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Chinese2 Chinese2 Presentation Transcript

  • Chinese LiteratureChinese Literature 1000 B.C.- A.D. 18901000 B.C.- A.D. 1890 Know contentment And you will suffer no disgrace; Know when to stop And you will meet with no danger. You can then endure. - the Tao Te Ching
  • Chinese LiteratureChinese Literature  China is the world’s oldest surviving civilization, lasting well over 3500 years.  Chinese history is generally divided into dynasties, family or group of people who reigned.  Shang 1766 B.C.- 1122 B.C.  Chou 1122 B.C.- 221B.C.  Ch’in 221 B.C.-206 A.D.  Within each dynasty were many small states; however, they were united into one large empire.
  • Literary ContextLiterary Context  Poetry is a part of everyday life throughout the history of China.  Poets have been among the most highly regarded members of Chinese society.  2nd – 12th centuries A.D. the main Chinese poetic form was the shih (she)  Even number of lines, each of which has the same number of words.  Often expressed personal emotions.  Many have brooding or troubled tone, but can express elation or contentment. View slide
  • Chinese PhilosophyChinese Philosophy  Contrast between Chinese and Western modes of philosophic thinking  Western philosophers seek out the being of things, the essential reality lying behind appearances  Chinese principal the establishment and cultivation of harmonious relationships within their social structures  Chinese thinking is far more concrete, this-worldly and, above all, practical. View slide
  • Cultural ContextCultural Context  Chinese attitudes & beliefs were shaped by 3 religious and philosophical schools: • Taoism • Confucianism • Buddhism
  • TaoismTaoism • Tao- path or the way • Stresses freedom, simplicity & the mystical contemplation of nature (“Tao”). • Force that controlled the universe. • Beyond the scope of human concerns, but can see its workings by observing nature. • Avoid human desires • Not educating • Not honoring men of worth or encourage cleaver to act • Cause jealousy and greed • Opposite of Confucianism
  • ConfucianismConfucianism • How people act- moral behavior • Social relations based on subordination: family ruled by authoritarian father, state ruled by authoritarian king. • Respect & obey those with superior status. • However, governed by the concept ren- with a loving attitude towards others.
  • ConfucianismConfucianism • Tried to teach students to become true gentlemen- morally & spiritually • Must conduct oneself in a virtuous manner; those in power serve as models. • Heaven is the supreme moral authority, which dictates how one must live.
  • BuddhismBuddhism  To lead a moral life  To be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions  To develop wisdom and understanding  Life is sorrow and sorrow is caused by desires  Rid self of desires  Does not claim to be God
  • • Attain enlightenment through meditation • Solutions to our problems are within ourselves • Beliefs are incorporated into poetry through symbols, imagery and language of Chinese Literature. • Quietude and calmness is a central notion in Buddhist thought.
  • 5 Precepts5 Precepts  Not to take the life of anything living  Not to take anything not freely given  To abstain from sexual misconduct and sexual overindulgences  Refrain from untrue speech  Avoid intoxication (losing mindfulness)
  • KarmaKarma  The law that everything has a cause and effect  Our actions have results  Why handicapped, why gifted  People responsible for their past and present actions