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  • 1. • As early as 300 B.C., India already possessed a considerable body of literature written in several Indian tongues. • SANSKRIT- ancestral language -means cultivated or perfected
  • 2. • The earliest known literature of India is a collection of traditions handed down by word of mouth. • VEDAS (1500–1200 BCE)- contains hymns addressed to the Indian gods. (Bible of Indians) (Books of Knowledge)
  • 3. THE RIG- VEDA - 1028 hymns to various gods - The chief object of worship is Brahma, the eternal, self- existent god. - The prevailing religion is Hindu Pantheism - The most notable single poem in this collection is the “Creation Hymn”
  • 4. THE SAMA- VEDA - “Book of Chants” - It consists principally of liturgies, of which most are repetitions of hymns in the Rig-Veda
  • 5. THE YAHUR- VEDA - “Prayer Book” - “Book of Rituals” - This is also liturgical and repetitions of the Rig- Veda, but it contains, in addition, many original prose formulas.
  • 6. THE ATHARVA- VEDA - “Book of Spells” - It contains hymns, consists chiefly of spells, incantations, and notions about demonology and witchcraft.
  • 7. • India was the center of an ancient civilization which spread east and south and influenced the language and culture of many countries in both Europe and Asia.
  • 8. • Indian civilization is older than that of the ancient Greeks and Romans. • Long before Christ lived, the Indians were already preaching the brotherhood of all people and fatherhood of God.
  • 9. • Indian culture has interesting and distinctive qualities. Indian literature, already fully developed over 3000 years ago, is rich in spiritual ang imaginative values. • Trigonometry, the first grammar books, first study of phonetics, game of chess.
  • 10. CHARACTERISTIC S OF INDIAN LITERATURE
  • 11. 1. Indian literature is based on piety, a deeply religious spirit. - Indians believe that a knowledge of gods and a strong belief in Hinduism is necessary to save mankind.
  • 12. 2. Indian literary masterpieces are written in epic form, corresponds to the great epochs in the history of India. -The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the most important epics of India; the latter is the longest epic in the world.
  • 13. • The Indians believed in reincarnation. • Indians believe in kindness to other people and to animals. They also abstain from destroying plants because in that plant might be reincarnated one’s dead relative.
  • 14. • RAMAYANA is about the reincarnation of Vishnu in the person of Rama. • MAHABHARATA deals with another reincarnation of Vishnu in the person of Krishna. • AVATARS
  • 15. R A M A Y A N A
  • 16. M A H A B H A R A T A
  • 17. BHASA AND KALIDASA- Indian Shakespeare Indian drama is characterized by poetry and idyllic beauty. It concentrates on love as the background of the story; it has a happy ending always. The text is a mixture of prose and poetry. *INDIAN DRAMA
  • 18. PANCHANTANTRA (Five Headings) - is an ancient Indian inter-related collection of animal fables in verse and prose, in a frame story format. - It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine", including the Buddhist Jataka Tales.
  • 19. BHAGAVAD GITA - The Song of the Bhagavan, often referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. This scripture contains a conversation between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide Lord Krishna on a variety of theological and philosophical issues.
  • 20. RABINDRANATH TAGORE - He was a great Indian poet. - He started writing at the age of 8. - 1913, 1915 - Author of Gitanjali (Song Offerings)
  • 21. RABINDRANATH TAGORE