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  1. 1.  To explain the meaningful nature of evaluation To enumerate and explain the purpose of evaluation To describe how appropriate evaluation procedures may be selected to assess pupil’s/student’s mastery of set instructional objectives Objectives
  2. 2.  To identify an effective evaluation program to a. Explain the principles underlying the evaluation process b. State the characteristics of an effective evaluation program To compare norm-referenced with criterion-referenced tests.
  4. 4.  A continuous process of inquiry concerned with the study, appraisal, and improvement of all aspects of the educational program. Process of determining the changes in the child as a result of teaching and of his experiences. EVALUATION
  6. 6. Evaluation is important to the teacher, the child, the parent, the administrator, and the profession as a whole. The teacher continuously evaluates the effectiveness of his teaching to improve procedures and techniques and to understand his pupils better.
  7. 7.  The child who goes to school has the right to know what progress he is making. The administrator is eager to determine the effectiveness as well as the inadequacies of the educational program he has endeavored to set.
  9. 9.  Evaluation involves the determination of the goals toward which educational efforts are directed and the determination of instruments and techniques to be used in appraising the degree of progress toward these goals. More specifically evaluation is concerned with:
  10. 10.  1. The scope and quality of goals, purposes, and functions of the total educational programs and the extent to which these meet the needs of the various individuals and the community as a whole.
  11. 11.  2. Evaluation is concerned with the progress being made in the achievement of these goals as measured not only by the characteristics and behavior of the learners, but primarily by the growth that they have made in attaining socially desirable objectives both as individuals and as members of the larger social groups.
  12. 12.  The process of evaluation includes the appraisal of all elements of the total teaching-learning situation that contribute to effective and economical learning with a view to improvement.
  13. 13.  This embraces (a) the organization and administration of the school, (b) the school curriculum, (c) the teaching-learning process, (d) the instructional materials, equipment, and facilities, and (e) the community life and social community relations.
  15. 15. 1. Evaluation should be in terms of the extent to which the pupils have attained the objectives of education 2. Objectives should be defined in terms of pupils behavior 3. Evaluation is an integral part of the educative process 4. The evaluation program should be cooperative 5. Records should give a complete picture of each child
  16. 16.  6. Evaluation should be comprehensive 7. Evaluation uses a variety of instruments, tools, and techniques 8. Objective measurement and subjective judgment are both essential in evaluation 9. Diagnosis and remedial work are phrases of the evaluative process 10.Evaluation should be descriptive
  18. 18.  The different major aspects of growth: 1. Mental and physical health 2. Social adjustment 3. Purposes and activities 4. Intelligence and readiness 5. Quality of thinking 6. Integrative knowledge and skill 7. Inherent in many fields of knowledge and endeavor 8. Individual aptitudes and creative art
  20. 20.  An evaluation program should be designed to cover as many important outcomes as possible. Tests still provide more concrete and detailed evidence. Both the learning activities and the appraisal procedures should be based on clearly defined outcomes.
  22. 22.  1. Self-evaluation Techniques 2. Teacher Evaluation 3. Observational Procedures 4. Anecdotal Records 5. Checklists
  23. 23.  Children can be encouraged to keep diaries, preserve samples of their work, and keep records. They can compare recent achievement with records of earlier achievement. They may also rate themselves on an appropriate checklist at intervals of time. Self-evaluation develops in the child self-control, self-direction, and wise judgment. 1. Self-evaluation Techniques
  24. 24.  Evaluation includes a variety of methods for securing and recording the evidence needed to provide information on pupil progress. The teacher who is completely aware of what he is looking for collects evidence from practically all learning activities. He continually collects information on the child’s progress. To do these, he utilizes observational procedures, teacher-made- tests, standardized achievement tests, and achievement test batteries. 2. Teacher Evaluation
  25. 25. The teacher, in his daily contacts with pupils, collects information as revealed in discussions and other situations. Such information is very valuable. However, there is the possibility that records may not be available when the teacher needs them and important behavior may be overlooked. Standard procedures have been adapted to guard against these possibilities. The most commonly used of these are: anecdotal records, checklists, and rating scales. 3. Observational Procedures
  26. 26.  Teachers find it convenient to keep a pad on their table ready for note taking. This pad is designed for 2 kinds of entries: what happened and what it probably means. Anecdotal Records
  27. 27.  Example: What happened: In a discussion of how carpenters use instruments to make linear measurements, Jose offered to bring his father’s rule that is calibrated to tenths of an inch. Interpretation: This indication of interest is encouraging, because Jose had not been cooperative in the past. Anecdotal Records
  28. 28.  A checklist is a list of the kinds of behavior to look for. A teacher usually makes use of a checklists if he feels he may be neglecting certain outcomes, or if he has any pupil who exhibits the desired behavior. Checklists
  29. 29.  Example: Are pupils willing to do work beyond what is required? Do pupils voluntarily bring items of mathematical interest to others? Do pupils demonstrate pleasure in their own or other’s mathematical activities? Checklists
  30. 30.  In order to record an appraisal along with his behavioral observations, a teacher may make use of a rating scale instead of a checklist. Rating Scales
  31. 31.  Example: Or it may look like this: Rating Scales NEVER OCCASSIONALLY FREQUENTLY Does work beyond requirements Does not turn in assignments Turns in assignments if argued Does work beyond assignments Turns in assignments of his own accord
  32. 32.  ① Teacher-made Tests
  33. 33.  This type of question comes in a variety of forms and is known by a variety of names. There is an incomplete sentence form: “A garden is 72 sq.m. If it is 9 m.long, then it is __ m.wide.” Then there is the question form: “What is the difference in stopping distance between a car going 40km per hour and a car going 50km per hour?” The short-answer question
  34. 34.  The multiple-choice question type is the best general-purpose question for testing outcomes. It is most widely used type of question in standardized tests, largely because of its flexibility and the fact that it can be scored objectively. The multiple-choice question
  35. 35. An interesting variation of the multiple- choice question, and one which the teacher can use for a umber of special purposes. This type of question is widely used in pairing off such things as definitions and words defined, or measurements and formulas. Three important points in constructing a matching-type question: Matching-type questions
  36. 36. 1. The list on the right, from which selections are made, should contain more items than the list on the left. 2. To make it simpler for the pupil who knows the right answer to find it, possible answers should be arranged alphabetically, chronologically, or in some other systematic way, and each item should be short. 3. The question should be homogenous
  37. 37.  True-false questions lend variety and interest to informal testing activities. It is easy to construct, interesting to the pupils, easily scored, and it arouses discussion. It is useful when performance of the pupil on any one item is not an important consideration. True-false questions
  38. 38.  ② Standardized Achievement Tests
  39. 39.  An achievement test is designed as a sampling of skills or abilities in an specified area.  A standardized test is one in which the performance of an individual, or the average of the class, may be compared with that of a larger population.  Standardized tests also share the limitations of teacher-made tests with respect to outcomes that cannot be measured in this way.
  40. 40.  ③ Achievement Test Batteries
  41. 41.  Achievement test batteries are designed to determine the comparative performance of a pupil, class, or even a school system in practically all areas of the school program; performance in each area is compared with a national norm.
  43. 43.  The adequacy of an evaluation program is measured by its effectiveness in the operational control of classroom activities and the quality control product. Important identifying marks of a good evaluation program are the following:
  44. 44.  Evaluation is an integral part of the instructional program. Effective teaching is possible only if pupil’s progress is appraised in terms of such outcomes. Integration with learning activities
  45. 45.  Evaluation is so time consuming that it would be impossible incorporate in an evaluation program a complete appraisal of all outcomes. Outcomes to be omitted, however, should be selected only after a careful consideration of priority and the purpose for evaluation. Selectivity of outcomes evaluated
  46. 46.  The term “comprehensive” is often used to describe a program of evaluation which has considered all the desired outcomes and selected the most important points for evaluation. Prerequisite Characteristics of a Good Program
  47. 47.  The term “balanced” is frequently used to describe a program in which all of the priority objectives are evaluated, and the emphasis is distributed among them. Selectivity of outcomes evaluated
  48. 48. Observational procedures are continuous and are made a part of the learning activities. Pupil progress, however, may be systematically measured by more formal testing which should take place at regular intervals. To do this, a schedule for the more formal testing should be set up in advance and vigorously adhered to. Systematic administration
  49. 49.  A properly designed evaluation program should be provided for an effective system of records and reports. Pupils and parents should be continuously and fully informed with regard to pupil progress. The records that should accompany pupils when they transfer to another school should be comprehensive and adequate. This would be impossible without a good evaluation Provision of information for effective records and reports
  51. 51.  The emphasis in education on changed behavior in the students implies that there is a greater emphasis on content usage and on content application rather than on content recall.
  52. 52.  Criterion-referenced Measurement Distinctions Between Criterion- referenced and Norm-referenced Tests Steps in the Preparation of Criterion-referenced Tests
  53. 53. Is a test that measure whether a learner has mastered an instructional objective which is specific, observable, achievable, verifiable, and interpretable. Is deliberately constructed to yield measurements that are directly interpretable in terms of specific performance standards. Is constructed to provide measure that is interpreted in terms of a specific performance level. Criterion-referenced Measurement
  54. 54.  Distinctions Between Criterion-referenced and Norm-referenced Tests
  55. 55.  Purpose for which a test is constructed Manner in which test is constructed Specificity of information yielded Generality of test performance information Use to be made of tests results
  56. 56. State the general instructional objectives and define each objective I terms of a specific type of behavior which learners are expected to demonstrate at the end of the instruction. The instructional objectives have these four basic characteristics: 1. description of the learner 2. description of the behavior 3. specification of the conditions of learning 4. performance level Steps in the Preparation of Criterion-referenced Tests
  57. 57.  Make an outline of the content covered during instruction. Prepare a table specifications that describes the nature of the test sample. Construct test items that measure the sample of the learner’s behavior specified in the table specification.
  58. 58.  THE USE of the TABLE of SPECIFICATIONS
  59. 59.  It is a two-way or one-way table with one axis to represent the subject matter content and another the type of behavior or mental ability the test intends to elicit. Table of Specifications
  60. 60.  Sample Tables of Specifications
  61. 61.  A. One-way table of specifications in elementary agriculture, grade five, indicating areas of instructions and number of recitations
  62. 62. Area of Contents Number of Recitations Number of Items Test Placement 1. Definitions of terms 7 8 1-8 2. Fertilization a. Natural fertilizers b.Commerci al fertilizers c. Compost pits 3 4 3 3 5 3 9-11 12-16 17-19
  63. 63. Area of Contents Number of Recitations Number of Items Test Placement 3. Kinds of crops a. Leafy vegetables b. Vince crops 5 5 6 6 20-25 26-31 4. Garden characteristics ideal to planting a. Topography b. Fencing c. Water supply 4 3 6 4 3 7 32-35 36-38 39-35 40 45 1-45
  64. 64.   Note:
  65. 65.  B. Two-way table of specifications in elementary agriculture, grade five, indicating objectives to be tested and the contents
  66. 66. Educational Objectives Disposal of Garden Products Care and Fertilizati on Related Activities Total Test Placemen t 15 10 15 40 A. Cognitive 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis and synthesis B. Affective Change in attitudes Appreciation or valuing 4 3 4 3 5 3 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 11 8 10 9 12 1-11 12-19 20-29 30-38 1-50 Total 19 12 19 50 39-40
  67. 67.   Computation: