The most populous and the second largest country in
the Middle East, and a major exporter of oil.
Iran, meaning “ Land of the Aryans ”
In the west, the country has been known as Persia,
from the ancient Greek name for the heartland of the
Iran has a very rich culture.
Persian Literature has flourished for over a thousand
years, with poetry as the most important art form.
Music and architecture are also historically important,
as are calligraphy and miniature painting.
Iran also is famous for its crafts, including ceramics,
silver and gold metalwork, and, above all, Persian
Classical Persian poetry is always
The principal verse forms are the
Qasideh, Masnavi, Qazal and
The qasida or ode is a long
poem in monorhyme, usually
of a panegyric, didactic or
the masnavi, written in
rhyming couplets, is employed
for heroic, romantic, or
the ghazal (ode or lyric) is a comparatively
short poem, usually amorous or mystical and
varying from four to sixteen couplets, all on
one rhyme. A convention of the ghazal is the
introduction, in the last couplet, of the poet's
pen name (takhallus).
The ruba'i is a quatrain with a particular
metre, and a collection of quatrains is called
"Ruba'iyyat" (the plural of ruba'i).Finally, a
collection of a poet's ghazals and other verse,
arranged alphabetically according to the
rhymes, is known as a divan.
Niẓām ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-
considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian
brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian
Khosrow o Shirin
Layli o Majnun
Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿUmaribn Ibrāhīm al-
Born at Nishapur, in Khorasan, about A.D. 1050 and
died about 1125.
Persian poet, mathematician, and astronomer.
Khayyam means “the Tent-maker”
Outside Iran and Persian speaking countries, Khayyám
has had an impact on literature and societies through
the translation of his works and popularization by
The greatest such impact was in English-speaking
countries; the English scholar Thomas Hyde (1636–
1703) was the first non-Persian to study him.
The most influential of all was Edward
FitzGerald (1809–83), who made Khayyám the most
famous poet of the East in the West through his
celebrated translation and adaptations of Khayyám's
rather small number
of quatrains (Persian: rubāʿiyāt) in
the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Khajeh Shamseddin Mohammad Hafez Shirazi
born 1319 CE in Shiraz in South-Central Iran.
In his childhood he had memorized the Koran by
listening to his father's recitations of it, therefore he
gained the title of Hafez (a title given to those who had
memorized the Koran by heart. It is claimed that
Hafez had done this in fourteen different ways)
Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī
(August 18, 1414 – November 17, 1492)
scholar, mystic, writer, composer of numerous lyrics
and idylls, historian, and the greatest Persian and
Sufi poets of the 15th century.
Last great classicist who excelled in prose and poetry.
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh
Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi[
born in Shiraz around 1200. He died in Shiraz around
one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period
He is not only famous in Persian-speaking countries,
but has also been quoted in western sources.
He is recognized for the quality of his writings and for
the depth of his social and moral thoughts.
Saadi's prose style, described as "simple but impossible
to imitate" flows quite naturally and effortlessly.
The world honors Saadi today by gracing the entrance
to the Hall of Nations in New York with this call for
breaking all barriers:
Of one Essence is the human race,
Thusly has Creation put the Base;
One Limb impacted is sufficient,
For all Others to feel the Mace.
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