Persian literature


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Persian literature

  1. 1.  The most populous and the second largest country in the Middle East, and a major exporter of oil.  Iran, meaning “ Land of the Aryans ”  In the west, the country has been known as Persia, from the ancient Greek name for the heartland of the empire, Persis.
  2. 2.  Iran has a very rich culture.  Persian Literature has flourished for over a thousand years, with poetry as the most important art form.  Music and architecture are also historically important, as are calligraphy and miniature painting.  Iran also is famous for its crafts, including ceramics, silver and gold metalwork, and, above all, Persian carpets.
  3. 3. Classical Persian poetry is always rhymed. The principal verse forms are the Qasideh, Masnavi, Qazal and Ruba'i.
  4. 4. The qasida or ode is a long poem in monorhyme, usually of a panegyric, didactic or religious nature;  the masnavi, written in rhyming couplets, is employed for heroic, romantic, or narrative verse;
  5. 5.  the ghazal (ode or lyric) is a comparatively short poem, usually amorous or mystical and varying from four to sixteen couplets, all on one rhyme. A convention of the ghazal is the introduction, in the last couplet, of the poet's pen name (takhallus).  The ruba'i is a quatrain with a particular metre, and a collection of quatrains is called "Ruba'iyyat" (the plural of ruba'i).Finally, a collection of a poet's ghazals and other verse, arranged alphabetically according to the rhymes, is known as a divan.
  6. 6. Nezami, Omar Khayyam, Hafiz, Jami, Saadi
  7. 7.  Niẓām ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn- Zakkī  considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature  brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic  Makhzan al-Asrar  Khosrow o Shirin  Layli o Majnun  Eskandar Nameh  Haft Paykar
  8. 8.  Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿUmaribn Ibrāhīm al- Khayyām Nīshāpūrī  Born at Nishapur, in Khorasan, about A.D. 1050 and died about 1125.  Persian poet, mathematician, and astronomer.  Khayyam means “the Tent-maker”
  9. 9.  Outside Iran and Persian speaking countries, Khayyám has had an impact on literature and societies through the translation of his works and popularization by other scholars.  The greatest such impact was in English-speaking countries; the English scholar Thomas Hyde (1636– 1703) was the first non-Persian to study him.  The most influential of all was Edward FitzGerald (1809–83), who made Khayyám the most famous poet of the East in the West through his celebrated translation and adaptations of Khayyám's rather small number of quatrains (Persian: rubāʿiyāt) in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
  10. 10.  Khajeh Shamseddin Mohammad Hafez Shirazi  born 1319 CE in Shiraz in South-Central Iran.  In his childhood he had memorized the Koran by listening to his father's recitations of it, therefore he gained the title of Hafez (a title given to those who had memorized the Koran by heart. It is claimed that Hafez had done this in fourteen different ways)
  11. 11.  Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī  (August 18, 1414 – November 17, 1492)  scholar, mystic, writer, composer of numerous lyrics and idylls, historian, and the greatest Persian and Sufi poets of the 15th century.  Last great classicist who excelled in prose and poetry.
  12. 12.  Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi[  born in Shiraz around 1200. He died in Shiraz around 1292  one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period  He is not only famous in Persian-speaking countries, but has also been quoted in western sources.  He is recognized for the quality of his writings and for the depth of his social and moral thoughts.
  13. 13.  Saadi's prose style, described as "simple but impossible to imitate" flows quite naturally and effortlessly.  The world honors Saadi today by gracing the entrance to the Hall of Nations in New York with this call for breaking all barriers: Of one Essence is the human race, Thusly has Creation put the Base; One Limb impacted is sufficient, For all Others to feel the Mace.
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