, was
Tamburlaine the Great, about the
conqueror Timur, who rises from
shepherd to warrior.
• A warrant was issued for Marlowe's
arrest on 18 May 1593.
• Dido, Queen of Carthage (c.1586)
(possibly co-written with Thomas
• Tamburlaine, part 1 (c.1587)
• Tamburlaine, part 2 (c.1587–1588)
• The Jew of Malta (c.1589)
• Doctor Faustus (c.1589, or, c.1593)
• Edward II (c.1592)
• The Massacre at Paris (c.1593)
• Born on January 22, 1552
• Died on October 29, 1618
• Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in
• The son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine
• . Later he became a landlord of property
confiscated from the native Irish. He rose
rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth
I, and was knighted in 1585.
• In December 1581, Raleigh returned to
England from Ireland to dispatches as his
company had been disbanded. He took
part in Court life and became a favourite
of Queen Elizabeth I.
• In 1592, Raleigh was given many rewards
by the Queen, including Durham House in
the Strand and the estate of
• In 1591, Raleigh was secretly married to
Elizabeth "Bess" Throckmorton (or
Throgmorton). She was one of the
Queen's ladies-in-waiting, eleven years his
junior, and was pregnant at the time.
• What is Our Life
• The Lie
• The Ocean to Cynthia"
• The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd
• Baptised on April 26, 1564
• Died on April 23, 1616
• an English poet and playwright, widely
regarded as the greatest writer in the
English language and the world's pre-
• is often called England's national poet and
the Bard of Avon
• All's Well That Ends
• As You Like It
• The Comedy of Errors
• King John
• Richard II
• Romeo and Juliet
• Venus and Adonis
• The Rape of Lucrece
• The Passionate
• He was born between January 24 to June 19
• Died on March 31, 1631
• an English poet, satirist, lawyer and a cleric
in the Church of England.
• He is considered the pre-eminent
representative of the metaphysical poets.
• His works are noted for their strong, sensual
style and include sonnets, love
poetry, religious poems
• Biathanatos (1608)
• Pseudo-Martyr (1610)
• Ignatius His Conclave (1611)
• Devotions upon Emergent Occasions
• Songs and Sonnets (1633)
• Born on June 11, 1572
• Died on August 16, 1637
• An English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor
• By summer 1597, Jonson had a fixed engagement
in the Admiral's Men, then performing under Philip
Henslowe's management at The Rose. John
Aubrey reports, on uncertain authority, that Jonson
was not successful as an actor; whatever his skills
as an actor, he was evidently more valuable to the
company as a writer.
• In 1597, a play which he co-wrote
with Thomas Nashe, The Isle of Dogs, was
suppressed after causing great offence.
Arrest warrants for Jonson and Nashe were
issued by Queen Elizabeth I's so-called
interrogator, Richard Topcliffe.
• Jonson was jailed in Marshalsea Prisonand
charged with "Leude and mutynous
behavior", while Nashe managed to escape
to Great Yarmouth.
• In 1598 Jonson produced his first great
success, Every Man in His
Humour, capitalizing on the vogue for
humorous plays which George
Chapman had begun with An Humorous
• A Tale of a Tub, comedy (ca. 1596? revised?
performed 1633; printed 1640)
• The Isle of Dogs, comedy (1597, with Thomas
• The Case is Altered, comedy (ca. 1597–98; printed
1609), with Henry Porter and Anthony Munday?
• Every Man in His Humour, comedy (performed
1598; printed 1601)
• Every Man out of His Humour, comedy ( performed
1599; printed 1600)
• Cynthia's Revels (performed 1600; printed 1601)
• The Poetaster, comedy (performed 1601;
• Sejanus His Fall, tragedy (performed 1603;
• Eastward Ho, comedy (performed and printed
1605), a collaboration with John
Marston and George Chapman
• Volpone, comedy (ca. 1605–06; printed 1607)
• Epicoene, or the Silent Woman, comedy
(performed 1609; printed 1616)
• The Alchemist, comedy (performed 1610;
• Born on December 09, 1608
• Died on November 08, 1674
• English poet, polemicist, a scholarly man of
letters, and a civil servant for
the Commonwealth of England under Oliver
• Milton's poetry and prose reflect deep personal
convictions, a passion for freedom and self-
determination, and the urgent issues and
political turbulence of his day
• Writing in English, Latin, and Italian, he
achieved international renown within his
lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagitica.
• Milton's use of blank verse, in addition to
his stylistic innovations influenced later
• At the time poetic blank verse was
considered distinct from its use in verse
drama, and Paradise Lost was taken as a
POETIC AND DRAMATIC WORKS
• 1631: L'Allegro
• 1631: Il Penseroso
• 1634: A Mask Presented at Ludlow
Castle, 1634 commonly known as Comus (a masque)
• 1638: Lycidas
• 1645: Poems of Mr John Milton, Both English and Latin
• 1655: On the Late Massacre in Piedmont
• 1667: Paradise Lost
• 1671: Paradise Regained
• 1671: Samson Agonistes
• 1673: Poems, &c, Upon Several Occasions
• Also called Italian Sonnet which named
after the Italian poet, Francisco Petrarch
who perfected it. It consists of an octave
(first eight lines) which develops the
theme, followed by sestet (last six lines)
which recapulates the idea.
• The octave has a rhyme scheme of a b b a
a b b a and the sestet c d e c d e or c d c d
c d or some combination.
• The octave’s purpose is to introduce a
problem, express a desire, reflect on
reality, or otherwise present a situation that
causes doubt or conflict within the speaker.
• The beginning of the sestet is known as the
, and it introduces a pronounced
change in tone in the sonnet.
• The sestet’s purpose as a whole is to make
a comment on the problem, or to apply a
solution to it.
is the basic rhythmic structure
of a verse or lines in verse.
the study of meters and
forms of versification.
is the measure of the
line of poetry.
• Is the act of making a poem to show the
metrical units of which it is composed.
smallest metrical unit. There
two kinds of syllables: the accented/
stressed and unaccented/ unstressed.
- the next largest metrical
unit, which is group of two or more
• Six common kinds of feet in English metrics
consists of unaccented
syllable followed by an accented syllable.
consists of an accented
syllable followed by unaccented syllable.
consists of an accented
syllable followed by two unaccented
consists of two
unaccented syllables followed by an
- consists of two
- consists of two unaccented
• Highly intellectualized poetry written
chiefly in 17th century England.
• It is marked by bold and ingenious
conceits, complex and subtle
thought, frequent paradox and a dramatic
directness of language, the rhythm of
which derives from living speech.
• John donned was the leading
Metaphysical poet; others include
George Herbert, Henry
Vaughan, Andrew Marvell and Abraham