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# Recording observational data using rating scales and rating errors

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### Recording observational data using rating scales and rating errors

1. 1. RECORDINGRECORDING OBSERVATIONALOBSERVATIONAL DATA USINGDATA USING RATING SCALESRATING SCALES CHAPTER 18CHAPTER 18 GLADYS T. AMBUYAT BSED III - ENGLISH Source: Measuring and Evaluating Learning Outcomes: A Textbook in Assessment of Learning 1 & 2
2. 2. Rating scales are often used in recording results of observations. They can easily be applied in collecting self – observation of self –report data. Three types of rating scales : NUMERICAL SCALES GRAPHI SCALES CHECKLIST
3. 3. A numerical scale is sometimes called a score card. This is because it consists of a number of scale values each of which has its equivalent in numerical forms. Sample: DIRECTIONS : The items on this scale are to be rated on the basis of 1 for poor, 2 for below average, 3 for average, 4 for above average, and 5 for outstanding. Encircle the number that corresponds to your rating of this student for each of the following: A. Tolerance in considering in the opinion of others 1 2 3 4 5 B. Participation in group activities 1 2 3 4 5 C. Sharing project materials with others 1 2 3 4 5
4. 4. Sample: students’ behaviour during classroom discussion BEHAVIOUR STUDENTS REY GLYZZ A JIM GAB MAE VOLUNTEERS INFORMATION MONOPOLIZES DISCUSSION INTERRUPTS OTHERS TACTFUL IN DISAGREEING WITH OTHERS STICKS TO POINTS UNDER DISCUSSION
5. 5. Sample: UNSATISFACTORY ITEMS IN WOOD WORK PROJECT ______1. Knots ______2. Lack of filling ______3. Core of Glue ______4. Joint Shrinkage ______5. Veneer Sand-through ______6. Glaze or Burnish
6. 6. RATING ERRORSRATING ERRORS CHAPTER 18CHAPTER 18 GLADYS T. AMBUYAT BSED III - ENGLISH
7. 7. Rating errors despite the numerous advantages associated with the use of rating scales, these are different kinds of errors in their application:  AMBIGUITY  LENIENCY  CENTRAL TENDENCY  HALO  LOGICAL  CONTRAST  PROXIMITY
8. 8. Ambiguity The tendency to have different raters interpret rating terms in different ways.
9. 9. Leniency The tendency to rate or evaluate favourably those whom they know well higher than they should. This kind of error is greatest when the rater must face the rates with the results.
10. 10. Central TendencyThe reluctance to give extreme ratings. Sometimes raters are reluctant to take extreme positions, either positive or negative. This tends to cause ratings to cluster up in the middle of the scale.
11. 11. Halo A gross undifferentiated rating on a specific trait or behaviour which is biased on an overall or total general attitude.
12. 12. Logical The tendency to give similar rating to traits that seem to be logically related in the mind of the rater. If one views self- confidence and aggressiveness to be part of the same personality dimension then they might rate an individual similarly just on the basis rather than the behaviour under observation.
13. 13. Contrast Some raters valuate or describe ratees in a direction opposite of themselves. “Considering that I am a very well organized individual; no one can recognized as I am.”
14. 14. Proximity Nearness in time or location on a rating form. Traits to be rated on the same page tend to correlate higher than if they were rated on different pages.