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Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
Approaches in interpreting literature
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Approaches in interpreting literature

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  • 1. APPROACHES INAPPROACHES IN INTERPRETINGINTERPRETING LITERATURELITERATURE BY: PROF. ESTELITA F. PINEDABY: PROF. ESTELITA F. PINEDA
  • 2. LITERARY CRITICISM MAPLITERARY CRITICISM MAP REALREAL WORLDWORLD AUDIENCEAUDIENCE READERREADER WORK ITSELFWORK ITSELF READER RESPONSEREADER RESPONSE REALREAL WORLDWORLD AUDIENCEAUDIENCE OTHEROTHER LITERATURELITERATURE AUTHOR’AUTHOR’ AUDIENCEAUDIENCE READERREADER WORK ITSELFWORK ITSELF BEYONDBEYOND THETHE WORLDWORLD
  • 3. THE NATURE OFTHE NATURE OF LITERARY CRITICISMLITERARY CRITICISM 1.1.INEVITABLE PRODUCT OF THE READINGINEVITABLE PRODUCT OF THE READING PROCESS ITSELFPROCESS ITSELF 2. BEGINS EVERYTIME WE CLOSE OUR BOOK2. BEGINS EVERYTIME WE CLOSE OUR BOOK AND REFLECT ON WHAT WE HAVE READAND REFLECT ON WHAT WE HAVE READ 3. IF THIS HAS MOVED US INTELLECTUALLY3. IF THIS HAS MOVED US INTELLECTUALLY OR EMOTIONALLYOR EMOTIONALLY 4. WE PAUSE TO MEASURE, EXPLORE OR4. WE PAUSE TO MEASURE, EXPLORE OR EXPLAIN OUR RESPONSES.EXPLAIN OUR RESPONSES.
  • 4. IF WE CHOOSE TO ORGANIZEIF WE CHOOSE TO ORGANIZE AND DEFINE THESEAND DEFINE THESE RESPONSES ANDRESPONSES AND COMMUNICATE THEM, WECOMMUNICATE THEM, WE HAVE IN THAT MOMENTHAVE IN THAT MOMENT BECOME A LITERARY CRITIC.BECOME A LITERARY CRITIC.
  • 5. THREE ASSUMPSTIONSTHREE ASSUMPSTIONS OF LITERARY CRITICISMOF LITERARY CRITICISM 1. A WORK OF LITERARY1. A WORK OF LITERARY ART HAS SIGNIFICANTART HAS SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS &RELATIONSHIPS & PATTERNS OF MEANINGPATTERNS OF MEANING THAT THE READER-CRITICTHAT THE READER-CRITIC CAN RECOVER AND SHARECAN RECOVER AND SHARE
  • 6. 2. LITERARY CRITICISM2. LITERARY CRITICISM PRESUPPOSES THEPRESUPPOSES THE ABILITY OF THE READER-ABILITY OF THE READER- TURNED-CRITIC TOTURNED-CRITIC TO TRANSLATE HISTRANSLATE HIS EXPERIENCE OF THEEXPERIENCE OF THE WORK INTO TERMS THATWORK INTO TERMS THAT CAN BE UNDERSTOODCAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY OTHERS.BY OTHERS.
  • 7. 3. LITERARY CRITICISM3. LITERARY CRITICISM PRESUPPOSES THATPRESUPPOSES THAT THE CRITIC’STHE CRITIC’S EXPERIENCE OF THEEXPERIENCE OF THE WORK, ONCEWORK, ONCE ORGANIZED ANDORGANIZED AND ARTICULATED, WILL BEARTICULATED, WILL BE GENERALLYGENERALLY COMPATIBLE WITH THECOMPATIBLE WITH THE EXPERIENCE OFEXPERIENCE OF OTHERS.OTHERS.
  • 8. I. FORMALIST OR NEWI. FORMALIST OR NEW CRITICISMCRITICISM A. EMPHASIZES THE WORKA. EMPHASIZES THE WORK AS AN INDEPENDENTAS AN INDEPENDENT CREATION. A SELF-CREATION. A SELF- CONTAINED UNIT,CONTAINED UNIT, SOMETHING TO BE STUDIEDSOMETHING TO BE STUDIED IN ITSLEF.IN ITSLEF. B. EMPHASIS IS ON THE FORMB. EMPHASIS IS ON THE FORM OF THE WORK, THEOF THE WORK, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEENRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PARTSTHE PARTS..
  • 9. C. IT IS IN ESSENCE, INTRINSICC. IT IS IN ESSENCE, INTRINSIC CRITICISM, FOR ITCRITICISM, FOR IT CONCENTRATES ON THECONCENTRATES ON THE WORK ITSELF, INDEPENDENTWORK ITSELF, INDEPENDENT OF ITS WRITER AND HISOF ITS WRITER AND HIS BACKGROUND.BACKGROUND. D. IT ASSUMES THAT THED. IT ASSUMES THAT THE AUTHOR SHAPED THE POEM,AUTHOR SHAPED THE POEM, PLAY OR STORY SO FULLYPLAY OR STORY SO FULLY THAT THE WORK GUIDES THETHAT THE WORK GUIDES THE READER’SREADER’S RESPONSE.RESPONSE.
  • 10. 2. DECONSTRUCTIVE OR2. DECONSTRUCTIVE OR POSTSTRUCTURALISTPOSTSTRUCTURALIST CRITICISMCRITICISM A. A DIRECT OPPOSITEOFA. A DIRECT OPPOSITEOF FROMALIST CRITICISMFROMALIST CRITICISM  B. CREATED ANDB. CREATED AND PROFOUNDLY INFLUENCEDPROFOUNDLY INFLUENCED BY JACQUES DERRIDA, ANBY JACQUES DERRIDA, AN ALGERIAN-BORN FRENCHALGERIAN-BORN FRENCH PHILOSOPHER OF LANGUAGEPHILOSOPHER OF LANGUAGE C. ASSUMES THAT THE WORLD ISC. ASSUMES THAT THE WORLD IS UNKNOWABLE AND THATUNKNOWABLE AND THAT LANGUAGE IS ELUSIVE,LANGUAGE IS ELUSIVE, UNSTABLE, UNFAITHFULUNSTABLE, UNFAITHFUL
  • 11. C. DERRIDA USED THEC. DERRIDA USED THE THEORIES OF SWISSTHEORIES OF SWISS LINGUIST,FERDINAND DELINGUIST,FERDINAND DE SAUSSURESAUSSURE C. S- THAT WORDS, THEC. S- THAT WORDS, THE SIGNIFIER, ARE NOT THESIGNIFIER, ARE NOT THE THINGS THEY NAME ANDTHINGS THEY NAME AND INDEED, ARE ONLYINDEED, ARE ONLY ARBITRARILYARBITRARILY ASSOICIATED WITHASSOICIATED WITH THOSE THINGS.THOSE THINGS.
  • 12. *LANGUAGE IS A SYSTEM OF*LANGUAGE IS A SYSTEM OF SIGNS, THE SIGN BEING THE BASICSIGNS, THE SIGN BEING THE BASIC UNIT OF MEANING.UNIT OF MEANING. •THE SIGN COMPRISES ATHE SIGN COMPRISES A SIGNIFIER (WORD IMAGE, VISUALSIGNIFIER (WORD IMAGE, VISUAL OR ACOUSTIC) EXAM. TREE ANDOR ACOUSTIC) EXAM. TREE AND THE SIGNIFIED IS THE MENTALTHE SIGNIFIED IS THE MENTAL CONCEPT OF A TREE.CONCEPT OF A TREE. •A WORD, LIKE ANY SIGN IS WHATA WORD, LIKE ANY SIGN IS WHAT d. CALLED A DEFRRED PRESENCE,d. CALLED A DEFRRED PRESENCE, THAT IS , THE THINGS BEINGTHAT IS , THE THINGS BEING SIGNIFIED IS NOT ACTUALLYSIGNIFIED IS NOT ACTUALLY PRESENT.PRESENT.
  • 13. * AND EVERY SIGNIFIED CONCEPT* AND EVERY SIGNIFIED CONCEPT INVOKES OTHERS IN AN ENDLESSINVOKES OTHERS IN AN ENDLESS STRING OF CONNOTATIONS.STRING OF CONNOTATIONS. OF THE WORK INTO TERMS THAT CANOF THE WORK INTO TERMS THAT CAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY OTHERS.BE UNDERSTOOD BY OTHERS. * PAUL DE MANN: d. IS NOT REALLY* PAUL DE MANN: d. IS NOT REALLY INTERPRETATION, OR CHOOSINGINTERPRETATION, OR CHOOSING AMONG POSSIBLE MEANINGS. IT ISAMONG POSSIBLE MEANINGS. IT IS MORE READING, AN ACT OFMORE READING, AN ACT OF AWARENES THAT IF THERE AREAWARENES THAT IF THERE ARE LUCID MOMENTS, THERE ARE ALSOLUCID MOMENTS, THERE ARE ALSO “BLIND SPOTS” THAT MUST BE“BLIND SPOTS” THAT MUST BE ELUCIDATED.ELUCIDATED.
  • 14. *JAY CLAYTON SAID*JAY CLAYTON SAID WHAT STARTED AS AWHAT STARTED AS A THEORY HASTHEORY HAS DEVELOPED INTO ADEVELOPED INTO A METHOD USED BYMETHOD USED BY CRITICSCRITICS INDECONSTRUCTINGINDECONSTRUCTING STEREOTYPED IDEAS INSTEREOTYPED IDEAS IN SOCIAL, LEGAL ANDSOCIAL, LEGAL AND POLITICAL DIMENSIONSPOLITICAL DIMENSIONS OF SOCIETY.OF SOCIETY.
  • 15. * SAID (1978) DECONSTRUCTED* SAID (1978) DECONSTRUCTED THE EAST / WEST, ORIENT /THE EAST / WEST, ORIENT / OCCIDENT OPPOSITION ANDOCCIDENT OPPOSITION AND THE STREOTYPES ENTAILED,THE STREOTYPES ENTAILED, ARGUING THAT THEY NOTARGUING THAT THEY NOT ONLY FACILITATEDONLY FACILITATED COLONIZATION BUT STILLCOLONIZATION BUT STILL GOVERN WESTERNGOVERN WESTERN RELATIONS WITH ARABS ANDRELATIONS WITH ARABS AND EASTERN COUNTRIES TODAY.EASTERN COUNTRIES TODAY.
  • 16. MYTH CRITICISMMYTH CRITICISM ANALYZESANALYZES MYTHIC STRUCTURES ANDMYTHIC STRUCTURES AND THEMES AS THEY ARETHEMES AS THEY ARE RECURRENTLY MANIFESTEDRECURRENTLY MANIFESTED IN LITERARY GENRESIN LITERARY GENRES • A MYTHIC READING OFA MYTHIC READING OF MILTON’S PARADISE LOSTMILTON’S PARADISE LOST AND J. CONRAD’S HEART OFAND J. CONRAD’S HEART OF DARKNESS SEE THE MYTHICDARKNESS SEE THE MYTHIC “NIGHT JOURNEY”.“NIGHT JOURNEY”. • ARCHETTYPAL CRITICISM:ARCHETTYPAL CRITICISM: • NORTHORN FRYE, ANORTHORN FRYE, A CANADIAN MYTH CRITICCANADIAN MYTH CRITIC
  • 17. *MYTH CRITICS FOCUS SOECIFICALLY*MYTH CRITICS FOCUS SOECIFICALLY ON IDENTIFYING AND ANALYZINGON IDENTIFYING AND ANALYZING RECURRENT MYTHIC STRUCTURESRECURRENT MYTHIC STRUCTURES AND THEMES IN LITERARY WORKS.AND THEMES IN LITERARY WORKS. *ARCHETYPAL CRITICS APPROACH*ARCHETYPAL CRITICS APPROACH WORK FROM A BROADERWORK FROM A BROADER PERSPECTIVE, IDENTIFYINGPERSPECTIVE, IDENTIFYING ARCHETYPES, THOSE CROSS-ARCHETYPES, THOSE CROSS- CULTURAL IMAGES, FIGURES ANDCULTURAL IMAGES, FIGURES AND STORY PATTERNS MANIFESTED INSTORY PATTERNS MANIFESTED IN AWIDE VARIETY OF LITERARYAWIDE VARIETY OF LITERARY WORKS.WORKS. * CARL JUNG: IMAGES, FIGURES,* CARL JUNG: IMAGES, FIGURES, CHARACTER TYPES, SETTINGS ANDCHARACTER TYPES, SETTINGS AND STORY PATTERNS ARE UNIVERSALLYSTORY PATTERNS ARE UNIVERSALLY SHARED BY PEOPLE ACROSSSHARED BY PEOPLE ACROSS CULTURESCULTURES
  • 18. 3. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH3. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH A.A. EXAMINES THE WRITER &EXAMINES THE WRITER & THE WRITER’S WORKS IN THETHE WRITER’S WORKS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF FREUDIANFRAMEWORK OF FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOG.PSYCHOLOG. B.B. A CENTRAL DOCTRINE OFA CENTRAL DOCTRINE OF FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY -FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY - THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX, THETHE OEDIPUS COMPLEX, THE VIEW THAT AL MALESVIEW THAT AL MALES UNCONSCIOUSLY WISH TOUNCONSCIOUSLY WISH TO DISPLACE THEIR FATHERSDISPLACE THEIR FATHERS AND TO SLEEP WITH THEIRAND TO SLEEP WITH THEIR MOTHERS.MOTHERS.
  • 19. C. CURRENT PSYCHOANALYTICC. CURRENT PSYCHOANALYTIC THINKING ABOUT CHILDHOODTHINKING ABOUT CHILDHOOD BERIEVEMENT EXPLAINS THEBERIEVEMENT EXPLAINS THE FANTASY OF BEING SWALLOWEDFANTASY OF BEING SWALLOWED UP AS REPRESENTING A DESIRE,UP AS REPRESENTING A DESIRE, MIXED WITH DREAD, TO MERGEMIXED WITH DREAD, TO MERGE WITH THE DEAD; THE WISH TOWITH THE DEAD; THE WISH TO DEVOUR REPRESENTS ADEVOUR REPRESENTS A PRIMITIVE ATTEMPT ATPRIMITIVE ATTEMPT AT PRESERVING LOVED ONES,PRESERVING LOVED ONES, INCORPORATING THEM SO AS NOTINCORPORATING THEM SO AS NOT TO LOSE THEM.TO LOSE THEM. (THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO)(THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO)
  • 20. D. PSYCHOANALYTICD. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATIONS USUALLY TAKEINTERPRETATIONS USUALLY TAKE US AWAY FROM WHAT THEUS AWAY FROM WHAT THE AUTHOR CONSCIOUSLYAUTHOR CONSCIOUSLY INTENDED.INTENDED. E. THEY TRY TO TELL US WHAT THEE. THEY TRY TO TELL US WHAT THE WORK REVEALS, WHETHER ORWORK REVEALS, WHETHER OR NOT THE WRITER IS AWARE OF IT.NOT THE WRITER IS AWARE OF IT. F. IN HAMLET AND OEDIPUS, BYF. IN HAMLET AND OEDIPUS, BY ERNEST JONES, HE ARGUED THATERNEST JONES, HE ARGUED THAT HAMLET DELAYS KILLINGHAMLET DELAYS KILLING CLAUDIUS BECAUSE C. HAS DONECLAUDIUS BECAUSE C. HAS DONE EXACTLY WHAT HAMLET HIMSELFEXACTLY WHAT HAMLET HIMSELF WANTED TO DO.WANTED TO DO.
  • 21. GENDER CRITICISMGENDER CRITICISM  REJECT THE ESSENTIALIST VIEWREJECT THE ESSENTIALIST VIEW THAT GENDER IS NATURAL ORTHAT GENDER IS NATURAL OR INNATEINNATE  TAKE THE CONSTRUCTIONISTTAKE THE CONSTRUCTIONIST POSITION THAT GENDER IS APOSITION THAT GENDER IS A SOCIAL ARTIFACT, A LEARNEDSOCIAL ARTIFACT, A LEARNED BEHAVIOR, A PRODUCT OFBEHAVIOR, A PRODUCT OF ALNGUAGE AND CULTURE.ALNGUAGE AND CULTURE.  QUEER THEORISTS VIEWQUEER THEORISTS VIEW SEXUALITY NOT AS A FIXED SETSEXUALITY NOT AS A FIXED SET OF BINARY OPPOSITIONOF BINARY OPPOSITION LIMITED TO HETERO- ANDLIMITED TO HETERO- AND HOMOSEWUALITY BUT AS AHOMOSEWUALITY BUT AS A CONTINUUM ENCOMPASSINGCONTINUUM ENCOMPASSING BEHAVIORS AND RESPONSESBEHAVIORS AND RESPONSES
  • 22.  GAY AND LESBIAN CRITICS TAKEGAY AND LESBIAN CRITICS TAKE AN ESSENTIALIST POSITION, THATAN ESSENTIALIST POSITION, THAT SEXUALITY IS INNATE RATHERSEXUALITY IS INNATE RATHER THAN CULTURALLY PRODUCED.THAN CULTURALLY PRODUCED.  GENDER CRITICS HAVE FOCUSEDGENDER CRITICS HAVE FOCUSED AS MUCH ON MEN AS WOMEN,AS MUCH ON MEN AS WOMEN, ANALYZING MASCULINITY AS AANALYZING MASCULINITY AS A COMPLEX CONSTRUCT THATCOMPLEX CONSTRUCT THAT PRODUCES AHOST OF BEHAVIORSPRODUCES AHOST OF BEHAVIORS AND GOALS SUCH ASAND GOALS SUCH AS PERFORMANCE AND CONQUEST.PERFORMANCE AND CONQUEST.
  • 23. *STEPHEN CLARK ANALYZED T.S*STEPHEN CLARK ANALYZED T.S ELIOT’S ADDRESS IN “THEELIOT’S ADDRESS IN “THE WASTE LAND” TO AWASTE LAND” TO A SPECIFICALLY MASCULINESPECIFICALLY MASCULINE AUDIENCE-”YOU,! HYPOCRITEAUDIENCE-”YOU,! HYPOCRITE LECTEUR! MON SEMBLABLE,LECTEUR! MON SEMBLABLE, MON FRERE!MON FRERE! A MASCULINE PSYCHOLOGY OFA MASCULINE PSYCHOLOGY OF SEXUAL FEAR AND DESIREDSEXUAL FEAR AND DESIRED REATLIATION.REATLIATION.
  • 24. *MICHEL FOUCALTARGUED THAT THE*MICHEL FOUCALTARGUED THAT THE HOMOSEXUAL/HETEROSEXUALHOMOSEXUAL/HETEROSEXUAL DISTINCTION IS AS MUCH ADISTINCTION IS AS MUCH A CULTURAL CONSTRUCT AS THECULTURAL CONSTRUCT AS THE MASCULINE/FEMININE DICHOTOMYMASCULINE/FEMININE DICHOTOMY *THEY HAVE USED THE VERY*THEY HAVE USED THE VERY VARIETY OF SEXUALVARIETY OF SEXUAL IDENTIFICATIONS, BEHAVIORS ANDIDENTIFICATIONS, BEHAVIORS AND RESPONSES TO EXPOSE THERESPONSES TO EXPOSE THE INADEQUACY OF GENDERINADEQUACY OF GENDER AS A CATEGORYAS A CATEGORY
  • 25. *GAY AND LESBIAN CRITICISM*GAY AND LESBIAN CRITICISM *LESBIAN POET-CRITIC ADRIENNE*LESBIAN POET-CRITIC ADRIENNE RICH READ EMILY DICKINSON’SRICH READ EMILY DICKINSON’S POETRY AS A LESBIANPOETRY AS A LESBIAN * BARBARA SMITH POINTED TO* BARBARA SMITH POINTED TO CLOSE NEL AND SULA’ CLOSECLOSE NEL AND SULA’ CLOSE FRIENDSHIP IN TONY MORRISON’SFRIENDSHIP IN TONY MORRISON’S NOVEL “SULA” AND WHAT SHENOVEL “SULA” AND WHAT SHE IDENTIFIED AS MORRISON’SIDENTIFIED AS MORRISON’S CRITIQUE OF HETEROSEXUALCRITIQUE OF HETEROSEXUAL INSTITUTIONS AS MARRIAGE TOINSTITUTIONS AS MARRIAGE TO SUPPORT HER CLAIM.SUPPORT HER CLAIM.
  • 26. POST-COLONIALISMPOST-COLONIALISM • A POST-COLONIAL CRITICA POST-COLONIAL CRITIC RECOGNIZES THE SCARS OFRECOGNIZES THE SCARS OF HUMILIATING WOUNDS IN THEHUMILIATING WOUNDS IN THE WRITERS LIKE CHINUA ACHEBE,WRITERS LIKE CHINUA ACHEBE, PABLO NERUDA, RUSHDIE, ANDPABLO NERUDA, RUSHDIE, AND EVEN IN OUR OWN F. SIONIL JOSE.EVEN IN OUR OWN F. SIONIL JOSE. • PCLIT. REFERS TO BODY OFPCLIT. REFERS TO BODY OF LITERATURE WRITTEN BYLITERATURE WRITTEN BY AUTHORS WITH ROOTS INAUTHORS WITH ROOTS IN COUNTRIES THAT WERE ONCECOUNTRIES THAT WERE ONCE COLONIES ESTABLISHED BYCOLONIES ESTABLISHED BY WESTERN NATIONS.WESTERN NATIONS. • POST COLONIAL THEORY REFERSPOST COLONIAL THEORY REFERS TO A INTELLECTUAL INQUIRY THATTO A INTELLECTUAL INQUIRY THAT INTERROGATESINTERROGATES
  • 27. THE SITUATION OF COLONIZEDTHE SITUATION OF COLONIZED PEOPLES BOTH DURING ANDPEOPLES BOTH DURING AND AFTER COLONIZATION.AFTER COLONIZATION. *ANTI-IMPERIALIST IN ANTURE*ANTI-IMPERIALIST IN ANTURE • ADVOCATES: EDWARD SAID,ADVOCATES: EDWARD SAID, A PALESTINIAN-AMERICANA PALESTINIAN-AMERICAN SCHOLARSCHOLAR • INDINA SCHOLARS LIKEINDINA SCHOLARS LIKE SPIVAK AND HOMI BHABHASPIVAK AND HOMI BHABHA

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