A Potpourri of Writing Styles Vidal Philip Kurt Thomas Samuel Uck Evelyn Rhaburn Writing types
INTRODUCTION In a scholastic forum there are many writing types, which have been formulated to give the suited results and references to its targeted audience and to maintain a high standard in research among scholars. These writing types include academic journal, peer-review journal/article, white paper, newspaper, empirical study, literature review, book review, and annotated bibliography. This project seeks to provide a summary of each writing type and also identifies some of the reasons why books and peer-reviewed articles are the two most preferred written sources in graduate writing.
Group Leader: Vidal PhilipMotivational Text: “Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us”. (Romans 8:37, KJV) Member’s Roles and Responsibilities
are scholarly articles whether in print or electronic forms, in which “each feature article has been examined by people with credentials in the article's field of study before it is published” (Brown-Syed, 2011)
“Where no counsel [is], the people fall: but in the multitude of counsellors [there is] safety”
are “popular marketing tools that “corporations use “to sell information or new products as solutions that would serve their customers' needs”(Sakamuro & Karl, 2010).
“Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price “(Isaiah 55: 1, KJV) .
Types of white paper Mattern (2009) identifies two types of white paper: “technical white papers and marketing white papers”. While technical white papers are used to “persuade a more technical audience” and marketing white papers are used to “promote just about anything” both achieve the same goal of selling a “product” (Mattern, J. 2009). . The basic white paper outline includes: The Problem (or Opportunity) Proof the Problem Exists Additional Problems The Basic Solution Your Solution (the Marketing Message) (Mattern, J. 2009)
Newspapers a “publication that appears regularly and frequently, and carries news about a wide variety of current events” and brings “news of general interest to large portions of the public in a specific geographic area” on a daily or weekly basis (Stephens, n.d). “publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, …to make booths, as [it is] written” (Nehemiah 8: 15, KJV) Read all About it!
Empirical study “depends on the ability to characterize computational models of discourse, and their behaviors, tasks, and tasks contexts, in terms of sets of features that can be used to make and evaluate predictions about what affects the behavior under investigation”. (Sparck-Jones & Galliers, 1996) “Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2Timothy 2:15, KJV)
The process of Empirical research According to Reswell (2003), it is termed as quantitative researchwhich indicates that the paper clearly shows how a study can be : conducted, researched, discussed, argued, validated, and be supported’. Quantitative research papers: discuss the aim of the study; identify the sample population and instruments used. illustrate the relationship between variables, research questions, steps taken in the analysis of the data and the result (Creswell, 2003). utilized by statisticians and scientific scholars. is ‘one in which the investigator primarily uses postpositivist claims for developing knowledge…and collects data on predetermined instruments that yield statistical data’ (Creswell, 2003).
Literature review is ‘a critical and in depth evaluation of previous research. It is a summary and synopsis of a particular area of research, allowing anybody reading the paper to establish why you are pursuing this particular research program. A good literature review expands upon the reasons behind selecting a particular research question’ (Dena Taylor, 2008). “Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine?.. For precept [must be] upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, [and] there a little” (Isaiah 28:9-10, KJV)
Process of literature review Literature review “discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period”. (Abels, 1998).
is “a description, critical analysis, and an evaluation on the quality, meaning, and significance of a book, not a retelling. It should focus on the book's purpose, content, and authority” (Drewry, 1974).
is a critical evaluation of a text, event, object, or phenomenon (Abels, 1998).
“To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, [it is] because [there is] no light in them” (Isaiah 28:9-10, KJV)
Properties of a good book review A critical book review should not be a book report or a summarization of a work. However, it should be a reaction in which the work’s strengths and weaknesses are assessed. ‘It should include a statement of what the author has tried to do, evaluates how well (in the opinion of the reviewer) the author has succeeded, and presents evidence to support this evaluation’ (Drewry, 1974). In order for an individual to actively undertake a book review certain elements should be carefully examined: ‘Scan the Book's Preliminaries (Title - What does it suggest? Preface - Provides important information on the author's purpose in writing the book and will help you to determine the success of the work.
is ‘a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation’ (“How to Prepare,” 2010).
“All scripture [is] given by inspiration of God, and [is] profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness” (2Timothy 3:16, KJV)
is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.” (“How to Prepare,” 2010).
allows a reader to have a concise overview-a lucid reference of the works incorporated and how instrumental they are to the authenticity of the writer’s research and writing style
Academic writing Academic writing is research by scholars for scholars that utilizes the two main types of research based on the method of acquiring information namely “library research and empirical research” (Woken, n.d)
According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed.) (2010) all sources used in research must be acknowledged in order to avoid committing plagiarism.
While many sources of information are used example Books, encyclopedias, newspapers, journals, magazines, books and peer-reviewed articles are the most preferred sources.
Why are books and peer-reviewed articles are the two most preferred written sources in graduate writing? Books Peer-reviewed articles Books are user friendly- easy to open and read Since it takes time to write and publish a book it is normally reliable (Rozakis, 2007) give you an introduction, background, and basic information on a topic. present either summaries of a wide range of topics or coverage of every aspect of a particular topic. provide good background information and offer an excellent starting point for more in-depth research. (“What can I use” 2007) written by experts in the field signed by the author include author's credentials and affiliation reviewed by other experts in the field begin with an abstract or summary of article contain citations to the author's research contain specialized language are usually lengthy usually do not contain advertisements (“Journal Articles”, 2010)
References Abels, K. (1998) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Literature Reviews, retrieved September 09, 2011 from http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/literature_review.html Brown-Syed, C. (2011) What is a Peer Reviewed Journal? Retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://valinor.ca/peer-review.html Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from http://books.google.com/books Dena Taylor, (2008) Health Sciences Writing Centre: what is literature review, retrieved September 09, 2011 from http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-a-literature-review.html#ixzz1WSgiusK0 Drewry, J. (1974) Writing Book Reviews. Boston: the Writer, retrieved September 09, 2011 from www.lavc.edu/library/bookreview.htm “How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography” (2010) Cornell University Library retrieved September 09, 2011 from, http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill28.htm
References continued… “Journal Articles vs. Popular Magazine Scholarly Articles” (2010) University of Colorado at Colorado Springs retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://www.uccs.edu/~library/help/howto/scholarly.html Mattern, J. (2009) How to Write a White Paper, Business Journal retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://www.dirjournal.com/business-journal/how-to-write-a-white-paper/ Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) (2010), pp. 169–224. “Reading Academic Journal Articles” (2011). The College at Brockport retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://www.brockport.edu/sociology/journal.html Sakamuro, S., Karl, S. (2010) White Paper: Purpose and Audience, retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/546/1/ Sparck-Jones, K., Galliers, J. R.(1996)Evaluating Natural Language Processing Systems. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from http://books.google.com/books
References continued… Stephens, M. (n.d) History of Newspapers retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/Collier's%20page.htm “What is a Scholarly Journal”? (n.d) Research survival online: A library guide for PSU students, Retrieved September 11, 2011, from, http://www.lib.pdx.edu/instruction/survivalguide/articlesmain.html Roberts, A. (2007) Advice about empirical research and secondary (library based) research retrieved August 29, 2011http://studymore.org.uk/research.htm#PrimaryData Rozakis, L. (2007) Schaum's quick guide to writing great research papers retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://books.google.com “What can I use to do research if I don't use Google?” (2007) Research for GWU Health Science students retrieved September 14, 2011, from http://www.gwumc.edu/library/tutorials/excellent_tutorial/books.html Woken, M, D. (n.d) :Empirical vs. Library Studies: Planning Research Papers 2 retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/ctlths2.pdf