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  • 攻心、直邮圣经、做对了就成交


  • 2. 2 “Writing is a form of therapy; sometimes I wonder how all those who do not write, compose or paint can manage to escape the madness, melancholia, the panic and fear which is inherent in a human situation.” - Graham Greene* *English writer, playwright and literary critic. His works explore  the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world.  Greene was noted for his ability to combine serious literary  acclaim with widespread popularity.
  • 3. 3 Writing styles and techniques help you as a writer develop and grow. It’s easy to come up with creative writing ideas, but to make them polished takes practice and knowledge. Below is a summary of the
  • 5. 5 Strong Plot Creating a strong plot for your story is important. You could have engaging characters, a great scene, but if your plot is weak, the reader will not stay interested.
  • 6. 6 Point of View When you write a short story or novel, point of view is important in  establishing who is telling the story. Deciding on point of view is deciding how your story is going to be told. Narrative story telling is conveying your creative story through a  character’s eyes; from their point of view. Usually this is a character  that is made for exactly that to relay the story to the reader.  Narrative view sets the mood and allows you, the reader to hear the  character’s thoughts and feelings in any given scene. The three most popular forms are: first-person, second-person, and  third-person. From there you can define it even further with third  person omniscient, and whether or not you’ll use multiple points of  views.
  • 7. 7 Point of View First Person: This mode tells the tale through mostly the main character’s  thoughts. The style is limited to what happens with the main character. The  reader does not get to know what other characters are thinking, or the events  they are engaging in. This view revolves around the one main character and  what he/she is experiencing and that’s it. An example of this: I happily ran down the stairs. There was only twice in my life that something special happened like this. Today was a day I would not forget. Second Person: This view is not used often. It is a tricky way to convey the  story and engage the reader. But if done right creates a tight relationship  between the reader and the author.  One popular series that comes to mind is the  Choose Your Own Adventure - Second Person Point of View. 
  • 8. 8 Point of View Choose Your Own Adventure is a series of children's gamebooks  where each story is written from a second-person point of view, with  the reader assuming the role of the protagonist and making choices  that determine the main character's actions and the plot's outcome.  The series was based on a concept created by Edward Packard and  originally published by Constance Cappel's and R.A. Montgomery’s  Vermont Crossroads Press as the "Adventures of You" series,  starting with Packard's Sugarcane Island in 1976. Choose Your Own Adventure, as published by Bantam Books, was  one of the most popular children's series during the 1980s and 1990s,  selling more than 250 million copies between 1979 and 1998. When  Bantam, now owned by Random House, allowed the Choose Your Own Adventure trademark to lapse, the series was relaunched by  Chooseco, which now owns the CYOA trademark. Notably, Chooseco  does not reissue titles by Packard, who has started his own imprint,  U-Ventures
  • 9. 9 Point of View Third Person: Allows you to explain the story through  one or more characters. This view gives you the most  flexibility and is the most popular. There are a few ways to present third person. The first  is limited third person which tells the story by one  character and whatever he/she is experiencing, feeling,  etc. A sample is found below: The man had a throbbing headache. He knew from experience that a regular painkiller would do nothing. The only cure would be rest, and he did not have that luxury; not with his life on the line.
  • 10. 10 Point of View If you don’t like limited third person, don’t worry you have more options.  Other ways to write in third person are; subjective, objective, or  omniscient. They are explained below: Subjective: this is a narrative where the main character describes only  what they sense or think. It is very similar to first person, except using  the him/her method of description. Objective: this is where the story unfolds with the characters' actions but  you’re not given privy to their thoughts. A reader isn’t able to learn what  characters are thinking or perhaps concealing. Omniscient: my personal favourite view is all encompassing. You follow  the story from a narrator who knows all the events, thoughts, and yet  shows no bias towards any particular outcome. This is the most popular  point of view.
  • 11. 11 Point of View Multiple Points of View: This is where you switch from  third person to first person and back again. Usually the  third person is used to describe action scenes, and the  first person conveys thoughts and feelings. Streams of  consciousness are a good way to look at using first  person.  Another method to slipping into first person, from third is  telling the story through letters or notes. Whatever point of view you choose to tell your story, a  generally accepted rule is sticking to that one point of  view. 
  • 12. 12 Description When writing a short story or novel, a great technique is description. Describing where your characters are, what the weather is like, etc helps to provide a mood and visualization for the reader. But coming up with the words is sometimes tough to do. Writing description is an essential part of writing a story or novel.
  • 13. 13 Description Method One: Use a picture. The picture can come from any source, be anything. Pictures are great visual references to use. EXAMPLE: The road to the job site was soft gravel; when it rained it became a dark thick muddy mess. Large yellow ore trucks were a common sight; their purpose to haul away ore. Black pipes sprinkled the dirty landscape carrying water away from the job site. Black mesh covered the dirt hills to make sure loose stones and mud did not wash the road away. It was not a pretty place to work. Finding the right words to describe a setting is a personal challenge for me. To write the above paragraph took me ten minutes and many revisions. But by using a picture, I can write a setting much easier.
  • 14. 14 Description Method Two: When you’re struggling to come up with a description for people, events, or places, base them on real life. EXAMPLE: He was probably just shy of five foot six inches. His eyes were a dark chestnut and almond in shape. He had a wide nose and large lips. His skin was a dark cream colour. His hair was cut short, no longer than an inch, and was jet black. He preferred golf shirts and khakis over a t-shirt and jeans. But it was his laugh and his smile that warmed people to him, not the way he looked. The sound was enough for anyone within the vicinity to know that he was a gentle soul.
  • 15. 15 Flashback Sometimes when you write you need to provide a background for the reader. Flashbacks are a great way to go back in time and establish a past. Using flashback in your manuscript is a great way to provide background narration about your characters, events, or dialogues that occurred prior to your story. Often these are events that are critical to your backstory. Examples>
  • 16. 16 Flashback The story starts off in the present: The man lit his pipe and inhaled the deep aroma of the flavoured tobacco. Finally, after years of searching he had found the right ingredients. Only twice in his life had he smelt that intoxicating odour; once right now, and once when he had been just a boy. The same night he had run away from his home, never to return. The night his father had disappeared.
  • 17. 17 Flashback The flash back in time: "Aidan," his mother called softly to him. The boy looked up from staring at the stranger and to his mother. She waved him over urgently. He was sure he saw a glint of fear in her eyes. "Come, come," she hissed. The boy turned back to look at the stranger, one last time. Whatever his mother and father were afraid of, the stranger had brought it. The man looked no different than numerous other workers on the dock, yet he brought a strange smell from the pipe that drifted out into their tiny apartment. The boy turned and followed his mother out of the only home he had ever known; a home he would never see again.
  • 18. 18 Flashback Back to the present scene: The man shook his head, he needed to clear his thoughts. Soon he would be face to face with the man who took his father. He took another drag of the pipe, savouring the flavour, swirling it over his tongue. Soon his rage would have an outlet, soon.
  • 19. 19 Dialogue It’s important to master communication of your characters in your story or novel. Dialogue is important in building suspense, conveying your story, and of course setting the mood. It’s a technique that is easy to learn and will help your work be professional. Dialogue is a conversation between two or more characters. It’s essential to every story. It helps carry the story ahead. Communication is an important tool for characters to be able to express themselves. A reader can learn a lot about a character just from reading how they talk and treat other people. EXAMPLES>
  • 20. 20 Dialogue EXAMPLE: "Tank, I can’t believe you did this to me." Tony a scrawny dock worker fumed. He was pacing back and forth in a dive of a bar. A large man sitting in the back corner booth shrugged his broad shoulders. "Shouldn’t have trusted me than. Serves you right, no one trusts no one in the swamps." The woman sitting beside Tank giggled. "Yeah Reggie, I can’t believe you fell for the old Suzy swap." Tony stared at the couple in disgust for a few moments. "I can’t believe after knowing you for three weeks you’re going to leave me hanging. You’re going to feed me to the dogs." He scrunched his fists up in anger. "Well I’m not going down like this, uh-uh, wait and see."
  • 21. 21 Dialogue "What are you going to do?" The large man said and laughed. "You think I’m afraid of you? I could snuff you out with one hand." "I don’t care. I’m not letting you make me go down like this. Uh-uh, you’re coming down too. Wait and see, once the cops show up I’ll tell them what I know…" "You do and you’re a deadman!" The man hissed and banged the table with his giant fist. "You think I don’t know where your ex-wife and daughter live? Think about that.” In the example above there are three different characters. Notice that whenever a character speaks, the words are incased in quotes. Also keep in mind that a comma or period is always put first before closing a quote.
  • 22. 22 Dialogue Another rule to remember is whenever a new character speaks, a new paragraph is needed. In the above example whenever I switched from one character to the other, I used a new paragraph. This is to help the reader understand who is talking, and to make it easier to read. Using dialogue tags is another technique to help the reader understand who is talking.
  • 23. 23 Dialogue EXAMPLE: "You are." "No you are." "I hate you." "I hate you more." "I wish I never met you.“ If left like this, the dialogue can get a bit confusing as to who is doing the speaking, but if you add in some dialogue tags, it makes it much easier to follow.
  • 24. 24 Dialogue EXAMPLE: "You are." "No you are." "I hate you." "I hate you more." He shouted. She shouted back, "I wish I never met you." In this example the communication tag is the he shouted, she shouted, it helps the reader identify who is speaking and who is listening.
  • 25. 25 Dialogue The last rule is when a character has a lot to tell. You require a certain character to do a lot of talking, to get important points across to the reader. Often this means communicating with several paragraphs. EXAMPLE: "Mike!" The woman sobbed hysterical. "For the love of God, I cannot believe you quit. You know that our family depends on that money for food, shelter; you know that I’m pregnant, and soon I’ll be off work. "How can I continue on knowing that in less than a week we’ll be out of our home? How can I tell my mother? Our kids? Tell me! "What did I ever do to deserve this? Did I not donate enough money in church?
  • 26. 26 Dialogue Did I judge someone I shouldn't have...why me? "Do you even think of anyone but yourself? No I suppose not. I guess that's obvious. Stupid me for trusting you”. "Give me one good reason why I shouldn’t kick you out of my house and out of my life." The woman snarled at her husband. In the above example, notice that whenever it's a new paragraph it only has the opening quote. The end of the quote is only needed once she is finished speaking. By not using the end quotes for paragraph changes, the reader understands that it is still the same speaker. With communication remember it needs to serve a purpose to your story. Dialogue should flow fast. It should also be used to help make your characters more real to the reader.
  • 27. 27 Foreshadowing This technique helps build a mood, and engages your reader’s mind. It’s a technique where you drop clues or hints about characters or events that help a reader predict what might happen later on. is used to build suspense. When done properly it engages the reader to continue reading and find out more. is where a writer writes little hints throughout the story about a future event or outcome. This can be done with complex, symbols, or more obvious general hints.
  • 28. 28 Foreshadowing There are many ways this technique can be weaved into a story. It can be done by dialogue, using symbols, and even description. Below I have provided examples of all three. Using dialogue is an easy and effective way to hint about the future.
  • 29. 29 Foreshadowing EXAMPLE: "I’ve been puking every day for the past week; I just can’t keep any food down." Patricia said. She was in her office at her desk cradling her head in her hands. "What have you eaten?" Betsy her best friend, and co-worker asked. She handed Patricia the files. "You’d better get it together we’ve got a huge meeting in one hour. This is a life and death kind of meeting." She gave her friend a small smile. "You’ll be okay." Puking-vomiting
  • 30. 30 Foreshadowing Patricia groaned and reluctantly nodded. "You’re right. I don’t have time for this." She stood and immediately felt the nausea rise in her throat. "I’ve got to go." She murmured and rushed out of her office. In the above sample, the opening sentence suggests that Patricia is sick. Now the hint is the reason she’s sick. It could suggest that she has the flu, or is possibly pregnant.
  • 31. 31 Foreshadowing EXAMPLE: using symbolism to foreshadow a future event Mike picked up the hand held mirror. He liked into, his large grey eyes stared back at it. Gently he placed the mirror on the sink. It slipped. He blinked rapidly as he stared at all the broken glass on the floor. He sighed, now he would have to find time to clean up the mess before he left. This is an obvious symbol to use when it comes to building in foreshadow. Most people know of the bad luck myth when a mirror breaks. So starting off your story with a broken mirror, suggests that Mike is in for a very bad day.
  • 32. 32 Foreshadowing EXAMPLE: revealing the hint through description The cop surveyed the room. He was standing in the kitchen of a large house. He and five of his coworkers had a search warrant to search the place. The kitchen was spotless and all the appliances were stainless steel. The floor appeared to be marble and had a black and white checkered pattern. There was an island in the middle with four chairs surrounding the wooden counter. To the far left was an ashtray with a cigar still burning; beside the ashtray were a coffee mug, and half a plate of scrambled eggs.
  • 33. 33 Foreshadowing The kitchen had a two doors leading away from where the cop handed searched. He guessed one probably went to the backyard and the other to the pantry. Most large houses of this size had a pantry. In this description the most important piece a reader should pick out is the smoking cigar. This suggests that whoever was smoking it hasn’t gone far and may still be in the house
  • 34. 34 Foreshadowing RED HERRING an English-language idiom that refers to a logical fallacy that misleads or detracts from the actual issue. It is also a literary device that leads readers or characters towards a false conclusion, often used in mystery or detective fiction. The foreshadow technique is used in a lot of mystery and crime stories. It is important to keep in mind who the audience is, and target your writing to that. If you’re writing for kids or teen than obviously you’ll use more common symbols and be more obvious in your hints. But if you were writing for adults, you would probably be more subtle in your writing.
  • 35. 35 Writing Prompts Writing prompts are sentences or paragraphs that provide inspiration for you to write. They can be activities or ideas. EXAMPLES: •You’re at a peace protest when police officers break it up. They are standing between you and your friends. You can get away without being arrested, but that would mean leaving your friends behind…if you try to get to your friends you’ll be arrested too. What do you do?
  • 36. 36 Writing Prompts •You’ve just been promoted. Instead of feeling happy, you feel bad because your best friend was also up for the job. You have the chance to reject the position and give it to your friend. It’s a lot more money, and it’s something you’ve always dreamed about. What do you do? •A man is running down the alley screaming. He has blood all over his clothing. He bumps into you and explains what happens. You listen, and begin to tremble in fear. What did the man just tell you?
  • 37. 37 Story Starters This is a technique that helps you start your story or novel. A lot of people have difficulty with the beginning. A great way to get your creative juices flowing is by using story starters. Story starters are a great way to find inspiration. Usually starters are a sentence or two, enough to get ideas and your writing flowing.
  • 38. 38 Story Starters EXAMPLES: A bird whistled. Agnes followed the sound. She was stuck in the woods and her only hope was a bird. She would have laughed at herself if she wasn’t so worried about being lost. She couldn’t believe in two days she’d be married. It had felt like she’d been waiting her whole life. "Stop it you’re killing him," she cried helplessly. The man stopped punching her husband John, and looked up at her. "Shut up ‘cause you’re next," he growled.
  • 39. 39 Write Using Real Life Experiences This is a great technique because it helps your story, or novel become more realistic. Creating a character that is real and readers can identify with is an important step in engaging your reader. Writing real life experiences into a story is a great way to make it more realistic.
  • 40. 40 Write Using Real Life Experiences Authors like Anne Rice, Stephen King, and Dean Kootnz. There are parts in their novels where they fell back on their personal experiences and included that in the story. Think about the vampire series, when Anne Rice describes one of her vampires turned human, eating food for the very first time, where do you think she got that detail? From using her own experiences. Or when Stephen King was involved in a car crash, he didn't let that slow him down, he used it. He used the experience to write his book Misery.
  • 41. 41 Write Using Real Life Experiences So how do you write using your own experiences? Think about your story and the different ways you could make it more real. If you’re writing a romance, think about a relationship you’ve been in, or how you felt when you were dumped or dumped someone. Or think about a fight you and your significant other have had, and find a way to write it in the story. If you’re writing a horror, think about a time when you were scared. How did you feel? Why were you scared? Apply these feelings and emotions to the story and be very detailed.
  • 42. 42 Write Using Real Life Experiences Or, if you’re writing a drama or thriller, think about a loss in your life you may have experienced. Perhaps your pet died, or your grandmother, or an uncle, or a friend. Use these feelings and emotions and write them into the story. If you're writing an action story, think about how it feels when you are running from someone, or cruising down the highway. Try to incorporate those feelings of adrenaline into your novel. By using life events you are making your story or manuscript more real to the reader. Have you ever read a story that makes you cry or laugh out loud? How did you think the author conveyed such emotion in you? Chances are they based their characters's feelings, thoughts or actions on real life events.
  • 43. 43 Write Using Real Life Experiences Remember, research is important to a novel, but so is using the power of real life experiences. Good luck! SOURCE: